Ship resistance analysis using CFD simulations in Flow-3D
Deshpande, Sujay; Sundsbø, Per-Arne; Das, Subhashis
선박의 동력 요구 사항을 설계할 때 고려해야 할 가장 중요한 요소는 선박 저항 또는 선박에 작용하는 항력입니다. 항력을 극복하는 데 필요한 동력이 추진 시스템의 ‘손실’에 기여하기 때문에 추진 시스템을 설계하는 동안 선박 저항을 추정하는 것이 중요합니다. 선박 저항을 계산하는 세 가지 주요 방법이 있습니다:
Holtrop-Mennen(HM) 방법과 같은 통계적 방법, 수치 분석 또는 CFD(전산 유체 역학) 시뮬레이션 및 모델 테스트, 즉 예인 탱크에서 축소된 모델 테스트. 설계 단계 초기에는 기본 선박 매개변수만 사용할 수 있을 때 HM 방법과 같은 통계 모델만 사용할 수 있습니다.
수치 해석/CFD 시뮬레이션 및 모델 테스트는 선박의 완전한 3D 설계가 완료된 경우에만 수행할 수 있습니다. 본 논문은 Flow-3D 소프트웨어 패키지를 사용하여 CFD 시뮬레이션을 사용하여 잔잔한 수상 선박 저항을 예측하는 것을 목표로 합니다.
롤온/롤오프 승객(RoPax) 페리에 대한 사례 연구를 조사했습니다. 선박 저항은 다양한 선박 속도에서 계산되었습니다. 메쉬는 모든 CFD 시뮬레이션의 결과에 영향을 미치기 때문에 메쉬 민감도를 확인하기 위해 여러 개의 메쉬가 사용되었습니다. 시뮬레이션의 결과를 HM 방법의 추정치와 비교했습니다.
시뮬레이션 결과는 낮은 선박 속도에 대한 HM 방법과 잘 일치했습니다. 더 높은 선속을 위한 HM 방법에 비해 결과의 차이가 상당히 컸다. 선박 저항 분석을 수행하는 Flow-3D의 기능이 시연되었습니다.
While designing the power requirements of a ship, the most important factor to be considered is the ship resistance, or the sea drag forces acting on the ship. It is important to have an estimate of the ship resistance while designing the propulsion system since the power required to overcome the sea drag forces contribute to ‘losses’ in the propulsion system. There are three main methods to calculate ship resistance: Statistical methods like the Holtrop-Mennen (HM) method, numerical analysis or CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations, and model testing, i.e. scaled model tests in towing tanks. At the start of the design stage, when only basic ship parameters are available, only statistical models like the HM method can be used. Numerical analysis/ CFD simulations and model tests can be performed only when the complete 3D design of the ship is completed. The present paper aims at predicting the calm water ship resistance using CFD simulations, using the Flow-3D software package. A case study of a roll-on/roll-off passenger (RoPax) ferry was investigated. Ship resistance was calculated at various ship speeds. Since the mesh affects the results in any CFD simulation, multiple meshes were used to check the mesh sensitivity. The results from the simulations were compared with the estimate from the HM method. The results from simulations agreed well with the HM method for low ship speeds. The difference in the results was considerably high compared to the HM method for higher ship speeds. The capability of Flow-3D to perform ship resistance analysis was demonstrated.
International Society of Multiphysics
Deshpande SR, Sundsbø P, Das S. Ship resistance analysis using CFD simulations in Flow-3D. The International Journal of Multiphysics. 2020;14(3):227-236
 K. Min and S. Kang, “Study on the form factor and full-scale ship resistance prediction
method,” Journal of Marine Science and Technology, vol. 15, pp. 108-118, June 2010.
 A. Molland, S. Turnock and D. Hudson, “Ship Resistance and Propulsion” Second
Edition. In Ship Resistance and Propulsion: Practical Estimation of Ship Propulsive
Power (pp. 12-69), August 2017, Cambridge University Press.
 K. Niklas and H. Pruszko, “Full-scale CFD simulations for the determination of ship
resistance as a rational, alternative method to towing tank experiments,” Ocean
Engineering, vol. 190, October 2019.
 A. Elkafas, M. Elgohary and A. Zeid, “Numerical study on the hydrodynamic drag force
of a container ship model,” Alexandria Engineering Journal, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 849-859,
 J. Holtrop and G. Mennen, “An approximate power prediction method,” International
Shipbuilding Progress, vol. 29, no. 335, pp. 166-170, July 1982.
 E. Bøckmann and S. Steen, “Model test and simulation of a ship with wavefoils,” Applied
Ocean research, vol. 57, pp. 8-18, April 2016.
 K. Atreyapurapu, B. Tallapragada and K. Voonna, “Simulation of a Free Surface Flow
over a Container Vessel Using CFD,” International Journal of Engineering Trends and
Technology (IJETT), vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 334-339, December 2014.
 J. Petersen, D. Jacobsen and O. Winther, “Statistical modelling for ship propulsion
efficiency,” Journal of Marine Science and Technology, vol. 17, pp. 30-39, December
 H. Versteeg and W. Malalasekera, An introduction to computational fluid dynamics: the
finite volume method (second edition), Harlow, England: Pearson Education Ltd, 2007.
C. Hirth and B. Nichols, “Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free
boundaries,” Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 201-225, January 1981.
 A. Nordli and H. Khawaja, “Comparison of Explicit Method of Solution for CFD Euler
Problems using MATLAB® and FORTRAN 77,” International Journal of Multiphysics,
vol. 13, no. 2, 2019.
 FLOW-3D® Version 12.0 User’s Manual (2018). FLOW-3D [Computer software]. Santa
Fe, NM: Flow Science, Inc. https://www.flow3d.com.
 D. McCluskey and A. Holdø, “Optimizing the hydrocyclone for ballast water treatment
using computational fluid dynamics,” International Journal of Multiphysics, vol. 3, no. 3,
M. Breuer, D. Lakehal and W. Rodi, “Flow around a Surface Mounted Cubical Obstacle:
Comparison of Les and Rans-Results,” Computation of Three-Dimensional Complex
Flows. Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics, vol. 49, p. 1996.
 G. Wei, “A Fixed-Mesh Method for General Moving Objects in Fluid Flow”, Modern
Physics Letters B, vol. 19, no. 28, pp. 1719-1722, 2005.
J. Michell, “The wave-resistance of a ship,” The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin
Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Vols. 45, 1898, no. 272, pp. 106-123,