Fig. 1. Modified Timelli mold design.

A360 합금의 HPDC에 대한 바나듐, 붕소 및 스트론튬 첨가 특성 특성

OzenGursoya
MuratColakb
KazimTurc
DeryaDispinarde

aUniversity of Padova, Department of Management and Engineering, Vicenza, Italy
bUniversity of Bayburt, Mechanical Engineering, Bayburt, Turkey
cAtilim University, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ankara, Turkey
dIstanbul Technical University, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey
eCenter for Critical and Functional Materials, ITU, Istanbul, Turkey

ABSTRACT

The demand for lighter weight decreased thickness and higher strength has become the focal point in the
automotive industry. In order to meet such requirements, the addition of several alloying elements has been started to be investigated. In this work, the additions of V, B, and Sr on feedability and tensile properties of A360 has been studied. A mold design that consisted of test bars has been produced. Initially, a simulation was carried out to optimize the runners, filling, and solidification parameters. Following the tests, it was found that V addition revealed the highest UTS but low elongation at fracture, while B addition exhibited visa verse. On the other hand, impact energy was higher with B additions.

더 가벼운 무게의 감소된 두께와 더 높은 강도에 대한 요구는 자동차 산업의 초점이 되었습니다. 이러한 요구 사항을 충족하기 위해 여러 합금 원소의 추가가 조사되기 시작했습니다. 이 연구에서는 A360의 이송성 및 인장 특성에 대한 V, B 및 Sr의 첨가가 연구되었습니다. 시험봉으로 구성된 금형 설계가 제작되었습니다. 처음에는 러너, 충전 및 응고 매개변수를 최적화하기 위해 시뮬레이션이 수행되었습니다. 시험 결과, V 첨가는 UTS가 가장 높지만 파단 연신율은 낮았고, B 첨가는 visa verse를 나타냈다. 반면에 충격 에너지는 B 첨가에서 더 높았다.

Fig. 1. Modified Timelli mold design.
Fig. 1. Modified Timelli mold design.
Fig. 2. Microstructural images (a) unmodified alloy, (b) Sr modified, (c) V added, (d) B added.
Fig. 2. Microstructural images (a) unmodified alloy, (b) Sr modified, (c) V added, (d) B added.
Fig. 3. Effect of Sr and V addition on the tensile properties of A360
Fig. 3. Effect of Sr and V addition on the tensile properties of A360
Fig. 4. Effect of Sr and B addition on the tensile properties of A360.
Fig. 4. Effect of Sr and B addition on the tensile properties of A360.
Fig. 5. Bubbles chart of tensile properties values obtained from Weibull statistics. | Fig. 6. Effect of Sr, V and B addition on the impact properties of A360.
Fig. 5. Bubbles chart of tensile properties values obtained from Weibull statistics.
Fig. 6. Effect of Sr, V and B addition on the impact properties of A360.
Fig. 7. SEM images on the fracture surfaces (a) V added, (b) B added.
Fig. 7. SEM images on the fracture surfaces (a) V added, (b) B added.

References

[1] A. Johanson, Effect of Vanadium on Grain Refinement of Aluminium, Institutt for
materialteknologi, 2013.
[2] D.G. McCartney, Grain refining of aluminium and its alloys using inoculants, Int.
Mater. Rev. 34 (1) (1989) 247–260.
[3] M.T. Di Giovanni, The Influence of Ni and V Trace Elements on the High
Temperature Tensile Properties of A356 Aluminium Foundry Alloy, Institutt for
materialteknologi, 2014.
[4] D. Casari, T.H. Ludwig, M. Merlin, L. Arnberg, G.L. Garagnani, The effect of Ni and
V trace elements on the mechanical properties of A356 aluminium foundry alloy in
as-cast and T6 heat treated conditions, Mater. Sci. Eng., A 610 (2014) 414–426.
[5] D. Casari, T.H. Ludwig, M. Merlin, L. Arnberg, G.L. Garagnani, Impact behavior of
A356 foundry alloys in the presence of trace elements Ni and V, J. Mater. Eng.
Perform. 24 (2) (2015) 894–908.
[6] T.H. Ludwig, P.L. Schaffer, L. Arnberg, Influence of some trace elements on
solidification path and microstructure of Al-Si foundry alloys, Metall. Mater. Trans.
44 (8) (2013) 3783–3796.
[7] H.A. Elhadari, H.A. Patel, D.L. Chen, W. Kasprzak, Tensile and fatigue properties of
a cast aluminum alloy with Ti, Zr and V additions, Mater. Sci. Eng., A 528 (28)
(2011) 8128–8138.
[8] Y. Wu, H. Liao, K. Zhou, “Effect of minor addition of vanadium on mechanical
properties and microstructures of as-extruded near eutectic Al–Si–Mg alloy, Mater.
Sci. Eng., A 602 (2014) 41–48.
[9] E.S. Dæhlen, The Effect of Vanadium on AlFeSi-Intermetallic Phases in a
Hypoeutectic Al-Si Foundry Alloy, Institutt for materialteknologi, 2013.
[10] B. Lin, H. Li, R. Xu, H. Xiao, W. Zhang, S. Li, Effects of vanadium on modification of
iron-rich intermetallics and mechanical properties in A356 cast alloys with 1.5 wt.
% Fe, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 28 (1) (2019) 475–484.
[11] P.A. Tøndel, G. Halvorsen, L. Arnberg, Grain refinement of hypoeutectic Al-Si
foundry alloys by addition of boron containing silicon metal, Light Met. (1993)
783.
[12] Z. Chen, et al., Grain refinement of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys with B, Acta Mater.
120 (2016) 168–178.
[13] T. Wang, Z. Chen, H. Fu, J. Xu, Y. Fu, T. Li, “Grain refining potency of Al–B master
alloy on pure aluminum, Scripta Mater. 64 (12) (2011) 1121–1124.
[14] M. Gorny, ´ G. Sikora, M. Kawalec, Effect of titanium and boron on the stability of
grain refinement of Al-Cu alloy, Arch. Foundry Eng. 16 (2016).
[15] O. ¨ Gürsoy, E. Erzi, D. Dıs¸pınar, Ti grain refinement myth and cleanliness of A356
melt, in: Shape Casting, Springer, 2019, pp. 125–130.
[16] D. Dispinar, A. Nordmark, J. Voje, L. Arnberg, Influence of hydrogen content and
bi-film index on feeding behaviour of Al-7Si, in: 138th TMS Annual Meeting, Shape
Casting, 3rd International Symposium, San Francisco, California, USA, 2009,
pp. 63–70. February 2009.
[17] M. Uludag, ˘ R. Çetin, D. Dıs¸pınar, Observation of hot tearing in Sr-B modified A356
alloy, Arch. Foundry Eng. 17 (2017).
[18] X.L. Cui, Y.Y. Wu, T. Gao, X.F. Liu, “Preparation of a novel Al–3B–5Sr master alloy
and its modification and refinement performance on A356 alloy, J. Alloys Compd.
615 (2014) 906–911.
[19] F. Wang, Z. Liu, D. Qiu, J.A. Taylor, M.A. Easton, M.-X. Zhang, Revisiting the role
of peritectics in grain refinement of Al alloys, Acta Mater. 61 (1) (2013) 360–370.
[20] M. Akhtar, A. Khajuria, Effects of prior austenite grain size on impression creep and
microstructure in simulated heat affected zones of boron modified P91 steels,
Mater. Chem. Phys. 249 (2020) 122847.
[21] M. Akhtar, A. Khajuria, Probing true creep-hardening interaction in weld simulated
heat affected zone of P91 steels, J. Manuf. Process. 46 (2019) 345–356.
[22] E.M. Schulson, T.P. Weihs, I. Baker, H.J. Frost, J.A. Horton, Grain boundary
accommodation of slip in Ni3Al containing boron, Acta Metall. 34 (7) (1986)
1395–1399.
[23] I. Baker, E.M. Schulson, J.R. Michael, The effect of boron on the chemistry of grain
boundaries in stoichiometric Ni3Al, Philos. Mag. A B 57 (3) (Mar. 1988) 379–385.
[24] S. Zhu, et al., Influences of nickel and vanadium impurities on microstructure of
aluminum alloys, JOM (J. Occup. Med.) 65 (5) (2013) 584–592.
[25] D.J. Beerntsen, Effect of vanadium and zirconium on the formation of CrAI 7
primary crystals in 7075 aluminum alloy, Metall. Mater. Trans. B 8 (3) (1977)
687–688.
[26] G. Timelli, A. Fabrizi, S. Capuzzi, F. Bonollo, S. Ferraro, The role of Cr additions
and Fe-rich compounds on microstructural features and impact toughness of
AlSi9Cu3 (Fe) diecasting alloys, Mater. Sci. Eng., A 603 (2014) 58–68.
[27] S. Kirtay, D. Dispinar, Effect of ranking selection on the Weibull modulus
estimation, Gazi Univ. J. Sci. 25 (1) (2012) 175–187.
[28] J. Rakhmonov, G. Timelli, F. Bonollo, “The effect of transition elements on hightemperature mechanical properties of Al–Si foundry alloys–A review, Adv. Eng.
Mater. 18 (7) (2016) 1096–1105.