Forming characteristics and control method of weld bead for GMAW on curved surface

Forming characteristics and control method of weld bead for GMAW on curved surface

The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (2021)Cite this article

Abstract

곡면에서 GMAW 기반 적층 가공의 용접 성형 특성은 중력의 영향을 크게 받습니다. 성형면의 경사각이 크면 혹 비드(hump bead)와 같은 심각한 결함이 발생합니다.

본 논문에서는 양생면에서 용접 비드 형성의 형성 특성과 제어 방법을 연구하기 위해 용접 용융 풀 유동 역학의 전산 모델을 수립하고 제안된 모델을 검증하기 위해 증착 실험을 수행하였습니다.

결과는 용접 비드 경사각(α)이 증가함에 따라 역류의 속도가 증가하고 상향 용접의 경우 α > 60°일 때 불규칙한 험프 결함이 나타나는 것으로 나타났습니다.

상부 과잉 액체의 하향 압착력과 하부 상향 유동의 반동력과 표면장력 사이의 상호작용은 용접 혹 형성의 주요 요인이었다. 하향 용접의 경우 양호한 형태를 얻을 수 있었으며, 용접 비드 경사각이 증가함에 따라 용접 높이는 감소하고 용접 폭은 증가하였습니다.

하향 및 상향 용접을 위한 곡면의 용융 거동 및 성형 특성을 기반으로 험프 결함을 제어하기 위해 위브 용접을 통한 증착 방법을 제안하였습니다.

성형 궤적의 변화로 인해 용접 방향의 중력 성분이 크게 감소하여 용융 풀 흐름의 안정성이 향상되었으며 복잡한 표면에서 안정적이고 일관된 용접 비드를 얻는 데 유리했습니다.

하향 용접과 상향 용접 사이의 단일 비드의 치수 편차는 7% 이내였으며 하향 및 상향 혼합 혼합 비드 중첩 증착에서 비드의 변동 편차는 0.45로 GMAW 기반 적층 제조 공정에서 허용될 수 있었습니다.

이러한 발견은 GMAW를 기반으로 하는 곡선 적층 적층 제조의 용접 비드 형성 제어에 기여했습니다.

The weld forming characteristics of GMAW-based additive manufacturing on curved surface are dramatically influenced by gravity. Large inclined angle of the forming surface would lead to severe defects such as hump bead. In this paper, a computational model of welding molten pool flow dynamics was established to research the forming characteristic and control method of weld bead forming on cured surface, and deposition experiments were conducted to verify the proposed model. Results indicated that the velocity of backward flows increased with the increase of weld bead tilt angle (α) and irregular hump defects appeared when α > 60° for upward welding. The interaction between the downward squeezing force of the excess liquid at the top and the recoil force of the upward flow at the bottom and the surface tension were primary factors for welding hump formation. For downward welding, a good morphology shape could be obtained, and the weld height decreased and the weld width increased with the increase of weld bead tilt angle. Based on the molten behaviors and forming characteristics on curved surface for downward and upward welding, the method of deposition with weave welding was proposed to control hump defects. Gravity component in the welding direction was significantly reduced due to the change of forming trajectory, which improved the stability of the molten pool flow and was beneficial to obtain stable and consistent weld bead on complex surface. The dimensional deviations of the single bead between downward and upward welding were within 7% and the fluctuation deviation of the bead in multi-bead overlapping deposition with mixing downward and upward welding was 0.45, which could be acceptable in GMAW-based additive manufacturing process. These findings contributed to the weld bead forming control of curve layered additive manufacturing based on GMAW.

Keywords

  • Molten pool behaviors
  • GMAW-based WAAM
  • Deposition with weave welding
  • Welding on curved surface
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