Figure 9. Temperature profiles and molten pool flow on transverse cross‐section (y–z plane at x = 1.23 cm): (a) Negative surface tension gradient for the 23/20 (Case 1), (b) negative surface tension gradient for the 25/15.4 (Case 2), (c) positive surface tension gradient for the 25/15.4 (Case 3), and (d) without surface tension for the 25/15.4 (Case 4).

Figure 9. Temperature profiles and molten pool flow on transverse cross‐section (y–z plane at x =
1.23 cm): (a) Negative surface tension gradient for the 23/20 (Case 1), (b) negative surface tension
gradient for the 25/15.4 (Case 2), (c) positive surface tension gradient for the 25/15.4 (Case 3), and
(d) without surface tension for the 25/15.4 (Case 4).