Elastic stress has been incorporated into FLOW-3D® to emulate viscoplastic materials, which are materials which behave as solids up to a yield stress, beyond which they behave like a viscous liquid.

The incremental elastic stress model recently incorporated into FLOW-3D® computes the elastic stress using linear Hookean theory (Equation 2 above). Although this constitutive equation predicts only a linear response to stress, implementation as an incremental model, in which the stress changes in each time step are accumulated, allows the prediction of highly nonlinear responses. This works because the response within each small time step can be well approximated as linear. Pictorially, with this model, FLOW-3D® predicts the total stress as a summation of the viscous stress and the elastic stress, as shown in Figure 1.