Figure 11: Variation of fluid force components and magnitude of resultant flow force acting on step stones with flow rate. The stone 4 is the keystone. Stone numbers are consistent with those in Fig. 9-10. The upper limit of the sampling volumes for flow force calculation is higher than water surface while the lower limit is set at 3 cm lower than the keystone crest.

Figure 11: Variation of fluid force components and magnitude of resultant flow force acting on step stones with flow rate. The stone
4 is the keystone. Stone numbers are consistent with those in Fig. 9-10. The upper limit of the sampling volumes for flow force
calculation is higher than water surface while the lower limit is set at 3 cm lower than the keystone crest.