Figure 2.2: The liquid-vapor interface at the microscopic length scale obtained from a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation using Lennard-Jones potential

Figure 2.2: The liquid-vapor interface at the microscopic length scale obtained
from a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation using Lennard-Jones potential.
The vertical axis is in units of the molecular diameter σ and the stress shown
in panel (c) is measured in /σ3
. Here,  is the energy scale corresponding
to the intermolecular forces. (a) Snapshot of the liquid-vapor interface in the
MD simulation. The red dotted line divides the system in two parts: Left and
right. (b) Time-averaged normalized density profile ρ

(z) across the interface.
(c) Tangential force per unit area exerted by the left part on the right part
of the system. The plot shows the difference between the normal and the
tangential components of stress tensor: Π(z) = σ
n − σ
t
. Images reproduced
from [16].