Coupled CFD-DEM simulation of interfacial fluid–particle interaction during binder jet 3D printing

Coupled CFD-DEM simulation of interfacial fluid–particle interaction during binder jet 3D printing

바인더 제트 3D 프린팅 중 계면 유체-입자 상호 작용에 대한 CFD-DEM 결합 시뮬레이션

Joshua J. Wagner, C. Fred Higgs III

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2024.116747

Abstract

The coupled dynamics of interfacial fluid phases and unconstrained solid particles during the binder jet 3D printing process govern the final quality and performance of the resulting components. The present work proposes a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) framework capable of simulating the complex interfacial fluid–particle interaction that occurs when binder microdroplets are deposited into a powder bed. The CFD solver uses a volume-of-fluid (VOF) method for capturing liquid–gas multifluid flows and relies on block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to localize grid refinement around evolving fluid–fluid interfaces. The DEM module resolves six degrees of freedom particle motion and accounts for particle contact, cohesion, and rolling resistance. Fully-resolved CFD-DEM coupling is achieved through a fictitious domain immersed boundary (IB) approach. An improved method for enforcing three-phase contact lines with a VOF-IB extension technique is introduced. We present several simulations of binder jet primitive formation using realistic process parameters and material properties. The DEM particle systems are experimentally calibrated to reproduce the cohesion behavior of physical nickel alloy powder feedstocks. We demonstrate the proposed model’s ability to resolve the interdependent fluid and particle dynamics underlying the process by directly comparing simulated primitive granules with one-to-one experimental counterparts obtained from an in-house validation apparatus. This computational framework provides unprecedented insight into the fundamental mechanisms of binder jet 3D printing and presents a versatile new approach for process parameter optimization and defect mitigation that avoids the inherent challenges of experiments.

바인더 젯 3D 프린팅 공정 중 계면 유체 상과 구속되지 않은 고체 입자의 결합 역학이 결과 구성 요소의 최종 품질과 성능을 좌우합니다. 본 연구는 바인더 미세액적이 분말층에 증착될 때 발생하는 복잡한 계면 유체-입자 상호작용을 시뮬레이션할 수 있는 전산유체역학(CFD) 및 이산요소법(DEM) 프레임워크를 제안합니다.

CFD 솔버는 액체-가스 다중유체 흐름을 포착하기 위해 VOF(유체량) 방법을 사용하고 블록 구조 적응형 메쉬 세분화(AMR)를 사용하여 진화하는 유체-유체 인터페이스 주위의 그리드 세분화를 국지화합니다. DEM 모듈은 6개의 자유도 입자 운동을 해결하고 입자 접촉, 응집력 및 구름 저항을 설명합니다.

완전 분해된 CFD-DEM 결합은 가상 도메인 침지 경계(IB) 접근 방식을 통해 달성됩니다. VOF-IB 확장 기술을 사용하여 3상 접촉 라인을 강화하는 향상된 방법이 도입되었습니다. 현실적인 공정 매개변수와 재료 특성을 사용하여 바인더 제트 기본 형성에 대한 여러 시뮬레이션을 제시합니다.

DEM 입자 시스템은 물리적 니켈 합금 분말 공급원료의 응집 거동을 재현하기 위해 실험적으로 보정되었습니다. 우리는 시뮬레이션된 기본 과립과 내부 검증 장치에서 얻은 일대일 실험 대응물을 직접 비교하여 프로세스의 기본이 되는 상호 의존적인 유체 및 입자 역학을 해결하는 제안된 모델의 능력을 보여줍니다.

이 계산 프레임워크는 바인더 제트 3D 프린팅의 기본 메커니즘에 대한 전례 없는 통찰력을 제공하고 실험에 내재된 문제를 피하는 공정 매개변수 최적화 및 결함 완화를 위한 다용도의 새로운 접근 방식을 제시합니다.

Introduction

Binder jet 3D printing (BJ3DP) is a powder bed additive manufacturing (AM) technology capable of fabricating geometrically complex components from advanced engineering materials, such as metallic superalloys and ultra-high temperature ceramics [1], [2]. As illustrated in Fig. 1(a), the process is comprised of many repetitive print cycles, each contributing a new cross-sectional layer on top of a preceding one to form a 3D CAD-specified geometry. The feedstock material is first delivered from a hopper to a build plate and then spread into a thin layer by a counter-rotating roller. After powder spreading, a print head containing many individual inkjet nozzles traverses over the powder bed while precisely jetting binder microdroplets onto select regions of the spread layer. Following binder deposition, the build plate lowers by a specified layer thickness, leaving a thin void space at the top of the job box that the subsequent powder layer will occupy. This cycle repeats until the full geometries are formed layer by layer. Powder bed fusion (PBF) methods follow a similar procedure, except they instead use a laser or electron beam to selectively melt and fuse the powder material. Compared to PBF, binder jetting offers several distinct advantages, including faster build rates, enhanced scalability for large production volumes, reduced machine and operational costs, and a wider selection of suitable feedstock materials [2]. However, binder jetted parts generally possess inferior mechanical properties and reduced dimensional accuracy [3]. As a result, widescale adoption of BJ3DP to fabricate high-performance, mission-critical components, such as those common to the aerospace and defense sectors, is contingent on novel process improvements and innovations [4].

A major obstacle hindering the advancement of BJ3DP is our limited understanding of how various printing parameters and material properties collectively influence the underlying physical mechanisms of the process and their effect on the resulting components. To date, the vast majority of research efforts to uncover these relationships have relied mainly on experimental approaches [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], which are often expensive and time-consuming and have inherent physical restrictions on what can be measured and observed. For these reasons, there is a rapidly growing interest in using computational models to circumvent the challenges of experimental investigations and facilitate a deeper understanding of the process’s fundamental phenomena. While significant progress has been made in developing and deploying numerical frameworks aimed at powder spreading [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27] and sintering [28], [29], [30], [31], [32], simulating the interfacial fluid–particle interaction (IFPI) in the binder deposition stage is still in its infancy. In their exhaustive review, Mostafaei et al. [2] point out the lack of computational models capable of resolving the coupled fluid and particle dynamics associated with binder jetting and suggest that the development of such tools is critical to further improving the process and enhancing the quality of its end-use components.

We define IFPI as a multiphase flow regime characterized by immiscible fluid phases separated by dynamic interfaces that intersect the surfaces of moving solid particles. As illustrated in Fig. 1(b), an elaborate IFPI occurs when a binder droplet impacts the powder bed in BJ3DP. The momentum transferred from the impacting droplet may cause powder compaction, cratering, and particle ejection. These ballistic disturbances can have deleterious effects on surface texture and lead to the formation of large void spaces inside the part [5], [13]. After impact, the droplet spreads laterally on the bed surface and vertically into the pore network, driven initially by inertial impact forces and then solely by capillary action [33]. Attractive capillary forces exerted on mutually wetted particles tend to draw them inward towards each other, forming a packed cluster of bound particles referred to as a primitive [34]. A single-drop primitive is the most fundamental building element of a BJ3DP part, and the interaction leading to its formation has important implications on the final part characteristics, such as its mechanical properties, resolution, and dimensional accuracy. Generally, binder droplets are deposited successively as the print head traverses over the powder bed. The traversal speed and jetting frequency are set such that consecutive droplets coalesce in the bed, creating a multi-drop primitive line instead of a single-drop primitive granule. The binder must be jetted with sufficient velocity to penetrate the powder bed deep enough to provide adequate interlayer binding; however, a higher impact velocity leads to more pronounced ballistic effects.

A computational framework equipped to simulate the interdependent fluid and particle dynamics in BJ3DP would allow for unprecedented observational and measurement capability at temporal and spatial resolutions not currently achievable by state-of-the-art imaging technology, namely synchrotron X-ray imaging [13], [14], [18], [19]. Unfortunately, BJ3DP presents significant numerical challenges that have slowed the development of suitable modeling frameworks; the most significant of which are as follows:

  • 1.Incorporating dynamic fluid–fluid interfaces with complex topological features remains a nontrivial task for standard mesh-based CFD codes. There are two broad categories encompassing the methods used to handle interfacial flows: interface tracking and interface capturing [35]. Interface capturing techniques, such as the popular volume-of-fluid (VOF) [36] and level-set methods [37], [38], are better suited for problems with interfaces that become heavily distorted or when coalescence and fragmentation occur frequently; however, they are less accurate in resolving surface tension and boundary layer effects compared to interface tracking methods like front-tracking [39], arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian [40], and space–time finite element formulations [41]. Since interfacial forces become increasingly dominant at decreasing length scales, inaccurate surface tension calculations can significantly deteriorate the fidelity of IFPI simulations involving <100 μm droplets and particles.
  • 2.Dynamic powder systems are often modeled using the discrete element method (DEM) introduced by Cundall and Strack [42]. For IFPI problems, a CFD-DEM coupling scheme is required to exchange information between the fluid and particle solvers. Fully-resolved CFD-DEM coupling suggests that the flow field around individual particle surfaces is resolved on the CFD mesh [43], [44]. In contrast, unresolved coupling volume averages the effect of the dispersed solid phase on the continuous fluid phases [45], [46], [47], [48]. Comparatively, the former is computationally expensive but provides detailed information about the IFPI in question and is more appropriate when contact line dynamics are significant. However, since the pore structure of a powder bed is convoluted and evolves with time, resolving such solid–fluid interfaces on a computational mesh presents similar challenges as fluid–fluid interfaces discussed in the previous point. Although various algorithms have been developed to deform unstructured meshes to accommodate moving solid surfaces (see Bazilevs et al. [49] for an overview of such methods), they can be prohibitively expensive when frequent topology changes require mesh regeneration rather than just modification through nodal displacement. The pore network in a powder bed undergoes many topology changes as particles come in and out of contact with each other, constantly closing and opening new flow channels. Non-body-conforming structured grid approaches that rely on immersed boundary (IB) methods to embed the particles in the flow field can be better suited for such cases [50]. Nevertheless, accurately representing these complex pore geometries on Cartesian grids requires extremely high mesh resolutions, which can impose significant computational costs.
  • 3.Capillary effects depend on the contact angle at solid–liquid–gas intersections. Since mesh nodes do not coincide with a particle surface when using an IB method on structured grids, imposing contact angle boundary conditions at three-phase contact lines is not straightforward.

While these issues also pertain to PBF process modeling, resolving particle motion is generally less crucial for analyzing melt pool dynamics compared to primitive formation in BJ3DP. Therefore, at present, the vast majority of computational process models of PBF assume static powder beds and avoid many of the complications described above, see, e.g., [51], [52], [53], [54], [55], [56], [57], [58], [59]. Li et al. [60] presented the first 2D fully-resolved CFD-DEM simulations of the interaction between the melt pool, powder particles, surrounding gas, and metal vapor in PBF. Following this work, Yu and Zhao [61], [62] published similar melt pool IFPI simulations in 3D; however, contact line dynamics and capillary forces were not considered. Compared to PBF, relatively little work has been published regarding the computational modeling of binder deposition in BJ3DP. Employing the open-source VOF code Gerris [63], Tan [33] first simulated droplet impact on a powder bed with appropriate binder jet parameters, namely droplet size and impact velocity. However, similar to most PBF melt pool simulations described in the current literature, the powder bed was fixed in place and not allowed to respond to the interacting fluid phases. Furthermore, a simple face-centered cubic packing of non-contacting, monosized particles was considered, which does not provide a realistic pore structure for AM powder beds. Building upon this approach, we presented a framework to simulate droplet impact on static powder beds with more practical particle size distributions and packing arrangements [64]. In a study similar to [33], [64], Deng et al. [65] used the VOF capability in Ansys Fluent to examine the lateral and vertical spreading of a binder droplet impacting a fixed bimodal powder bed with body-centered packing. Li et al. [66] also adopted Fluent to conduct 2D simulations of a 100 μm diameter droplet impacting substrates with spherical roughness patterns meant to represent the surface of a simplified powder bed with monosized particles. The commercial VOF-based software FLOW-3D offers an AM module centered on process modeling of various AM technologies, including BJ3DP. However, like the above studies, particle motion is still not considered in this codebase. Ur Rehman et al. [67] employed FLOW-3D to examine microdroplet impact on a fixed stainless steel powder bed. Using OpenFOAM, Erhard et al. [68] presented simulations of different droplet impact spacings and patterns on static sand particles.

Recently, Fuchs et al. [69] introduced an impressive multipurpose smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) framework capable of resolving IFPI in various AM methods, including both PBF and BJ3DP. In contrast to a combined CFD-DEM approach, this model relies entirely on SPH meshfree discretization of both the fluid and solid governing equations. The authors performed several prototype simulations demonstrating an 80 μm diameter droplet impacting an unconstrained powder bed at different speeds. While the powder bed responds to the hydrodynamic forces imparted by the impacting droplet, the particle motion is inconsistent with experimental time-resolved observations of the process [13]. Specifically, the ballistic effects, such as particle ejection and bed deformation, were drastically subdued, even in simulations using a droplet velocity ∼ 5× that of typical jetting conditions. This behavior could be caused by excessive damping in the inter-particle contact force computations within their SPH framework. Moreover, the wetted particles did not appear to be significantly influenced by the strong capillary forces exerted by the binder as no primitive agglomeration occurred. The authors mention that the objective of these simulations was to demonstrate their codebase’s broad capabilities and that some unrealistic process parameters were used to improve computational efficiency and stability, which could explain the deviations from experimental observations.

In the present paper, we develop a novel 3D CFD-DEM numerical framework for simulating fully-resolved IFPI during binder jetting with realistic material properties and process parameters. The CFD module is based on the VOF method for capturing binder–air interfaces. Surface tension effects are realized through the continuum surface force (CSF) method with height function calculations of interface curvature. Central to our fluid solver is a proprietary block-structured AMR library with hierarchical octree grid nesting to focus enhanced grid resolution near fluid–fluid interfaces. The GPU-accelerated DEM module considers six degrees of freedom particle motion and includes models based on Hertz-Mindlin contact, van der Waals cohesion, and viscoelastic rolling resistance. The CFD and DEM modules are coupled to achieve fully-resolved IFPI using an IB approach in which Lagrangian solid particles are mapped to the underlying Eulerian fluid mesh through a solid volume fraction field. An improved VOF-IB extension algorithm is introduced to enforce the contact angle at three-phase intersections. This provides robust capillary flow behavior and accurate computations of the fluid-induced forces and torques acting on individual wetted particles in densely packed powder beds.

We deploy our integrated codebase for direct numerical simulations of single-drop primitive formation with powder beds whose particle size distributions are generated from corresponding laboratory samples. These simulations use jetting parameters similar to those employed in current BJ3DP machines, fluid properties that match commonly used aqueous polymeric binders, and powder properties specific to nickel alloy feedstocks. The cohesion behavior of the DEM powder is calibrated based on the angle of repose of the laboratory powder systems. The resulting primitive granules are compared with those obtained from one-to-one experiments conducted using a dedicated in-house test apparatus. Finally, we demonstrate how the proposed framework can simulate more complex and realistic printing operations involving multi-drop primitive lines.

Section snippets

Mathematical description of interfacial fluid–particle interaction

This section briefly describes the governing equations of fluid and particle dynamics underlying the CFD and DEM solvers. Our unified framework follows an Eulerian–Lagrangian approach, wherein the Navier–Stokes equations of incompressible flow are discretized on an Eulerian grid to describe the motion of the binder liquid and surrounding gas, and the Newton–Euler equations account for the positions and orientations of the Lagrangian powder particles. The mathematical foundation for

CFD solver for incompressible flow with multifluid interfaces

This section details the numerical methodology used in our CFD module to solve the Navier–Stokes equations of incompressible flow. First, we introduce the VOF method for capturing the interfaces between the binder and air phases. This approach allows us to solve the fluid dynamics equations considering only a single continuum field with spatial and temporal variations in fluid properties. Next, we describe the time integration procedure using a fractional-step projection algorithm for

DEM solver for solid particle dynamics

This section covers the numerical procedure for tracking the motion of individual powder particles with DEM. The Newton–Euler equations (Eqs. (10), (11)) are ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for which many established numerical integrators are available. In general, the most challenging aspects of DEM involve processing particle collisions in a computationally efficient manner and dealing with small time step constraints that result from stiff materials, such as metallic AM powders. The

Unified CFD-DEM solver

The preceding sections have introduced the CFD and DEM solution algorithms separately. Here, we discuss the integrated CFD-DEM solution algorithm and related details.

Binder jet process modeling and validation experiments

In this section, we deploy our CFD-DEM framework to simulate the IFPI occurring during the binder droplet deposition stage of the BJ3DP process. The first simulations attempt to reproduce experimental single-drop primitive granules extracted from four nickel alloy powder samples with varying particle size distributions. The experiments are conducted with a dedicated in-house test apparatus that allows for the precision deposition of individual binder microdroplets into a powder bed sample. The

Conclusions

This paper introduces a coupled CFD-DEM framework capable of fully-resolved simulation of the interfacial fluid–particle interaction occurring in the binder jet 3D printing process. The interfacial flow of binder and surrounding air is captured with the VOF method and surface tension effects are incorporated using the CSF technique augmented by height function curvature calculations. Block-structured AMR is employed to provide localized grid refinement around the evolving liquid–gas interface.

CRediT authorship contribution statement

Joshua J. Wagner: Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Software, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing. C. Fred Higgs III: Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing.

Declaration of competing interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship, United States of America, Grant No. 80NSSC19K1171. Partial support was also provided through an AIAA Foundation Orville, USA and Wilbur Wright Graduate Award, USA . The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr. Craig Smith of NASA Glenn Research Center for the valuable input he provided on this project.

References (155)

Fig 3. Front view of the ejected powder particles due to the plume movement. Powder particles are colored by their respective temperature while trajectory colors show their magnitude at 0.007 seconds.

316-L 스테인리스강의 레이저 분말 베드 융합 중 콜드 스패터 형성의 충실도 높은 수치 모델링

316-L 스테인리스강의 레이저 분말 베드 융합 중 콜드 스패터 형성의 충실도 높은 수치 모델링

M. BAYAT1,* , AND J. H. HATTEL1

  • Corresponding author
    1 Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Building 425, Kgs. 2800 Lyngby, Denmark

ABSTRACT

Spatter and denudation are two very well-known phenomena occurring mainly during the laser powder bed fusion process and are defined as ejection and displacement of powder particles, respectively. The main driver of this phenomenon is the formation of a vapor plume jet that is caused by the vaporization of the melt pool which is subjected to the laser beam. In this work, a 3-dimensional transient turbulent computational fluid dynamics model coupled with a discrete element model is developed in the finite volume-based commercial software package Flow-3D AM to simulate the spatter phenomenon. The numerical results show that a localized low-pressure zone forms at the bottom side of the plume jet and this leads to a pseudo-Bernoulli effect that drags nearby powder particles into the area of influence of the vapor plume jet. As a result, the vapor plume acts like a momentum sink and therefore all nearby particles point are dragged towards this region. Furthermore, it is noted that due to the jet’s attenuation, powder particles start diverging from the central core region of the vapor plume as they move vertically upwards. It is moreover observed that only particles which are in the very central core region of the plume jet get sufficiently accelerated to depart the computational domain, while the rest of the dragged particles, especially those which undergo an early divergence from the jet axis, get stalled pretty fast as they come in contact with the resting fluid. In the last part of the work, two simulations with two different scanning speeds are carried out, where it is clearly observed that the angle between the departing powder particles and the vertical axis of the plume jet increases with increasing scanning speed.

스패터와 denudation은 주로 레이저 분말 베드 융합 과정에서 발생하는 매우 잘 알려진 두 가지 현상으로 각각 분말 입자의 배출 및 변위로 정의됩니다.

이 현상의 주요 동인은 레이저 빔을 받는 용융 풀의 기화로 인해 발생하는 증기 기둥 제트의 형성입니다. 이 작업에서 이산 요소 모델과 결합된 3차원 과도 난류 ​​전산 유체 역학 모델은 스패터 현상을 시뮬레이션하기 위해 유한 체적 기반 상용 소프트웨어 패키지 Flow-3D AM에서 개발되었습니다.

수치적 결과는 플룸 제트의 바닥면에 국부적인 저압 영역이 형성되고, 이는 근처의 분말 입자를 증기 플룸 제트의 영향 영역으로 끌어들이는 의사-베르누이 효과로 이어진다는 것을 보여줍니다.

결과적으로 증기 기둥은 운동량 흡수원처럼 작용하므로 근처의 모든 입자 지점이 이 영역으로 끌립니다. 또한 제트의 감쇠로 인해 분말 입자가 수직으로 위쪽으로 이동할 때 증기 기둥의 중심 코어 영역에서 발산하기 시작합니다.

더욱이 플룸 제트의 가장 중심 코어 영역에 있는 입자만 계산 영역을 벗어날 만큼 충분히 가속되는 반면, 드래그된 나머지 입자, 특히 제트 축에서 초기 발산을 겪는 입자는 정체되는 것으로 관찰됩니다. 그들은 휴식 유체와 접촉하기 때문에 꽤 빠릅니다.

작업의 마지막 부분에서 두 가지 다른 스캔 속도를 가진 두 가지 시뮬레이션이 수행되었으며, 여기서 출발하는 분말 입자와 연기 제트의 수직 축 사이의 각도가 스캔 속도가 증가함에 따라 증가하는 것이 명확하게 관찰되었습니다.

Fig 1. Two different views of the computational domain for the fluid domain. The vapor plume is simulated by a moving momentum source with a prescribed temperature of 3000 K.
Fig 1. Two different views of the computational domain for the fluid domain. The vapor plume is simulated by a moving momentum source with a prescribed temperature of 3000 K.
Fig 2. (a) and (b) are two snapshots taken at an x-y plane parallel to the powder layer plane before and 0.008 seconds after the start of the scanning process. (c) Shows a magnified view of (b) where detailed powder particles' movement along with their velocity magnitude and directions are shown.
Fig 2. (a) and (b) are two snapshots taken at an x-y plane parallel to the powder layer plane before and 0.008 seconds after the start of the scanning process. (c) Shows a magnified view of (b) where detailed powder particles’ movement along with their velocity magnitude and directions are shown.
Fig 3. Front view of the ejected powder particles due to the plume movement. Powder particles are colored by their respective temperature while trajectory colors show their magnitude at 0.007 seconds.
Fig 3. Front view of the ejected powder particles due to the plume movement. Powder particles are colored by their respective temperature while trajectory colors show their magnitude at 0.007 seconds.

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Modeling of contactless bubble–bubble interactions in microchannels with integrated inertial pumps

Modeling of contactless bubble–bubble interactions in microchannels with integrated inertial pumps

통합 관성 펌프를 사용하여 마이크로 채널에서 비접촉식 기포-기포 상호 작용 모델링

Physics of Fluids 33, 042002 (2021); https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0041924 B. Hayesa) G. L. Whitingb), and  R. MacCurdyc)

ABSTRACT

In this study, the nonlinear effect of contactless bubble–bubble interactions in inertial micropumps is characterized via reduced parameter one-dimensional and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) modeling. A one-dimensional pump model is developed to account for contactless bubble-bubble interactions, and the accuracy of the developed one-dimensional model is assessed via the commercial volume of fluid CFD software, FLOW-3D. The FLOW-3D CFD model is validated against experimental bubble dynamics images as well as experimental pump data. Precollapse and postcollapse bubble and flow dynamics for two resistors in a channel have been successfully explained by the modified one-dimensional model. The net pumping effect design space is characterized as a function of resistor placement and firing time delay. The one-dimensional model accurately predicts cumulative flow for simultaneous resistor firing with inner-channel resistor placements (0.2L < x < 0.8L where L is the channel length) as well as delayed resistor firing with inner-channel resistor placements when the time delay is greater than the time required for the vapor bubble to fill the channel cross section. In general, one-dimensional model accuracy suffers at near-reservoir resistor placements and short time delays which we propose is a result of 3D bubble-reservoir interactions and transverse bubble growth interactions, respectively, that are not captured by the one-dimensional model. We find that the one-dimensional model accuracy improves for smaller channel heights. We envision the developed one-dimensional model as a first-order rapid design tool for inertial pump-based microfluidic systems operating in the contactless bubble–bubble interaction nonlinear regime

이 연구에서 관성 마이크로 펌프에서 비접촉 기포-기포 상호 작용의 비선형 효과는 감소 된 매개 변수 1 차원 및 3 차원 전산 유체 역학 (3D CFD) 모델링을 통해 특성화됩니다. 비접촉식 기포-버블 상호 작용을 설명하기 위해 1 차원 펌프 모델이 개발되었으며, 개발 된 1 차원 모델의 정확도는 유체 CFD 소프트웨어 인 FLOW-3D의 상용 볼륨을 통해 평가됩니다.

FLOW-3D CFD 모델은 실험적인 거품 역학 이미지와 실험적인 펌프 데이터에 대해 검증되었습니다. 채널에 있는 두 저항기의 붕괴 전 및 붕괴 후 기포 및 유동 역학은 수정 된 1 차원 모델에 의해 성공적으로 설명되었습니다. 순 펌핑 효과 설계 공간은 저항 배치 및 발사 시간 지연의 기능으로 특징 지어집니다.

1 차원 모델은 내부 채널 저항 배치 (0.2L <x <0.8L, 여기서 L은 채널 길이)로 동시 저항 발생에 대한 누적 흐름과 시간 지연시 내부 채널 저항 배치로 지연된 저항 발생을 정확하게 예측합니다. 증기 방울이 채널 단면을 채우는 데 필요한 시간보다 큽니다.

일반적으로 1 차원 모델 정확도는 저수지 근처의 저항 배치와 1 차원 모델에 의해 포착되지 않는 3D 기포-저수지 상호 작용 및 가로 기포 성장 상호 작용의 결과 인 짧은 시간 지연에서 어려움을 겪습니다. 채널 높이가 작을수록 1 차원 모델 정확도가 향상됩니다. 우리는 개발 된 1 차원 모델을 비접촉 기포-기포 상호 작용 비선형 영역에서 작동하는 관성 펌프 기반 미세 유체 시스템을 위한 1 차 빠른 설계 도구로 생각합니다.

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Figure 4. Calculate and simulate the injection of water in a single-channel injection chamber with a nozzle diameter of 60 μm and a thickness of 50 μm, at an operating frequency of 5 KHz, in the X-Y two-dimensional cross-sectional view, at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 200 μs.

DNA Printing Integrated Multiplexer Driver Microelectronic Mechanical System Head (IDMH) and Microfluidic Flow Estimation

DNA 프린팅 통합 멀티플렉서 드라이버 Microelectronic Mechanical System Head (IDMH) 및 Microfluidic Flow Estimation

by Jian-Chiun Liou 1,*,Chih-Wei Peng 1,Philippe Basset 2 andZhen-Xi Chen 11School of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan2ESYCOM, Université Gustave Eiffel, CNRS, CNAM, ESIEE Paris, F-77454 Marne-la-Vallée, France*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Abstract

The system designed in this study involves a three-dimensional (3D) microelectronic mechanical system chip structure using DNA printing technology. We employed diverse diameters and cavity thickness for the heater. DNA beads were placed in this rapid array, and the spray flow rate was assessed. Because DNA cannot be obtained easily, rapidly deploying DNA while estimating the total amount of DNA being sprayed is imperative. DNA printings were collected in a multiplexer driver microelectronic mechanical system head, and microflow estimation was conducted. Flow-3D was used to simulate the internal flow field and flow distribution of the 3D spray room. The simulation was used to calculate the time and pressure required to generate heat bubbles as well as the corresponding mean outlet speed of the fluid. The “outlet speed status” function in Flow-3D was used as a power source for simulating the ejection of fluid by the chip nozzle. The actual chip generation process was measured, and the starting voltage curve was analyzed. Finally, experiments on flow rate were conducted, and the results were discussed. The density of the injection nozzle was 50, the size of the heater was 105 μm × 105 μm, and the size of the injection nozzle hole was 80 μm. The maximum flow rate was limited to approximately 3.5 cc. The maximum flow rate per minute required a power between 3.5 W and 4.5 W. The number of injection nozzles was multiplied by 100. On chips with enlarged injection nozzle density, experiments were conducted under a fixed driving voltage of 25 V. The flow curve obtained from various pulse widths and operating frequencies was observed. The operating frequency was 2 KHz, and the pulse width was 4 μs. At a pulse width of 5 μs and within the power range of 4.3–5.7 W, the monomer was injected at a flow rate of 5.5 cc/min. The results of this study may be applied to estimate the flow rate and the total amount of the ejection liquid of a DNA liquid.

이 연구에서 설계된 시스템은 DNA 프린팅 기술을 사용하는 3 차원 (3D) 마이크로 전자 기계 시스템 칩 구조를 포함합니다. 히터에는 다양한 직경과 캐비티 두께를 사용했습니다. DNA 비드를 빠른 어레이에 배치하고 스프레이 유속을 평가했습니다.

DNA를 쉽게 얻을 수 없기 때문에 DNA를 빠르게 배치하면서 스프레이 되는 총 DNA 양을 추정하는 것이 필수적입니다. DNA 프린팅은 멀티플렉서 드라이버 마이크로 전자 기계 시스템 헤드에 수집되었고 마이크로 플로우 추정이 수행되었습니다.

Flow-3D는 3D 스프레이 룸의 내부 유동장과 유동 분포를 시뮬레이션 하는데 사용되었습니다. 시뮬레이션은 열 거품을 생성하는데 필요한 시간과 압력뿐만 아니라 유체의 해당 평균 출구 속도를 계산하는데 사용되었습니다.

Flow-3D의 “출구 속도 상태”기능은 칩 노즐에 의한 유체 배출 시뮬레이션을 위한 전원으로 사용되었습니다. 실제 칩 생성 프로세스를 측정하고 시작 전압 곡선을 분석했습니다. 마지막으로 유속 실험을 하고 그 결과를 논의했습니다. 분사 노즐의 밀도는 50, 히터의 크기는 105μm × 105μm, 분사 노즐 구멍의 크기는 80μm였다. 최대 유량은 약 3.5cc로 제한되었습니다. 분당 최대 유량은 3.5W에서 4.5W 사이의 전력이 필요했습니다. 분사 노즐의 수에 100을 곱했습니다. 분사 노즐 밀도가 확대 된 칩에 대해 25V의 고정 구동 전압에서 실험을 수행했습니다. 얻은 유동 곡선 다양한 펄스 폭과 작동 주파수에서 관찰되었습니다. 작동 주파수는 2KHz이고 펄스 폭은 4μs입니다. 5μs의 펄스 폭과 4.3–5.7W의 전력 범위 내에서 단량체는 5.5cc / min의 유속으로 주입되었습니다. 이 연구의 결과는 DNA 액체의 토 출액의 유량과 총량을 추정하는 데 적용될 수 있습니다.

Keywords: DNA printingflow estimationMEMS

Introduction

잉크젯 프린트 헤드 기술은 매우 중요하며, 잉크젯 기술의 거대한 발전은 주로 잉크젯 프린트 헤드 기술의 원리 개발에서 시작되었습니다. 잉크젯 인쇄 연구를 위한 대규모 액적 생성기 포함 [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8]. 연속 식 잉크젯 시스템은 고주파 응답과 고속 인쇄의 장점이 있습니다. 그러나이 방법의 잉크젯 프린트 헤드의 구조는 더 복잡하고 양산이 어려운 가압 장치, 대전 전극, 편향 전계가 필요하다. 주문형 잉크젯 시스템의 잉크젯 프린트 헤드는 구조가 간단하고 잉크젯 헤드의 다중 노즐을 쉽게 구현할 수 있으며 디지털화 및 색상 지정이 쉽고 이미지 품질은 비교적 좋지만 일반적인 잉크 방울 토출 속도는 낮음 [ 9 , 10 , 11 ].

핫 버블 잉크젯 헤드의 총 노즐 수는 수백 또는 수천에 달할 수 있습니다. 노즐은 매우 미세하여 풍부한 조화 색상과 부드러운 메쉬 톤을 생성할 수 있습니다. 잉크 카트리지와 노즐이 일체형 구조를 이루고 있으며, 잉크 카트리지 교체시 잉크젯 헤드가 동시에 업데이트되므로 노즐 막힘에 대한 걱정은 없지만 소모품 낭비가 발생하고 상대적으로 높음 비용. 주문형 잉크젯 기술은 배출해야 하는 그래픽 및 텍스트 부분에만 잉크 방울을 배출하고 빈 영역에는 잉크 방울이 배출되지 않습니다. 이 분사 방법은 잉크 방울을 충전할 필요가 없으며 전극 및 편향 전기장을 충전할 필요도 없습니다. 노즐 구조가 간단하고 노즐의 멀티 노즐 구현이 용이하며, 출력 품질이 더욱 개선되었습니다. 펄스 제어를 통해 디지털화가 쉽습니다. 그러나 잉크 방울의 토출 속도는 일반적으로 낮습니다. 열 거품 잉크젯, 압전 잉크젯 및 정전기 잉크젯의 세 가지 일반적인 유형이 있습니다. 물론 다른 유형이 있습니다.

압전 잉크젯 기술의 실현 원리는 인쇄 헤드의 노즐 근처에 많은 소형 압전 세라믹을 배치하면 압전 크리스탈이 전기장의 작용으로 변형됩니다. 잉크 캐비티에서 돌출되어 노즐에서 분사되는 패턴 데이터 신호는 압전 크리스탈의 변형을 제어한 다음 잉크 분사량을 제어합니다. 압전 MEMS 프린트 헤드를 사용한 주문형 드롭 하이브리드 인쇄 [ 12]. 열 거품 잉크젯 기술의 실현 원리는 가열 펄스 (기록 신호)의 작용으로 노즐의 발열체 온도가 상승하여 근처의 잉크 용매가 증발하여 많은 수의 핵 형성 작은 거품을 생성하는 것입니다. 내부 거품의 부피는 계속 증가합니다. 일정 수준에 도달하면 생성된 압력으로 인해 잉크가 노즐에서 분사되고 최종적으로 기판 표면에 도달하여 패턴 정보가 재생됩니다 [ 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 ].

“3D 제품 프린팅”및 “증분 빠른 제조”의 의미는 진화했으며 모든 증분 제품 제조 기술을 나타냅니다. 이는 이전 제작과는 다른 의미를 가지고 있지만, 자동 제어 하에 소재를 쌓아 올리는 3D 작업 제작 과정의 공통적 인 특징을 여전히 반영하고 있습니다 [ 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 ].

이 개발 시스템은 열 거품 분사 기술입니다. 이 빠른 어레이에 DNA 비드를 배치하고 스프레이 유속을 평가하기 위해 다른 히터 직경과 캐비티 두께를 설계하는 것입니다. DNA 제트 칩의 부스트 회로 시스템은 큰 흐름을 구동하기위한 신호 소스입니다. 목적은 분사되는 DNA 용액의 양과 출력을 조정하는 것입니다. 입력 전압을 더 높은 출력 전압으로 변환해야 하는 경우 부스트 컨버터가 유일한 선택입니다. 부스트 컨버터는 내부 금속 산화물 반도체 전계 효과 트랜지스터 (MOSFET)를 통해 전압을 충전하여 부스트 출력의 목적을 달성하고, MOSFET이 꺼지면 인덕터는 부하 정류를 통해 방전됩니다.

인덕터의 충전과 방전 사이의 변환 프로세스는 인덕터를 통한 전압의 방향을 반대로 한 다음 점차적으로 입력 작동 전압보다 높은 전압을 증가시킵니다. MOSFET의 스위칭 듀티 사이클은 확실히 부스트 비율을 결정합니다. MOSFET의 정격 전류와 부스트 컨버터의 부스트 비율은 부스트 ​​컨버터의 부하 전류의 상한을 결정합니다. MOSFET의 정격 전압은 출력 전압의 상한을 결정합니다. 일부 부스트 컨버터는 정류기와 MOSFET을 통합하여 동기식 정류를 제공합니다. 통합 MOSFET은 정확한 제로 전류 턴 오프를 달성하여 부스트 변압기를 보다 효율적으로 만듭니다. 최대 전력 점 추적 장치를 통해 입력 전력을 실시간으로 모니터링합니다. 입력 전압이 최대 입력 전력 지점에 도달하면 부스트 컨버터가 작동하기 시작하여 부스트 컨버터가 최대 전력 출력 지점으로 유리 기판에 DNA 인쇄를 하는 데 적합합니다. 일정한 온 타임 생성 회로를 통해 온 타임이 온도 및 칩의 코너 각도에 영향을 받지 않아 시스템의 안정성이 향상됩니다.

잉크젯 프린트 헤드에 사용되는 기술은 매우 중요합니다. 잉크젯 기술의 엄청난 발전은 주로 잉크젯 프린팅에 사용되는 대형 액적 이젝터 [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ]를 포함하여 잉크젯 프린트 헤드 기술의 이론 개발에서 시작되었습니다 . 연속 잉크젯 시스템은 고주파 응답과 고속 인쇄의 장점을 가지고 있습니다. 잉크젯 헤드의 총 노즐 수는 수백 또는 수천에 달할 수 있으며 이러한 노즐은 매우 복잡합니다. 노즐은 풍부하고 조화로운 색상과 부드러운 메쉬 톤을 생성할 수 있습니다 [ 9 , 10 ,11 ]. 잉크젯은 열 거품 잉크젯, 압전 잉크젯 및 정전 식 잉크젯의 세 가지 주요 유형으로 분류할 수 있습니다. 다른 유형도 사용 중입니다. 압전 잉크젯의 기능은 다음과 같습니다. 많은 소형 압전 세라믹이 잉크젯 헤드 노즐 근처에 배치됩니다. 압전 결정은 전기장 아래에서 변형됩니다. 그 후, 잉크는 잉크 캐비티에서 압착되어 노즐에서 배출됩니다. 패턴의 데이터 신호는 압전 결정의 변형을 제어한 다음 분사되는 잉크의 양을 제어합니다. 압전 마이크로 전자 기계 시스템 (MEMS) 잉크젯 헤드는 하이브리드 인쇄에 사용됩니다. [ 12]. 열 버블 잉크젯 기술은 다음과 같이 작동합니다. 가열 펄스 (즉, 기록 신호) 하에서 노즐의 가열 구성 요소의 온도가 상승하여 근처의 잉크 용매를 증발시켜 많은 양의 작은 핵 기포를 생성합니다. 내부 기포의 부피가 지속적으로 증가합니다. 압력이 일정 수준에 도달하면 노즐에서 잉크가 분출되고 잉크가 기판 표면에 도달하여 패턴과 메시지가 표시됩니다 [ 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 ].

3 차원 (3D) 제품 프린팅 및 빠른 프로토 타입 기술의 발전에는 모든 빠른 프로토 타입의 생산 기술이 포함됩니다. 래피드 프로토 타입 기술은 기존 생산 방식과는 다르지만 3D 제품 프린팅 생산 과정의 일부 특성을 공유합니다. 구체적으로 자동 제어 [ 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 ] 하에서 자재를 쌓아 올립니다 .

이 연구에서 개발된 시스템은 열 기포 방출 기술을 사용했습니다. 이 빠른 어레이에 DNA 비드를 배치하기 위해 히터에 대해 다른 직경과 다른 공동 두께가 사용되었습니다. 그 후, 스프레이 유속을 평가했다. DNA 제트 칩의 부스트 회로 시스템은 큰 흐름을 구동하기위한 신호 소스입니다. 목표는 분사되는 DNA 액체의 양과 출력을 조정하는 것입니다. 입력 전압을 더 높은 출력 전압으로 수정해야하는 경우 승압 컨버터가 유일한 옵션입니다. 승압 컨버터는 내부 금속 산화물 반도체 전계 효과 트랜지스터 (MOSFET)를 충전하여 출력 전압을 증가시킵니다. MOSFET이 꺼지면 부하 정류를 통해 인덕턴스가 방전됩니다. 충전과 방전 사이에서 인덕터를 변경하는 과정은 인덕터를 통과하는 전압의 방향을 변경합니다. 전압은 입력 작동 전압을 초과하는 지점까지 점차적으로 증가합니다. MOSFET 스위치의 듀티 사이클은 부스트 ​​비율을 결정합니다. MOSFET의 승압 컨버터의 정격 전류와 부스트 비율은 승압 컨버터의 부하 전류의 상한을 결정합니다. MOSFET의 정격 전류는 출력 전압의 상한을 결정합니다. 일부 승압 컨버터는 정류기와 MOSFET을 통합하여 동기식 정류를 제공합니다. 통합 MOSFET은 정밀한 제로 전류 셧다운을 실현할 수 있으므로 셋업 컨버터의 효율성을 높일 수 있습니다. 최대 전력 점 추적 장치는 입력 전력을 실시간으로 모니터링하는 데 사용되었습니다. 입력 전압이 최대 입력 전력 지점에 도달하면 승압 컨버터가 작동을 시작합니다. 스텝 업 컨버터는 DNA 프린팅을 위한 최대 전력 출력 포인트가 있는 유리 기판에 사용됩니다.

MEMS Chip Design for Bubble Jet

이 연구는 히터 크기, 히터 번호 및 루프 저항과 같은 특정 매개 변수를 조작하여 5 가지 유형의 액체 배출 챔버 구조를 설계했습니다. 표 1 은 측정 결과를 나열합니다. 이 시스템은 다양한 히터의 루프 저항을 분석했습니다. 100 개 히터 설계를 완료하기 위해 2 세트의 히터를 사용하여 각 단일 회로 시리즈를 통과하기 때문에 100 개의 히터를 설계할 때 총 루프 저항은 히터 50 개의 총 루프 저항보다 하나 더 커야 합니다. 이 연구에서 MEMS 칩에서 기포를 배출하는 과정에서 저항 층의 면저항은 29 Ω / m 2입니다. 따라서 모델 A의 총 루프 저항이 가장 컸습니다. 일반 사이즈 모델 (모델 B1, C, D, E)의 두 배였습니다. 모델 B1, C, D 및 E의 총 루프 저항은 약 29 Ω / m 2 입니다. 표 1 에 따르면 오류 범위는 허용된 설계 값 이내였습니다. 따라서야 연구에서 설계된 각 유형의 단일 칩은 동일한 생산 절차 결과를 가지며 후속 유량 측정에 사용되었습니다.

Table 1. List of resistance measurement of single circuit resistance.
Table 1. List of resistance measurement of single circuit resistance.

DNA를 뿌린 칩의 파워가 정상으로 확인되면 히터 버블의 성장 특성을 테스트하고 검증했습니다. DNA 스프레이 칩의 필름 두께와 필름 품질은 히터의 작동 조건과 스프레이 품질에 영향을 줍니다. 따라서 기포 성장 현상과 그 성장 특성을 이해하면 본 연구에서 DNA 스프레이 칩의 특성과 작동 조건을 명확히 하는 데 도움이 됩니다.

설계된 시스템은 기포 성장 조건을 관찰하기 위해 개방형 액체 공급 방법을 채택했습니다. 이미지 관찰을 위해 발광 다이오드 (LED, Nichia NSPW500GS-K1, 3.1V 백색 LED 5mm)를 사용하는 동기식 플래시 방식을 사용하여 동기식 지연 광원을 생성했습니다. 이 시스템은 또한 전하 결합 장치 (CCD, Flir Grasshopper3 GigE GS3-PGE-50S5C-C)를 사용하여 이미지를 캡처했습니다. 그림 1핵 형성, 성장, 거품 생성에서 소산에 이르는 거품의 과정을 보여줍니다. 이 시스템은 기포의 성장 및 소산 과정을 확인하여 시작 전압을 관찰하는 데 사용할 수 있습니다. 마이크로 채널의 액체 공급 방법은 LED가 깜빡이는 시간을 가장 큰 기포 발생에 필요한 시간 (15μs)으로 설정했습니다. 이 디자인은 부적합한 깜박임 시간으로 인한 잘못된 판단과 거품 이미지 캡처 불가능을 방지합니다.

Figure 1. The system uses CCD to capture images.
Figure 1. The system uses CCD to capture images.

<내용 중략>…….

Table 2. Open pool test starting voltage results.
Table 2. Open pool test starting voltage results.
Figure 2. Serial input parallel output shift registers forms of connection.
Figure 2. Serial input parallel output shift registers forms of connection.
Figure 3. The geometry of the jet cavity. (a) The actual DNA liquid chamber, (b) the three-dimensional view of the microfluidic single channel. A single-channel jet cavity with 60 μm diameter and 50 μm thickness, with an operating frequency of 5 KHz, in (a) three-dimensional side view (b) X-Z two-dimensional cross-sectional view, at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 200 μs injection conditions.
Figure 3. The geometry of the jet cavity. (a) The actual DNA liquid chamber, (b) the three-dimensional view of the microfluidic single channel. A single-channel jet cavity with 60 μm diameter and 50 μm thickness, with an operating frequency of 5 KHz, in (a) three-dimensional side view (b) X-Z two-dimensional cross-sectional view, at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 200 μs injection conditions.
Figure 4. Calculate and simulate the injection of water in a single-channel injection chamber with a nozzle diameter of 60 μm and a thickness of 50 μm, at an operating frequency of 5 KHz, in the X-Y two-dimensional cross-sectional view, at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 200 μs.
Figure 4. Calculate and simulate the injection of water in a single-channel injection chamber with a nozzle diameter of 60 μm and a thickness of 50 μm, at an operating frequency of 5 KHz, in the X-Y two-dimensional cross-sectional view, at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 200 μs.
Figure 5 depicts the calculation results of the 2D X-Z cross section. At 100 μs and 200 μs, the fluid injection orifice did not completely fill the chamber. This may be because the size of the single-channel injection cavity was unsuitable for the highest operating frequency of 10 KHz. Thus, subsequent calculation simulations employed 5 KHz as the reference operating frequency. The calculation simulation results were calculated according to the operating frequency of the impact. Figure 6 illustrates the injection cavity height as 60 μm and 30 μm and reveals the 2D X-Y cross section. At 100 μs and 200 μs, the fluid injection orifice did not completely fill the chamber. In those stages, the fluid was still filling the chamber, and the flow field was not yet stable.
Figure 5 depicts the calculation results of the 2D X-Z cross section. At 100 μs and 200 μs, the fluid injection orifice did not completely fill the chamber. This may be because the size of the single-channel injection cavity was unsuitable for the highest operating frequency of 10 KHz. Thus, subsequent calculation simulations employed 5 KHz as the reference operating frequency. The calculation simulation results were calculated according to the operating frequency of the impact. Figure 6 illustrates the injection cavity height as 60 μm and 30 μm and reveals the 2D X-Y cross section. At 100 μs and 200 μs, the fluid injection orifice did not completely fill the chamber. In those stages, the fluid was still filling the chamber, and the flow field was not yet stable.
Figure 6. Calculate and simulate water in a single-channel spray chamber with a spray hole diameter of 60 μm and a thickness of 50 μm, with an operating frequency of 10 KHz, in an XY cross-sectional view, at 10, 20, 30, 40, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 and 200 μs injection situation.
Figure 6. Calculate and simulate water in a single-channel spray chamber with a spray hole diameter of 60 μm and a thickness of 50 μm, with an operating frequency of 10 KHz, in an XY cross-sectional view, at 10, 20, 30, 40, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 and 200 μs injection situation.
Figure 7. The DNA printing integrated multiplexer driver MEMS head (IDMH).
Figure 7. The DNA printing integrated multiplexer driver MEMS head (IDMH).
Figure 8. The initial voltage diagrams of chip number A,B,C,D,E type.
Figure 8. The initial voltage diagrams of chip number A,B,C,D,E type.
Figure 9. The initial energy diagrams of chip number A,B,C,D,E type.
Figure 9. The initial energy diagrams of chip number A,B,C,D,E type.
Figure 10. A Type-Sample01 flow test.
Figure 10. A Type-Sample01 flow test.
Figure 11. A Type-Sample01 drop volume.
Figure 11. A Type-Sample01 drop volume.
Figure 12. A Type-Sample01 flow rate.
Figure 12. A Type-Sample01 flow rate.
Figure 13. B1-00 flow test.
Figure 13. B1-00 flow test.
Figure 14. C Type-01 flow test.
Figure 14. C Type-01 flow test.
Figure 15. D Type-02 flow test.
Figure 15. D Type-02 flow test.
Figure 16. E1 type flow test.
Figure 16. E1 type flow test.
Figure 17. E1 type ejection rate relationship.
Figure 17. E1 type ejection rate relationship.

Conclusions

이 연구는 DNA 프린팅 IDMH를 제공하고 미세 유체 흐름 추정을 수행했습니다. 설계된 DNA 스프레이 캐비티와 20V의 구동 전압에서 다양한 펄스 폭의 유동 성능이 펄스 폭에 따라 증가하는 것으로 밝혀졌습니다.

E1 유형 유량 테스트는 해당 유량이 3.1cc / min으로 증가함에 따라 유량이 전력 변화에 영향을 받는 것으로 나타났습니다. 동력이 증가함에 따라 유량은 0.75cc / min에서 3.5cc / min으로 최대 6.5W까지 증가했습니다. 동력이 더 증가하면 유량은 에너지와 함께 증가하지 않습니다. 이것은 이 테이블 디자인이 가장 크다는 것을 보여줍니다. 유속은 3.5cc / 분이었다.
작동 주파수가 2KHz이고 펄스 폭이 4μs 및 5μs 인 특수 설계된 DNA 스프레이 룸 구조에서 다양한 전력 조건 하에서 유량 변화를 관찰했습니다. 4.3–5.87 W의 출력 범위 내에서 주입 된 모노머의 유속은 5.5cc / 분이었습니다. 이것은 힘이 증가해도 변하지 않았습니다. DNA는 귀중하고 쉽게 얻을 수 없습니다. 이 실험을 통해 우리는 DNA가 뿌려진 마이크로 어레이 바이오칩의 수천 개의 지점에 필요한 총 DNA 양을 정확하게 추정 할 수 있습니다.

<내용 중략>…….

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igure 1:Essential componentsof the MHD printhead (a) cross-sectional view of printhead showing flow of liquid metal.(b) simulation model showing the magneticfield generated by a pulsed magnetic coil as well as an ejecteddroplet of liquid aluminum.

Timeline of molten metal droplet ejection

용융 금속 액적 분출 타임 라인

Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamicdroplet ejection, droplet on demandprinting, 3D printing of molten metal, additive manufacturing, thermo-fluidic analysis, molten aluminum.

우리는 액체 금속 방울을 사용하여 3D 고체 금속 구조의 DOD (drop-on-demand) 프린팅을 위한 새로운 방법을 제시합니다. 이 방법은 MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic) 기반 방울 생성에 의존합니다. 특히, 외부 코일에 의해 공급되는 맥동 자기장은 액체 금속으로 채워진 분사 챔버 내에서 MHD 기반 힘 밀도를 유도하여 물방울이 노즐을 통해 분사되도록 합니다.

임의의 모양의 3 차원 (3D) 고체 금속 구조는 드롭 방식의 유착 및 응고와 함께 방울의 층별 패턴 증착을 통해 인쇄 할 수 있습니다. 샘플 인쇄 구조와 함께 이 프로토 타입 MHD 인쇄 시스템을 소개합니다. 또한 드롭 생성을 제어하는 기본 물리학에 대해 논의하고 장치 성능을 예측하기 위한 계산 모델을 소개합니다.

주문형 잉크젯 인쇄는 상업용 및 소비자용 이미지 재생을 위한 잘 정립된 방법입니다. 이 기술을 주도하는 동일한 원리는 기능 인쇄 및 적층 제조 분야에도 적용될 수 있습니다. 기존의 잉크젯 기술은 폴리머에서 살아있는 세포에 이르기까지 다양한 재료를 증착하고 패턴 화하여 다양한 기능성 매체, 조직 및 장치를 인쇄하는 데 사용되어 왔습니다 [1, 2]. 이 작업의 초점은 잉크젯 기반 기술을 3D 솔리드 금속 구조 프린팅으로 확장하는 데 있습니다 [3, 4]. 현재 대부분의 3D 금속 프린팅 응용 분야에는 레이저 (예 : 선택적 레이저 소결 [5] 및 직접 레이저 금속 소결 [6]) 또는 전자 빔 (예 : 레이저 소결 [6])과 같은 외부 지향 에너지 원의 영향으로 증착 된 금속 분말 소결 또는 용융이 포함됩니다. 전자빔 용융 [7])을 사용하여 고체 물체를 형성합니다. 그러나 이러한 방법은 비용 및 복잡성 측면에서 단점이 있습니다. 3D 프린팅 프로세스에 앞서 금속을 밀링해야 합니다.

igure  1:Essential componentsof the MHD printhead (a) cross-sectional  view  of  printhead  showing  flow  of liquid metal.(b) simulation model showing the magneticfield  generated  by  a  pulsed  magnetic  coil  as  well  as an ejecteddroplet of liquid aluminum.
igure 1:Essential componentsof the MHD printhead (a) cross-sectional view of printhead showing flow of liquid metal.(b) simulation model showing the magneticfield generated by a pulsed magnetic coil as well as an ejecteddroplet of liquid aluminum.

이 작업에서 우리는 자기 유체 역학의 원리에 기반한 금속 구조물의 적층 제조에 대한 새로운 접근 방식을 소개합니다. 이 방법에서는 감긴 고체 금속 와이어가 MHD 프린트 헤드의 아세라 미치 팅 챔버에 연속적으로 공급되고 용융되어 그림 1에 표시된 것처럼 모세관 힘을 통해 배출 챔버에 공급되는 액체 금속 저장소를 형성합니다. 코일이 배출 챔버를 둘러싸고 있습니다. 액체 금속 내에서 과도 전기장을 유도하는 과도 자기장을 생성하도록 전기적으로 펄스됩니다. 전기장은 유도 된 순환 전류 밀도를 생성하며, 이는 적용된 자기장과 결합하여 챔버 내에서 오리피스의 액체 금속 방울을 방출하는 역할을하는 로렌츠 힘 밀도 (fMHD)를 생성합니다. 분출 된 액 적은 기질로 이동하여 결합 및 응고되어 확장 된 고체 구조를 형성합니다. 임의의 형태의 3 차원 구조는 입사 액 적의 정확한 패턴 증착을 가능하게하는 움직이는 기판을 사용하여 층별로 인쇄 될 수 있습니다. 이 기술은 Vader Systems (www.vadersystems.com)에서 MagnetoJet이라는 상표명으로 개척하고 상용화했습니다. MagnetoJet 인쇄 공정의 장점은 상대적으로 높은 증착 속도와 낮은 재료 비용으로 임의의 모양의 3D 금속 구조를 인쇄하는 것입니다. 이 작업에서는 MagnetoJet 프로토 타입 프린팅 프로세스에 대해 논의하고 샘플 3D 프린팅 구조를 시연하며 합리적인 설계 및 장치 성능 예측을 가능하게하는 계산 모델을 소개합니다.

Figure 2:Printed     3D structures: (a) ring showing as printed base and processed    upper    portion, and (b) cat
Figure 2:Printed 3D structures: (a) ring showing as printed base and processed upper portion, and (b) cat
Figure 2. Ink fraction contours for mesh 1 through 4 (left to right) at the following four time steps: (a) 6 µs, (b) 12 µs, (c) 18 µs, and (d) 24 µs.

Coupled CFD-Response Surface Method (RSM) Methodology for Optimizing Jettability Operating Conditions

분사성 작동 조건을 최적화하기 위한 결합된 CFD-Response Surface Method(RSM)

Nuno Couto 1, Valter Silva 1,2,* , João Cardoso 2, Leo M. González-Gutiérrez 3 and Antonio Souto-Iglesias 41
INEGI-FEUP, Faculty of Engineering, Porto University, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal;
nunodiniscouto@hotmail.com
2 VALORIZA, Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre, 7300-110 Portalegre, Portugal; jps.cardoso@ipportalegre.pt
3 CEHINAV, DMFPA, ETSIN, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain; leo.gonzalez@upm.es
4 CEHINAV, DACSON, ETSIN, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain;
antonio.souto@upm.es

  • Correspondence: valter.silva@ipportalegre.pt; Tel.: +351-245-301-592

소개

물방울 생성에 대한 이해는 여러 산업 응용 분야에서 매우 중요합니다 [ 1 ]. 잉크젯 프린팅 프로세스는 일반적으로 10 ~ 100 μm [ 1 ] 범위의 독특하고 작은 액적 크기를 특징으로 하며 연속적 또는 충동적 흐름을 사용하여 얻을 수 있습니다 (마지막 방식은 주문형 드롭 (DoD)이라고도 함). 잉크젯).

여러 장점 덕분에 DoD 방법은 산업 환경에서 상당한 수용을 얻고 있습니다 [ 2 ].DoD는 복잡한 프로세스이며 유체 속성, 노즐 형상 및 구동 파형 [ 1 , 3 ]의 세 가지 주요 범주로 분류되는 여러 매개 변수에 따라 달라집니다 .그러나 길이와 시간 척도가 모두 마이크로 오더 [ 4 ] 이기 때문에 실험을하기가 어렵습니다 .

결과적으로 실험 설정은 항상 비용이 많이 들고 복잡하며 CFD (전산 유체 역학)와 같은 고급 수치 접근 방식이 엄격한 요구 사항입니다 [ 5 , 6 ]. VOF (volume-of-fluid) 접근 방식은 액체 분해 및 액적 생성에 대한 다상 공정을 시뮬레이션하기위한 적절한 대안으로 밝혀졌으며 과거 연구에서 그대로 사용되었습니다 [ 7 , 8], 인쇄 프로세스의 맥락에서 전자는 여전히 현재 연구의 주제입니다. 

또한 VOF 체계를 사용하면 단일 운동량 방정식 세트를 해결하고 도메인 전체에 걸쳐 각 유체의 체적 분율을 추적하여 명확하게 정의된 인터페이스로 둘 이상의 혼합 불가능한 유체를 효과적으로 시뮬레이션 할 수 있습니다. Feng [ 9 ]는 VOF 접근 방식을 사용하여 일시적인 유체 인터페이스 변형 및 중단을 효과적으로 추적하는 패키지 FLOW-3D를 사용하여 낙하 배출 중 복잡한 유체 역학 프로세스를 시뮬레이션하는 선구자 작업 중 하나를 수행했습니다.

주요 목표는 볼륨 및 속도와 같은 민감한 변수를 더 잘 이해하면서 장치 개발에서 일반적인 설계 규칙을 구현하는 것이 었습니다. 이러한 종류의 공정과 관련된 주요 질문 중 하나는 안정적인 액적 형성을 위한 작동 범위의 정의입니다.

Fromm [ 10 ]은 Reynolds 수와 Weber 수의 제곱근 비율이 2보다 작으면 안정적인 방울을 생성 할 수 없다는 것을 확인했습니다. 이 무차원 값은 나중에 Z 번호로 알려졌으며 분사 가능성 범위 [ 11 ]를 정의합니다 . 문헌에서 분사 가능성을 위한 Z 간격은 1 ~ 10 [ 12 ], 4 ~ 14 [ 13 ] 또는 0.67 ~ 50 [ 14]을 찾을 수 있습니다. 

이것은 Z 값 만으로는 분사 가능성 조건을 나타낼 수 없음을 분명히 의미합니다. 실제로, 다른 속성을 가진 유체는 다른 인쇄 품질을 나타내면서 동일한 Z 값을 나타낼 수 있습니다. 액적 생성 공정과 해당 분사 성은 주로 전체 공정 품질에 큰 영향을 미치는 매개 변수 세트에 의해 결정됩니다. 

토대 메커니즘을 더 잘 이해하려면 확장 된 작동 조건 및 매개 변수 세트를 고려하여 여러 실험 또는 수치 실행을 수행해야 합니다. DoE (design-of-experiment) 접근 방식과 같은 체계적인 접근 방식이 없으면 이것은 달성하기 매우 어려운 작업이 될 수 있습니다. 최적화 문제를 해결하기 위해 반응 표면 방법을 사용하여 처음으로 체계화된 접근 방식이 개발된 Box and Wilson [ 15 ] 의 선구자 기사 이후 ,이 입증된 방법론은 많은 화학 및 산업 공정[ 16 ] 및 기타 관련 학계에 성공적으로 적용되었습니다.

예를 들어 Silva와 Rouboa [ 17 ]는 직접 메탄올 연료 전지의 출력 밀도에 영향을 미치는 관련 매개 변수를 식별하기 위해 반응 표면 방법론 (RSM)을 사용했습니다. 많은 실제 산업 응용 분야에서 실험 연구는 작동 매개 변수를 조절하기 어렵 기 때문에 제한적이지만 주로 설정을 개발하거나 실험을 실행하는 데 드는 비용이 높기 때문입니다. 

따라서 솔루션은 주요 시스템 응답을 시뮬레이션하고 예측할 수 있는 효과적인 수학적 모델의 개발에 의존합니다. DoE와 같은 최적화 방법론을 수치 모델과 결합하면 비용이 많이 들고 시간이 많이 걸리는 실험을 피하고 다양한 입력 조합을 사용하여 최적의 조건을 얻을 수 있습니다 [ 16 ]. 

실바와 루 보아 [ 18] CFD 프레임 워크 하에서 개발 된 2D Eulerian-Eulerian 바이오 매스 가스화 모델에서 얻은 결과를 RSM과 결합하여 다양한 응용 분야에서 합성 가스를 생성하기 위한 최적의 작동 조건을 찾습니다. 

저자는 입력 요인으로 인한 최상의 응답과 최소한의 변동을 모두 보장하는 작동 조건을 찾을 수 있었습니다. Frawley et al. [ 19 ] CFD 및 DoE 기술 (특히 RSM)을 결합하여 파이프의 팔꿈치에서 고체 입자 침식에 대한 다양한 주요 요인의 영향을 조사하여 침식 예측 모델을 개발할 수 있습니다.우리가 아는 한, DoD 잉크젯 프로세스의 개선 및 더 나은 이해에 적용되는 DoE 접근법 (실험적으로 또는 모든 종류의 수치 모델과 결합)을 구현하는 연구는 없습니다. 선도 기업이 이러한 접근 방식을 적용 할 가능성이 있지만 관련 결과는 민감할 수 있으므로 더 넓은 커뮤니티에서 사용할 수 없습니다. 이 사실은 DoD 잉크젯 공정에서 액적 생성에 대한 여러 매개 변수의 영향을 평가하기 위한 이러한 종류의 연구로서 현재 논문의 영향을 증가 시킬 수 있습니다.

CFD 프레임 워크 내에서 VOF 접근 방식을 사용하여 여러 컴퓨터 실험의 설계를 개발하고 RSM을 분석 도구로 사용했습니다. 충분한 수치 정확도와 수용 가능한 시간 계산 시뮬레이션의 균형을 맞추기 위해 메쉬 수렴 연구가 수행되었습니다. 설계 목적을 위해 점도, 표면 장력, 입구 속도 및 노즐 직경이 입력 요인으로 선택되었습니다. 응답은 break-up 시간과 break-up 길이였습니다.

Figure 1. Schematic of the computational domain
Figure 1. Schematic of the computational domain
Figure 2. Ink fraction contours for mesh 1 through 4 (left to right) at the following four time steps: (a) 6 µs, (b) 12 µs, (c) 18 µs, and (d) 24 µs.
Figure 2. Ink fraction contours for mesh 1 through 4 (left to right) at the following four time steps: (a) 6 µs, (b) 12 µs, (c) 18 µs, and (d) 24 µs.
Figure 3. Comparison between surface tensions at the following four time steps: (a) 6 µs, (b) 12 µs, (c) 18 µs, and (d) 24 µs
Figure 3. Comparison between surface tensions at the following four time steps: (a) 6 µs, (b) 12 µs, (c) 18 µs, and (d) 24 µs
Figure 4. Comparison between viscosity values at the following four time steps: (a) 6 μs, (b) 12 μs, (c) 18 μs, and (d) 24 μs.
Figure 4. Comparison between viscosity values at the following four time steps: (a) 6 μs, (b) 12 μs, (c) 18 μs, and (d) 24 μs.
Figure 5. Comparison between different nozzle diameters at the following four time steps: (a) 6 µs, (b) 12 µs, (c) 18 µs, and (d) 24 µs
Figure 5. Comparison between different nozzle diameters at the following four time steps: (a) 6 µs, (b) 12 µs, (c) 18 µs, and (d) 24 µs
Figure 6. Comparison between different inlet velocities at the following four time steps: (a) 6 µs, (b) 12 µs, (c) 18 µs, and (d) 24 µs
Figure 6. Comparison between different inlet velocities at the following four time steps: (a) 6 µs, (b) 12 µs, (c) 18 µs, and (d) 24 µs
Figure 8. Contour response plots for break-up time as a function of (a) surface tension and viscosity, (b) nozzle diameter and viscosity, (c) inlet velocity and viscosity, (d) nozzle diameter and surface tension, (e) inlet velocity and surface tension, and (f) inlet velocity and nozzle diameter.
Figure 8. Contour response plots for break-up time as a function of (a) surface tension and viscosity, (b) nozzle diameter and viscosity, (c) inlet velocity and viscosity, (d) nozzle diameter and surface tension, (e) inlet velocity and surface tension, and (f) inlet velocity and nozzle diameter.
Figure 12. Break-up length as a function of the We–Ca space (obtained from the 25 runs).
Figure 12. Break-up length as a function of the We–Ca space (obtained from the 25 runs).

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Figure 6: Fluid firing of test model

버블 제트 마이크로 액추에이터에서 기포 성장 및 액체 흐름의 수치 시뮬레이션

Numerical analysis of liquid flow characteristics according to the design parameters of a bubble jet microactuator

마이크로 액추에이터 챔버 및 노즐 내부의 유체 역학의 수치 모델이 제공됩니다. 모델에는 저장소로부터의 잉크 흐름, 기포 형성 및 성장, 노즐을 통한 배출, 리필 프로세스의 역학이 포함됩니다. 고 테이퍼 노즐은 전체 액추에이터 성능 설계에 매우 중요한 매개 변수 중 하나이기 때문에 노즐 두께, 직경 및 테이퍼 각도의 변화에 ​​따른 효과를 시뮬레이션하고 일부 결과를 실험 결과와 비교합니다.

얇고 테이퍼형 노즐을 통한 잉크 방울 배출이 보다 안정적이고 빠르고 견고하다는 것이 확인되었습니다.

키워드: Numerical smulation, Micro actuator; Bubble growth, Drop ejection, Volume of fluid

Figure 1: The commercial thermal micro actuator
Figure 1: The commercial thermal micro actuator
Table 1: Prediction results of the effects of nozzle thickness and diameter change
Table 1: Prediction results of the effects of nozzle thickness and diameter change
Figure 2: Designed polyimide nozzles
Figure 2: Designed polyimide nozzles
Figure 3: SEM photograph of one nozzle
Figure 3: SEM photograph of one nozzle
Figure 5: Geometry of test model
Figure 5: Geometry of test model
Figure 6: Fluid firing of test model
Figure 6: Fluid firing of test model

Conclusions

수치 시뮬레이션은 마이크로 버블 증가 및 낙하 방출 현상의 예측에 성공적으로 적용됩니다. 노즐 두께의 변화 결과와 비교했을 때, 우리는 얇은 노즐이 더 빠른 방울을 만든다는 것을 발견했습니다. 또한 노즐 직경이 증가하면 방울 부피가 증가할 수 있습니다. 이 수치 시뮬레이션에서는 노즐 직경의 20%를 증가시키면 방울 부피는 49.3% 증가하고 노즐 두께의 20%를 감소시키면 방울 속도는 약 8.5% 증가합니다. 노즐 테이퍼 각도 변경의 예측 결과에 따르면, 테이퍼형 노즐이 더 빠른 속도로 거의 동일한 유체량을 보인다는 결론을 내렸습니다. 방울 속도만이 방울 배출의 품질을 향상시킬 수 있는 유일한 요인은 아니지만, 방울이 빠르면 일반적으로 위성이 줄어들고, 물에 젖지 않는 상태가 개선되며, 정렬 효과가 좋아지며, 직선 방출이 가능합니다.

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Pinned contact line resulting in coffee ring deposits (a). Constant contact angle and mixed mode resulting in moderately more uniform deposits (b).

Inkjet Printability of Electronic Materials Important to the Manufactur Manufacture of Fully Printed O ully Printed OTFTs

Sooman Lim
Western Michigan University, sooman.lim@gmail.com

초록

본 연구에서는 OTFT(Printed Organic Thin Film Transistors) 제작에 중요한 재료의 잉크젯 인쇄성이 조사되었습니다. 잉크젯 인쇄 잉크의 분사 진화를 이해하기 위해 나노 구리 및 나노 입자 은 잉크로 시뮬레이션이 수행되었습니다. 나노 구리 잉크의 잉크젯 적합성을 예측하기 위해 온도 차이가 있는 Z와 Oh 수를 측정했습니다. FLOW-3D를 이용한 시뮬레이션 연구의 결과를 Dimatix 잉크젯 프린터를 사용하여 얻은 실험 결과와 비교했습니다.

반도체 잉크의 경우, 두 유기 반도체의 잉크젯 인쇄성 P2TDC17FT4(poly[(3,7-dipdecdecyltheno[3,2-b]theno[2′,3′:4,5]theno[2,3-diopneo] 티오페인-2,6-diopeo[2,6-diotyl)]입니다.HT(poly-3 hexylthiophene)를 비교하여 낙하 속도, 낙하 볼륨 및 점화 전압 간의 관계를 확인하고, 낙하 간격 및 기판 온도가 인쇄 품질에 미치는 영향을 확인했습니다.

이러한 연구를 통해 인쇄 가능성과 인쇄 품질은 잉크젯으로 인쇄된 상단 게이트 OTFT를 완벽하게 구현하기에 충분했습니다. 주변 조건에서 인쇄되는 P2TDC17FT4의 성능은 저비용 완전 인쇄 OTFT의 실현에 중요한 영향을 미칩니다.

후처리 연구로 은색 잉크의 유망한 대체품인 나노 구리 잉크를 IPL(Incensive Pulsed Light)로 소결시키는 것이 연구되었습니다. 잉크 필름 두께와 소결 시 필요한 에너지 사이의 관계가 확인되었습니다. 잉크 필름 두께와 관련하여 유리와 PET에 소결하는데 필요한 에너지 수준을 비교한 결과, 이 잉크의 처리 요구 사항에 대한 기판의 열적 기여도가 밝혀졌습니다. 이 조사 결과는 자재 특성 요구 사항에 대한 현재의 이해와 완전히 잉크젯으로 인쇄된 OTFT를 달성하기 위한 과제를 진전시킵니다.

Schematic design showing the principles of operation of a continuous inkjet (CIJ) printer.
Schematic design showing the principles of operation of a continuous inkjet (CIJ) printer.
Illustration of the piezo movement under an applied voltage.
Illustration of the piezo movement under an applied voltage.
Construction of a traditional piezoelectric squeeze type print head.
Construction of a traditional piezoelectric squeeze type print head.
Pinned contact line resulting in coffee ring deposits (a). Constant contact angle and mixed mode resulting in moderately more uniform deposits (b).
Pinned contact line resulting in coffee ring deposits (a). Constant contact angle and mixed mode resulting in moderately more uniform deposits (b).
Marangoni effect, where Tc is the CT line temperature, Ta is the drop apex temperature,  and a is the drop apex surface tension
Marangoni effect, where Tc is the CT line temperature, Ta is the drop apex temperature, and a is the drop apex surface tension
Comparison of drop evolution and drop ejection pictures droplet obtained experimentally and using CFD software for the nano copper ink
Comparison of drop evolution and drop ejection pictures droplet obtained experimentally and using CFD software for the nano copper ink

Advances in Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Jet Printing

Advances in Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Jet Printing

Scott Vader1, Zachary Vader1, Ioannis H. Karampelas2 and Edward P. Furlani2, 3
1Vader Systems, Buffalo, NY
2Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 3 Dept. of Electrical Engineering,
University at Buffalo SUNY, NY 14260, Office: (716) 645-1194, Fax: (716) 645-3822, efurlani@buffalo.edu

ABSTRACT

자기유체역학적 액체 금속 제트 프린팅

우리는 용해된 금속 방울을 3D 물체로 만드는 새로운 주문형 DOD(Drop-on-Demand) 인쇄 방법을 제안합니다. 이 접근 방식에서는 단단한 금속 와이어가 인쇄 헤드 내에서 용해된 다음 펄스 자기장에 노출됩니다.

적용된 필드가 챔버에 침투하여 액상 금속 내에 자기 유압(MHD) 기반 압력 펄스를 유도하여 금속 일부가 노즐 챔버를 통해 이동된 후 배출됩니다. 표면 장력은 분출된 금속 위에 작용하여 가해진 압력에 따라 초 당 수 미터 범위의 속도로 구형 방울을 형성합니다.

잠시 비행한 후 방울이 기질에 충돌하여 냉각되어 고체 덩어리를 형성합니다. 따라서 패턴이 있는 증착 및 드롭 방식의 고형화를 통해 3D 솔리드 구조를 인쇄할 수 있습니다.

현재 연구에서는 샘플 프린팅 구조와 함께 시제품 MHD 프린팅 시스템 개발에 대한 발전된 점을 제시합니다. 또한 드롭 생성을 관리하는 기본 물리학에 대해 논의하고 장치 성능을 예측하기 위한 새로운 컴퓨팅 모델을 소개합니다.

Computational model of magnetohydrodynamic-based drop generation
Computational model of magnetohydrodynamic-based drop generation (printhead reservoir and ejection chamber
not shown): (a) the magnetic field generated by a pulsed coil is shown

INTRODUCTION

주문형 드롭온 잉크젯 프린팅은 상업 및 소비자 이미지 재현을 위한 잘 확립된 방법입니다. 이 기술을 추진하는 원리와 동일한 원리가 기능 인쇄 및 적층 제조 분야에도 적용될 수 있습니다.

Early stage prototype of a single nozzle printhead
Early stage prototype of a single nozzle printhead

기존의 잉크젯 기술은 폴리머에서 살아있는 세포에 이르는 다양한 재료를 증착하고 패터링하여 다양한 기능성 매체, 조직 및 장치를 프린팅하는 데 사용되어 왔습니다. 현재 진행 중인 작업을 통해 잉크젯 인쇄를 3D 금속 부품으로 확장하려고 시도하고 있습니다.

현재, 대부분의 3D 금속 인쇄 애플리케이션은 고체 물체를 형성하기 위해 레이저(예: 선택적 레이저 소거 [1] 및 직접 금속 소거[2]) 또는 전자 빔(예: 전자 빔 용해 [3])과 같은 외부 유도 에너지원에 의해 소거 또는 녹는 퇴적 금속 분말을 포함합니다.

그러나 이러한 방법은 비용과 복잡성, 즉 3D 프린팅 공정에 앞서 금속을 분쇄해야 한다는 점에서 일정한 단점이 있을 수 있습니다.

이 프레젠테이션에서는 자기 유압 역학 원리를 기반으로 하는 금속 적층 제조의 근본적으로 다른 접근 방식을 제안합니다. 이 방법은 스풀링된 고체 금속 와이어를 인쇄 헤드에 공급하고 노즐에서 업스트림을 예열하여 노즐 챔버에 공급되는 액체 금속 저장소를 형성하는 것입니다. 챔버가 채워지면 액체 금속 내에서 과도 전류를 유도하는 펄스 자기장이 인가됩니다. 유도 전류가 인가된 필드에 결합되어 로렌츠 힘 밀도를 생성하여, 인가된 압력에 따라 속도가 달라지는 용융 금속 방울을 배출하는 작용을 하는 챔버 내의 유사 압력을 제공합니다.

방울은 냉각된 기질에 투영되어 고체 덩어리를 형성합니다. 3D 솔리드 구조를 패터닝으로 인쇄할 수 있습니다. 방울의 침적과 방울의 현명한 응고입니다. 이 유망한 신기술은 낮은 재료 비용, 높은 제조율 및 매력적인 재료 특성 때문에 적층 제조 애플리케이션에 광범위한 영향을 미칠 수 있습니다.

현재 작업에서는 새로운 3D 인쇄 시스템을 도입하고 기기 개발의 진보를 설명하고 샘플 인쇄 구조를 시연합니다. 또한 드롭 생성-배출 메커니즘에 대해 설명하고 인쇄 성능을 예측하기 위한 일련의 새로운 컴퓨팅 모델을 제시합니다.

자세한 내용은 본문을 참고하시기 바랍니다.

Casting Case Study

Casting Case Study

금속 주조물의 결함을 식별하고, 가볍고 튼튼한 주조 부품을 위해 새로운 재료로 부품을 설계하거나, 최적의 설계를 위해 반복적인 설계 작업을 수행하는 것은 고객이 당사의 소프트웨어를 사용하여 작업 요구 사항을 충족하고, 고철 비율을 줄임으로써 조직의 비용을 절감하는 일부 방법입니다.

이를 통해 제품 개발 시간을 단축함으로써 제품의 시장 출시 및 경쟁 우위를 위한 시간 확보가 용이해 집니다.

Customer Case Studies

Increasing Productivity by Reducing Ejection Times
Realizing Da Vinci’s Il Cavallo
Aluminum Integral Foam Molding Process

Additive Manufacturing & Welding Bibliography

Additive Manufacturing & Welding Bibliography

다음은 적층 제조 및 용접 참고 문헌의 기술 문서 모음입니다. 이 모든 논문에는 FLOW-3D AM 결과가 나와 있습니다. FLOW-3D AM을 사용하여 적층 제조, 레이저 용접 및 기타 용접 기술에서 발견되는 프로세스를 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

2024년 3월 20일 update

3-24 Kunjie Dai, Xing He, Decheng Kong, Chaofang Dong, Multi-physical field simulation to yield defect-free IN718 alloy fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, Materials Letters, 355; 135437, 2024. doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2023.135437

2-24 You Wang, Yinkai Xie, Huaixue Li, Caiyou Zeng, Ming Xu, Hongqiang Zhang, In-situ monitoring plume, spattering behavior and revealing their relationship with melt flow in laser powder bed fusion of nickel-based superalloy, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 177; pp. 44-58, 2024. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2023.07.068

1-24 Yukai Chen, Hongtu Xu, Yu Lu, Yin Wang, Shuangyuzhou Wang, Ke Huang, Qi Zhang, Prediction of microstructure for Inconel 718 laser welding process using multi-scale model, Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on the Technology of Plasticity – Current Trends in the Technology of Plasticity, pp. 713-722, 2024. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-41341-4_75

211-23 Giovanni Chianese, Qamar Hayat, Sharhid Jabar, Pasquale Franciosa, Darek Ceglarek, Stanislao Patalano, A multi-physics CFD study to investigate the impact of laser beam shaping on metal mixing and molten pool dynamics during laser welding of copper to steel for battery terminal-to-casing connections, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 322; 118202, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2023.118202

207-23 Dong Liu, Jiaqi Pei, Hua Hou, Xiaofeng Niu, Yuhong Zhao, Optimizing solidification dendrites and process parameters for laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of GH3536 superalloy by finite volume and phase-field method, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 27; pp. 3323-3338, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2023.10.188

206-23 Houshang Yin, Jingfan Yang, Ralf D. Fischer, Zilong Zhang, Bart Prorok, Lang Yuan, Xiaoyuan Lou, Pulsed laser additive manufacturing for 316L stainless steel: a new approach to control subgrain cellular structure, JOM, 75; pp. 5027-5036, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s11837-023-06177-8

205-23 Francis Ogoke, William Lee, Ning-Yu Kao, Alexander Myers, Jack Beuth, Jonathan Malen, Amir Barati Farimani, Convolutional neural networks for melt depth prediction and visualization in laser powder bed fusion, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 129; pp. 3047-3062, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-023-12384-z

202-23 Habib Hamed Zargari, Kazuhiro Ito, Abhay Sharma, Effect of workpiece vibration frequency on heat distribution and material flow in the molten pool in tandem-pulsed gas metal arc welding, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 129; pp. 2507-2522, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-023-12424-8

199-23 Yukai Chen, Yin Wang, Hao Li, Yu Lu, Bin Han, Qi Zhang, Effects of process parameters on the microstructure of Inconel 718 during powder bed fusion based on cellular automata approach, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 18.1; e2251032, 2023. doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2023.2251032

197-23 Qiong Wu, Chuang Qiao, Yuhang Wu, Zhe Liu, Xiaodan Li, Ju Wang, Xizhong An, Aijun Huang, Chao Voon Samuel Lim, Numerical investigation on the reuse of recycled powders in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing, 77; 103821, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2023.103821

196-23 Daicong Zhang, Chunhui Jing, Wei Guo, Yuan Xiao, Jun Luo, Lehua Qi, Microchannels formed using metal microdroplets, Micromachines, 14.10; 1922, 2023. doi.org/10.3390/mi14101922

195-23 Trong-Nhan Le, Santosh Rauniyar, V.H. Nismath, Kevin Chou, An investigation into the effects of contouring process parameters on the up-skin surface characteristics in laser powder-bed fusion process, Manufacturing Letters, 35; Supplement, pp. 707-716, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.mfglet.2023.08.085

194-23 Kyubok Lee, Teresa J. Rinker, Masoud M. Pour, Wayne Cai, Wenkang Huang, Wenda Tan, Jennifer Bracey, Jingjing Li, A study on cracks and IMCs in laser welding of Al and Cu, Manufacturing Letters, 35; Supplement, pp. 221-231, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.mfglet.2023.08.026

192-23 Kunjie Dai, Xing He, Wei Zhang, Decheng Kong, Rong Guo, Minlei Hu, Ketai He, Chaofang Dong, Tailoring the microstructure and mechanical properties for Hastelloy X alloy by laser powder bed fusion via scanning strategy, Materials & Design, 235; 112386, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2023.112386

191-23 Jun Du, Daqing Wang, Jimiao He, Yongheng Zhang, Zhike Peng, Influence of droplet size and ejection frequency on molten pool dynamics and deposition morphology in TIG-aided droplet deposition manufacturing, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 148; 107075, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2023.107075

188-23 Jin-Hyeong Park, Du-Song Kim, Dae-Won Cho, Jaewoong Kim, Changmin Pyo, Influence of thermal flow and predicting phase transformation on various welding positions, Heat and Mass Transfer, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s00231-023-03429-w

184-23 Lin Gao, Jishnu Bhattacharyya, Wenhao Lin, Zhongshu Ren, Andrew C. Chuang, Pavel D. Shevchenko, Viktor Nikitin, Ji Ma, Sean R. Agnew, Tao Sun, Tailoring material microstructure and property in wire-laser directed energy deposition through a wiggle deposition strategy, Additive Manufacturing, 77; 103801, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2023.103801

182-23 Liping Guo, Hanjie Liu, Hongze Wang, Qianglong Wei, Jiahui Zhang, Yingyan Chen, Chu Lun Alex Leung, Qing Lian, Yi Wu, Yu Zou, Haowei Wang, A high-fidelity comprehensive framework for the additive manufacturing printability assessment, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 105; pp. 219-231, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2023.09.041

172-23 Liping Guo, Hanjie Liu, Hongze Wang, Qianglong Wei, Yakai Xiao, Zijue Tang, Yi Wu, Haowei Wang, Identifying the keyhole stability and pore formation mechanisms in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 321; 118153, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2023.118153

171-23 Yuhang Wu, Qiong Wu, Meng Li, Ju Wang, Dengzhi Yao, Hao Luo, Xizhong An, Haitao Fu, Hao Zhang, Xiaohong Yang, Qingchuan Zou, Shujun Li, Haibin Ji, Xing Zhang, Numerical investigation on effects of operating conditions and final dimension predictions in laser powder bed fusion of molybdenum, Additive Manufacturing, 76; 103783, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2023.103783

158-23 K. El Abbaoui, I. Al Korachi, M.T. Mollah, J. Spangenberg, Numerical modelling of planned corner deposition in 3D concrete printing, Archives of Materials Science and Engineering, 121.2; pp. 71-79, 2023. doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0053.8488

156-23 Liping Guo, Hanjie Liu, Hongze Wang, Valentino A.M. Cristino, C.T. Kwok, Qianglong Wei, Zijue Tang, Yi Wu, Haowei Wang, Deepening the scientific understanding of different phenomenology in laser powder bed fusion by an integrated framework, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 216; 124596, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2023.124596

154-23 Zhiyong Li, Xiuli He, Shaoxia Li, Xinfeng Kan, Yanjun Yin, Gang Yu, Sulfur-induced transitions of thermal behavior and flow dynamics in laser powder bed fusion of 316L powders, Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 45; 102072, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.tsep.2023.102072

149-23 Shardul Kamat, Wayne Cai, Teresa J. Rinker, Jennifer Bracey, Liang Xi, Wenda Tan, A novel integrated process-performance model for laser welding of multi-layer battery foils and tabs, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 320; 118121, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2023.118121

148-23 Reza Ghomashchi, Shahrooz Nafisi, Solidification of Al12Si melt pool in laser powder bed fusion, Journal of Materials En gineering and Performance, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s11665-023-08502-3

133-23 Hesam Moghadasi, Md Tusher Mollah, Deepak Marla, Hamid Saffari, Jon Spangenberg, Computational fluid dynamics modeling of top-down digital light processing additive manufacturing, Polymers, 15.11; 2459, 2023. doi.org/10.3390/polym15112459

131-23 Luca Santoro, Raffaella Sesana, Rosario Molica Nardo, Francesca Curà, In line defect detection in steel welding process by means of thermography, Experimental Mechanics in Engineering and Biomechanics – Proceedings ICEM20, 19981, 2023.

128-23 Md Tusher Mollah, Raphaël Comminal, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Berin Šeta, Jon Spangenberg, Computational fluid dynamics modelling and experimental analysis of reinforcement bar integration in 3D concrete printing, Cement and Concrete Research, 173; 107263, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2023.107263

123-23 Arash Samaei, Zhongsheng Sang, Jennifer A. Glerum, Jon-Erik Mogonye, Gregory J. Wagner, Multiphysics modeling of mixing and material transport in additive manufacturing with multicomponent powder beds, Additive Manufacturing, 67; 103481, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2023.103481

122-23 Chu Han, Ping Jiang, Shaoning Geng, Lingyu Guo, Kun Liu, Inhomogeneous microstructure distribution and its formation mechanism in deep penetration laser welding of medium-thick aluminum-lithium alloy plates, Optics & Laser Technology, 167; 109783, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2023.109783

111-23 Alexander J. Myers, Guadalupe Quirarte, Francis Ogoke, Brandon M. Lane, Syed Zia Uddin, Amir Barati Farimani, Jack L. Beuth, Jonathan A. Malen, High-resolution melt pool thermal imaging for metals additive manufacturing using the two-color method with a color camera, Additive Manufacturing, 73; 103663, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2023.103663

107-23 M. Mohsin Raza, Yu-Lung Lo, Hua-Bin Lee, Chang Yu-Tsung, Computational modeling of laser welding for aluminum–copper joints using a circular strategy, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 25; pp. 3350-3364, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2023.06.122

106-23 H.Z. Lu, L.H. Liu, X. Luo, H.W. Ma, W.S. Cai, R. Lupoi, S. Yin, C. Yang, Formation mechanism of heterogeneous microstructures and shape memory effect in NiTi shape memory alloy fabricated via laser powder bed fusion, Materials & Design, 232; 112107, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2023.112107

105-23 Harun Kahya, Hakan Gurun, Gokhan Kucukturk, Experimental and analytical investigation of the re-melting effect in the manufacturing of 316L by direct energy deposition (DED) method, Metals, 13.6; 1144, 2023. doi.org/10.3390/met13061144

100-23 Dongju Chen, Gang Li, Peng Wang, Zhiqiang Zeng, Yuhang Tang, Numerical simulation of melt pool size and flow evolution for laser powder bed fusion of powder grade Ti6Al4V, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 223; 103971, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.finel.2023.103971

97-23 Mahyar Khorasani, Martin Leary, David Downing, Jason Rogers, Amirhossein Ghasemi, Ian Gibson, Simon Brudler, Bernard Rolfe, Milan Brandt, Stuart Bateman, Numerical and experimental investigations on manufacturability of Al–Si–10Mg thin wall structures made by LB-PBF, Thin-Walled Structures, 188; 110814, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2023.110814

95-23 M.S. Serdeczny, Laser welding of dissimilar materials – simulation driven optimization of process parameters, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 1281; 012018, 2023. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/1281/1/012018

90-23 Lin Liu, Tubin Liu, Xi Dong, Min Huang, Fusheng Cao, Mingli Qin, Numerical simulation of thermal dynamic behavior and morphology evolution of the molten pool of selective laser melting BN/316L stainless steel composite, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s11665-023-08210-y

89-23 M. P. Serdeczny, A. Jackman, High fidelity modelling of bead geometry in directed energy deposition – simulation driven optimization, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, NOLAMP19, 2023.

88-23 Lu Wang, Shuhao Wang, Yanming Zhang, Wentao Yan, Multi-phase flow simulation of powder streaming in laser-based directed energy deposition, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 212; 124240, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2023.124240

80-23 Mahyar Khorasani, AmirHossein Ghasemi, Martin Leary, David Downing, Ian Gibson, Elmira G. Sharabian, Jithin Kozuthala Veetil, Milan Brandt, Stuart Batement, Bernard Rolfe, Benchmark models for conduction and keyhole modes in laser-based powder bed fusion of Inconel 718, Optics & Laser Technology, 164; 109509, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2023.109509

78-23   Md. Tusher Mollah, Raphaël Comminal, Marcin P. Serdeczny, Berin Šeta, Jon Spangenberg, Computational analysis of yield stress buildup and stability of deposited layers in material extrusion additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing, 71; 103605, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2023.103605

76-23   Asif Ur Rehman, Kashif Azher, Abid Ullah, Celal Sami Tüfekci, Metin Uymaz Salamci, Binder jetting of SS316L: a computational approach for droplet-powder interaction, Rapid Prototyping Journal, 2023. doi.org/10.1108/RPJ-08-2022-0264

75-23   Dengzhi Yao, Ju Wang, Hao Luo, Yuhang Wu, Xizhong An, Thermal behavior and control during multi-track laser powder bed fusion of 316 L stainless steel, Additive Manufacturing, 70; 103562, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2023.103562

61-23   Yaqing Hou, Hang Su, Hao Zhang, Fafa Li, Xuandong Wang, Yazhou He, Dupeng He, An integrated simulation model towards laser powder bed fusion in-situ alloying technology, Materials & Design, 228; 111795, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2023.111795

56-23   Maohong Yang, Guiyi Wu, Xiangwei Li, Shuyan Zhang, Honghong Wang, Jiankang Huang, Influence of heat source model on the behavior of laser cladding pool, Journal of Laser Applications, 35.2; 2023. doi.org/10.2351/7.0000963

45-23   Daniel Martinez, Philip King, Santosh Reddy Sama, Jay Sim, Hakan Toykoc, Guha Manogharan, Effect of freezing range on reducing casting defects through 3D sand-printed mold designs, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-023-11112-x

39-23   Peter S. Cook, David J. Ritchie, Determining the laser absorptivity of Ti-6Al-4V during laser powder bed fusion by calibrated melt pool simulation, Optics & Laser Technology, 162; 109247. 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2023.109247

36-23   Yixuan Chen, Weihao Wang, Yao Ou, Yingna Wu, Zirong Zhai, Rui Yang, Impact of laser power and scanning velocity on microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 738LC alloys fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, TMS 2023 152nd Annual Meeting & Exhibition Supplemental Proceedings, pp. 138-149, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-22524-6_15

34-23   Chao Kang, Ikki Ikeda, Motoki Sakaguchi, Recoil and solidification of a paraffin droplet impacted on a metal substrate: Numerical study and experimental verification, Journal of Fluids and Structures, 118; 103839, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2023.103839

30-23   Fei Wang, Tiechui Yuan, Ruidi Li, Shiqi Lin, Zhonghao Xie, Lanbo Li, Valentino Cristino, Rong Xu, Bing liu, Comparative study on microstructures and mechanical properties of ultra ductility single-phase Nb40Ti40Ta20 refractory medium entropy alloy by selective laser melting and vacuum arc melting, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 942; 169065, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2023.169065

29-23   Haejin Lee, Yeonghwan Song, Seungkyun Yim, Kenta Aoyagi, Akihiko Chiba, Byoungsoo Lee, Influence of linear energy on side surface roughness in powder bed fusion electron beam melting process: Coupled experimental and simulation study, Powder Technology, 418; 118292, 2023.

27-23   Yinan Chen, Bo Li, Double-phase refractory medium entropy alloy NbMoTi via selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2419; 012074, 2023. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/2419/1/012074

23-23   Yunwei Gui, Kenta Aoyagi, Akihiko Chiba, Development of macro-defect-free PBF-EB-processed Ti–6Al–4V alloys with superior plasticity using PREP-synthesized powder and machine learning-assisted process optimization, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 864; 144595, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2023.144595

21-23   Tatsuhiko Sakai, Yasuhiro Okamoto, Nozomi Taura, Riku Saito, Akira Okada, Effect of scanning speed on molten metal behaviour under angled irradiation with a continuous-wave laser, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 313; 117866, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2023.117866

19-23   Gianna M. Valentino, Arunima Banerjee, Alexander lark, Christopher M. Barr, Seth H. Myers, Ian D. McCue, Influence of laser processing parameters on the density-ductility tradeoff in additively manufactured pure tantalum, Additive Manufacturing Letters, 4; 100117, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.addlet.2022.100117

15-23   Runbo Jiang, Zhongshu Ren, Joseph Aroh, Amir Mostafaei, Benjamin Gould, Tao Sun, Anthony D. Rollett, Quantifying equiaxed vs epitaxial solidification in laser melting of CMSX-4 single crystal superalloy, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 54; pp. 808-822, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s11661-022-06929-2

14-23   Nguyen Thi Tien, Yu-Lung Lo, M. Mohsin Raza, Cheng-Yen Chen, Chi-Pin Chiu, Optimization of processing parameters for pulsed laser welding of dissimilar metal interconnects, Optics & Laser Technology, 159; 109022, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2022.109022

9-23 Hou Yi Chia, Wentao Yan, High-fidelity modeling of metal additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing Technology: Design, Optimization, and Modeling, Ed. Kun Zhou, 2023.

8-23 Akash Aggarwal, Yung C. Shin, Arvind Kumar, Investigation of the transient coupling between the dynamic laser beam absorptance and the melt pool – vapor depression morphology in laser powder bed fusion process, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 201.2; 123663, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2022.123663

199-22 Md. Tusher Mollah, Raphaël Comminal, Marcin P. Serdeczny, David B. Pedersen, Jon Spangenberg, Numerical predictions of bottom layer stability in material extrusion additive manufacturing, JOM, 74; pp. 1096-1101, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s11837-021-05035-9

198-22 Md. Tusher Mollah, Amirpasha Moetazedian, Andy Gleadall, Jiongyi Yan, Wayne Edgar Alphonso, Raphael Comminal, Berin Seta, Tony Lock, Jon Spangenberg, Investigation on corner precision at different corner angles in material extrusion additive manufacturing: An experimental and computational fluid dynamics analysis, Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, 2022.

197-22 Md. Tusher Mollah, Marcin P. Serdeczny, Raphaël Comminal, Berin Šeta, Marco Brander, David B. Pedersen, Jon Spangenberg, A numerical investigation of the inter-layer bond and surface roughness during the yield stress buildup in wet-on-wet material extrusion additive manufacturing, ASPE and euspen Summer Topical Meeting, 77, 2022.

182-22   Chan Kyu Kim, Dae-Won Cho, Seok Kim, Sang Woo Song, Kang Myung Seo, Young Tae Cho, High-throughput metal 3D printing pen enabled by a continuous molten droplet transfer, Advanced Science, 2205085, 2022. doi.org/10.1002/advs.202205085

180-22 Xu Kaikai, Gong Yadong, Zhang Qiang, Numerical simulation of dynamic analysis of molten pool in the process of direct energy deposition, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-022-10271-7

179-22 Yasuhiro Okamoto, Nozomi Taura, Akira Okada, Study on laser drilling process of solid metal on its liquid, International Journal of Electrical Machining, 27; 2022. doi.org/10.2526/ijem.27.35

175-22 Lu Min, Xhi Xiaojie, Lu Peipei, Wu Meiping, Forming quality and wettability of surface texture on CuSn10 fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, AIP Advances, 12.12; 125114, 2022. doi.org/10.1063/5.0122076

174-22 Thinus Van Rhijn, Willie Du Preez, Maina Maringa, Dean Kouprianoff, An investigation into the optimization of the selective laser melting process parameters for Ti6Al4V through numerical modelling, JOM, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s11837-022-05608-2

171-22 Jonathan Yoshioka, Mohsen Eshraghi, Temporal evolution of temperature gradient and solidification rate in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Heat and Mass Transfer, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s00231-022-03318-8

170-22 Subin Shrestha and Kevin Chou, Residual heat effect on the melt pool geometry during the laser powder bed fusion process, Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, 6.6; 153, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/jmmp6060153

169-22 Aryan Aryan, Obinna Chukwubuzo, Desmond Bourgeois, Wei Zhang, Hardness prediction by incorporating heat transfer and molten pool fluid flow in a mult-pass, multi-layer weld for onsite repair of Grade 91 steel, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information, DOE-OSU-0032067, 2022. doi.org/10.2172/1898594

158-22 Dafan Du, Lu Wang, Anping Dong, Wentao Yan, Guoliang Zhu, Baode Sun, Promoting the densification and grain refinement with assistance of static magnetic field in laser powder bed fusion, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 183; 103965, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2022.103965

157-22 Han Chu, Jiang Ping, Geng Shaoning, Liu Kun, Nucleation mechanism in oscillating laser welds of 2024 aluminium alloy: A combined experimental and numerical study, Optics & Laser Technology, 158.A; 108812, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2022.108812

153-22 Zixiang Li, Yinan Cui, Baohua Chang, Guan Liu, Ze Pu, Haoyu Zhang, Zhiyue Liang, Changmeng Liu, Li Wang, Dong Du, Manipulating molten pool in in-situ additive manufacturing of Ti-22Al-25 Nb through alternating dual-electron beams, Additive Manufacturing, 60.A; 103230, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2022.103230

149-22   Qian Chen, Yao Fu, Albert C. To, Multiphysics modeling of particle spattering and induced defect formation mechanism in Inconel 718 laser powder bed fusion, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 123; pp. 783-791, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-022-10201-7

146-22   Zixuan Wan, Hui-ping Wang, Jingjing Li, Baixuan Yang, Joshua Solomon, Blair Carlson, Effect of welding mode on remote laser stitch welding of zinc-coated steel with different sheet thickness combinations, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, MANU-21-1598, 2022. doi.org/10.1115/1.4055792

143-22   Du-Rim Eo, Seong-Gyu Chung, JeongHo Yang, Won Tae Cho, Sun-Hong Park, Jung-Wook Cho, Surface modification of high-Mn steel via laser-DED: Microstructural characterization and hot crack susceptibility of clad layer, Materials & Design, 223; 111188, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2022.111188

142-22   Zichuan Fu, Xiangman Zhou, Bin Luo, Qihua Tian, Numerical simulation study of the effect of weld current on WAAM welding pool dynamic and weld bead morphology, International Conference on Mechanical Design and Simulation, Proceedings, 12261; 122614G, 2022. doi.org/10.1117/12.2639074

132-22   Yiyu Huang, Zhonghao Xie, Wenshu Li, Haoyu Chen, Bin Liu, Bingfeng Wang, Dynamic mechanical properties of the selective laser melting NiCrFeCoMo0.2 high entropy alloy and the microstructure of molten pool, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 927; 167011, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2022.167011

126-22   Jingqi Zhang, Yingang Liu, Gang Sha, Shenbao Jin, Ziyong Hou, Mohamad Bayat, Nan Yang, Qiyang Tan, Yu Yin, Shiyang Liu, Jesper Henri Hattel, Matthew Dargusch, Xiaoxu Huang, Ming-Xing Zhang, Designing against phase and property heterogeneities in additively manufactured titanium alloys, Nature Communications, 13; 4660, 2022. doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32446-2

119-22   Xu Kaikai, Gong Yadong, Zhao Qiang, Numerical simulation on molten pool flow of Inconel718 alloy based on VOF during additive manufacturing, Materials Today Communications, 33; 104147, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.mtcomm.2022.104147

118-22   AmirPouya Hemmasian, Francis Ogoke, Parand Akbari, Jonathan Malen, Jack Beuth, Amir Barati Farimani, Surrogate modeling of melt pool thermal field using deep learning, SSRN, 2022. doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4190835

117-22   Chiara Ransenigo, Marialaura Tocci, Filippo Palo, Paola Ginestra, Elisabetta Ceretti, Marcello Gelfi, Annalisa Pola, Evolution of melt pool and porosity during laser powder bed fusion of Ti6Al4V alloy: Numerical modelling and experimental validation, Lasers in Manufacturing and Materials Processing, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s40516-022-00185-3

112-22   Chris Jasien, Alec Saville, Chandler Gus Becker, Jonah Klemm-Toole, Kamel Fezzaa, Tao Sun, Tresa Pollock, Amy J. Clarke, In situ x-ray radiography and computational modeling to predict grain morphology in β-titanium during simulated additive manufacturing, Metals, 12.7; 1217, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/met12071217

110-22   Haotian Zhou, Haijun Su, Yinuo Guo, Peixin Yang, Yuan Liu, Zhonglin Shen, Di Zhao, Haifang Liu, Taiwen Huang, Min Guo, Jun Zhang, Lin Liu, Hengzhi Fu, Formation and evolution mechanisms of pores in Inconel 718 during selective laser melting: Meso-scale modeling and experimental investigations, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 81; pp. 202-213, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2022.06.072

109-22   Yufan Zhao, Huakang Bian, Hao Wang, Aoyagi Kenta, Yamanaka Kenta, Akihiko Chiba, Non-equilibrium solidification behavior associated with powder characteristics during electron beam additive manufacturing, Materials & Design, 221; 110915, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2022.110915

107-22   Dan Lönn, David Spångberg, Study of process parameters in laser beam welding of copper hairpins, Thesis, University of Skövde, 2022.

106-22   Liping Guo, Hongze Wang, Qianglong Wei, Hanjie Liu, An Wang, Yi Wu, Haowei Wang, A comprehensive model to quantify the effects of additional nano-particles on the printability in laser powder bed fusion of aluminum alloy and composite, Additive Manufacturing, 58; 103011, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2022.103011

104-22   Hongjiang Pan, Thomas Dahmen, Mohamad Bayat, Kang Lin, Xiaodan Zhang, Independent effects of laser power and scanning speed on IN718’s precipitation and mechanical properties produced by LBPF plus heat treatment, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 849; 143530, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2022.143530

101-22   Yufan Zhao, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka, Akihiko Chiba, A survey on basic influencing factors of solidified grain morphology during electron beam melting, Materials & Design, 221; 110927, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2022.110927

98-22   Jon Spangenberg, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Md. Tusher Mollah, Raphaël Comminal, Thomas Juul Andersen, Henrik Stang, Integrating reinforcement with 3D concrete printing: Experiments and numerical modelling, Third RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication, Eds. Ana Blanco, Peter Kinnell, Richard Buswell, Sergio Cavalaro, pp. 379-384, 2022.

93-22   Minglei Qu, Qilin Guo, Luis I. Escano, Samuel J. Clark Kamel Fezzaa, Lianyi Chen, Mitigating keyhole pore formation by nanoparticles during laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing Letters, 100068, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.addlet.2022.100068

86-22   Patiparn Ninpetch, Prasert Chalermkarnnon, Pruet Kowitwarangkul, Multiphysics simulation of thermal-fluid behavior in laser powder bed fusion of H13 steel: Influence of layer thickness and energy input, Metals and Materials International, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s12540-022-01239-z

85-22   Merve Biyikli, Taner Karagoz, Metin Calli, Talha Muslim, A. Alper Ozalp, Ali Bayram, Single track geometry prediction of laser metal deposited 316L-Si via multi-physics modelling and regression analysis with experimental validation, Metals and Materials International, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s12540-022-01243-3

76-22   Zhichao Yang, Shuhao Wang, Lida Zhu, Jinsheng Ning, Bo Xin, Yichao Dun, Wentao Yan, Manipulating molten pool dynamics during metal 3D printing by ultrasound, Applied Physics Reviews, 9; 021416, 2022. doi.org/10.1063/5.0082461

73-22   Yu Sun, Liqun Li, Yu Hao, Sanbao Lin, Xinhua Tang, Fenggui Lu, Numerical modeling on formation of periodic chain-like pores in high power laser welding of thick steel plate, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 306; 117638, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2022.117638

67-22   Yu Hao, Hiu-Ping Wang, Yu Sun, Liqun Li, Yihan Wu, Fenggui Lu, The evaporation behavior of zince and its effect on spattering in laser overlap welding of galvanized steels, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 306; 117625, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2022.117625

65-22   Yanhua Zhao, Chuanbin Du, Peifu Wang, Wei Meng, Changming Li, The mechanism of in-situ laser polishing and its effect on the surface quality of nickel-based alloy fabricated by selective laser melting, Metals, 12.5; 778, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/met12050778

58-22   W.E. Alphonso, M. Bayat, M. Baier, S. Carmignato, J.H. Hattel, Multi-physics numerical modelling of 316L Austenitic stainless steel in laser powder bed fusion process at meso-scale, 17th UK Heat Transfer Conference (UKHTC2021), Manchester, UK, April 4-6, 2022.

57-22   Brandon Hayes, Travis Hainsworth, Robert MacCurdy, Liquid-solid co-printing of multi-material 3D fluidic devices via material jetting, Additive Manufacturing, in press, 102785, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2022.102785

55-22   Xiang Wang, Lin-Jie Zhang, Jie Ning, Suck-joo Na, Fluid thermodynamic simulation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in laser wire deposition, 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing, 2022. doi.org/10.1089/3dp.2021.0159

54-22   Junhao Zhao, Binbin Wang, Tong Liu, Liangshu Luo, Yanan Wang, Xiaonan Zheng, Liang Wang, Yanqing Su, Jingjie Guo, Hengzhi Fu, Dayong Chen, Study of in situ formed quasicrystals in Al-Mn based alloys fabricated by SLM, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 909; 164847, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2022.164847

48-22   Yueming Sun, Jianxing Ma, Fei Peng, Konstantin G. Kornev, Making droplets from highly viscous liquids by pushing a wire through a tube, Physics of Fluids, 34; 032119, 2022. doi.org/10.1063/5.0082003

46-22   H.Z. Lu, T. Chen, H. Liu, H. Wang, X. Luo, C.H. Song, Constructing function domains in NiTi shape memory alloys by additive manufacturing, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 17.3; 2022. doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2022.2053821

42-22   Islam Hassan, P. Ravi Selvaganapathy, Microfluidic printheads for highly switchable multimaterial 3D printing of soft materials, Advanced Materials Technologies, 2101709, 2022. doi.org/10.1002/admt.202101709

41-22   Nan Yang, Youping Gong, Honghao Chen, Wenxin Li, Chuanping Zhou, Rougang Zhou, Huifeng Shao, Personalized artificial tibia bone structure design and processing based on laser powder bed fusion, Machines, 10.3; 205, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/machines10030205

31-22   Bo Shen, Raghav Gnanasambandam, Rongxuan Wang, Zhenyu (James) Kong, Multi-Task Gaussian process upper confidence bound for hyperparameter tuning and its application for simulation studies of additive manufacturing, IISE Transactions, 2022. doi.org/10.1080/24725854.2022.2039813

27-22   Lida Zhu, Shuhao Wang, Hao Lu, Dongxing Qi, Dan Wang, Zhichao Yang, Investigation on synergism between additive and subtractive manufacturing for curved thin-walled structure, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 17.2; 2022. doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2022.2029009

24-22   Hoon Sohn, Peipei Liu, Hansol Yoon, Kiyoon Yi, Liu Yang, Sangjun Kim, Real-time porosity reduction during metal directed energy deposition using a pulse laser, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 116; pp. 214-223. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2021.12.013

18-22   Yaohong Xiao, Zixuan Wan, Pengwei Liu, Zhuo Wang, Jingjing Li, Lei Chen, Quantitative simulations of grain nucleation and growth at additively manufactured bimetallic interfaces of SS316L and IN625, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 302; 117506, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2022.117506

06-22   Amal Charles, Mohamad Bayat, Ahmed Elkaseer, Lore Thijs, Jesper Henri Hattel, Steffen Scholz, Elucidation of dross formation in laser powder bed fusion at down-facing surfaces: Phenomenon-oriented multiphysics simulation and experimental validation, Additive Manufacturing, 50; 102551, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102551

05-22   Feilong Ji, Xunpeng Qin, Zeqi Hu, Xiaochen Xiong, Mao Ni, Mengwu Wu, Influence of ultrasonic vibration on molten pool behavior and deposition layer forming morphology for wire and arc additive manufacturing, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 130; 105789, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2021.105789

150-21   Daniel Knüttel, Stefano Baraldo, Anna Valente, Konrad Wegener, Emanuele Carpanzano, Model based learning for efficient modelling of heat transfer dynamics, Procedia CIRP, 102; pp. 252-257, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2021.09.043

149-21   T. van Rhijn, W. du Preez, M. Maringa, D. Kouprianoff, Towards predicting process parameters for selective laser melting of titanium alloys through the modelling of melt pool characteristics, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Natuurwetenskap en Tegnologie, 40.1; 2021. 

148-21   Qian Chen, Multiscale process modeling of residual deformation and defect formation for laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA USA, 2021. 

147-21   Pareekshith Allu, Developing process parameters through CFD simulations, Lasers in Manufacturing Conference, 2021.

143-21   Asif Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif Mahmood, Fatih Pitir, Metin Uymaz Salamci, Andrei C. Popescu, Ion N. Mihailescu, Spatter formation and splashing induced defects in laser-based powder bed fusion of AlSi10Mg alloy: A novel hydrodynamics modelling with empirical testing, Metals, 11.12; 2023, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/met11122023

142-21   Islam Hassan, Ponnambalam Ravi Selvaganapathy, A microfluidic printhead with integrated hybrid mixing by sequential injection for multimaterial 3D printing, Additive Manufacturing, 102559, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102559

137-21   Ting-Yu Cheng, Ying-Chih Liao, Enhancing drop mixing in powder bed by alternative particle arrangements with contradictory hydrophilicity, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 104160, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2021.104160

134-21   Asif Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif Mahmood, Fatih Pitir, Metin Uymaz Salamci, Andrei C. Popescu, Ion N. Mihailescu, Keyhole formation by laser drilling in laser powder bed fusion of Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy: Mesoscopic computational fluid dynamics simulation versus mathematical modelling using empirical validation, Nanomaterials, 11.2; 3284, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/nano11123284

128-21   Sang-Woo Han, Won-Ik Cho, Lin-Jie Zhang, Suck-Joo Na, Coupled simulation of thermal-metallurgical-mechanical behavior in laser keyhole welding of AH36 steel, Materials & Design, 212; 110275, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2021.110275

127-21   Jiankang Huang, Zhuoxuan Li, Shurong Yu, Xiaoquan Yu, Ding Fan, Real-time observation and numerical simulation of the molten pool flow and mass transfer behavior during wire arc additive manufacturing, Welding in the World, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s40194-021-01214-z

123-21   Boxue Song, Tianbiao Yu, Xingyu Jiang, Wenchao Xi, Xiaoli Lin, Zhelun Ma, ZhaoWang, Development of the molten pool and solidification characterization in single bead multilayer direct energy deposition, Additive Manufacturing, 102479, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102479

112-21   Kathryn Small, Ian D. McCue, Katrina Johnston, Ian Donaldson, Mitra L. Taheri, Precision modification of microstructure and properties through laser engraving, JOM, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s11837-021-04959-6

111-21   Yongki Lee, Jason Cheon, Byung-Kwon Min, Cheolhee Kim, Modelling of fume particle behaviour and coupling glass contamination during vacuum laser beam welding, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 2021. doi.org/10.1080/13621718.2021.1990658

110-21   Menglin Liu, Hao Yi, Huajun Cao, Rufeng Huang, Le Jia, Heat accumulation effect in metal droplet-based 3D printing: Evolution mechanism and elimination strategy, Additive Manufacturing, 48.A; 102413, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102413

108-21   Nozomi Taura, Akiya Mitsunobu, Tatsuhiko Sakai, Yasuhiro Okamoto, Akira Okada, Formation and its mechanism of high-speed micro-grooving on metal surface by angled CW laser irradiation, Journal of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering, 16.2, 2021. doi.org/10.2961/jlmn.2021.02.2006

105-21   Jon Spangenberg, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Raphaël Comminal, Md. Tusher Mollah, Thomas Juul Andersen, Henrik Stang, Numerical simulation of multi-layer 3D concrete printing, RILEM Technical Letters, 6; pp. 119-123, 2021. doi.org/10.21809/rilemtechlett.2021.142

104-21   Lin Chen, Chunming Wang, Gaoyang Mi, Xiong Zhang, Effects of laser oscillating frequency on energy distribution, molten pool morphology and grain structure of AA6061/AA5182 aluminum alloys lap welding, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 15; pp. 3133-3148, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2021.09.141

101-21   R.J.M. Wolfs, T.A.M. Salet, N. Roussel, Filament geometry control in extrusion-based additive manufacturing of concrete: The good, the bad and the ugly, Cement and Concrete Research, 150; 106615, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2021.106615

89-21   Wenlin Ye, Jin Bao, Jie Lei, Yichang Huang, Zhihao Li, Peisheng Li, Ying Zhang, Multiphysics modeling of thermal behavior of commercial pure titanium powder during selective laser melting, Metals and Materials International, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s12540-021-01019-1

81-21   Lin Chen, Gaoyang Mi, Xiong Zhang, Chunming Wang, Effects of sinusoidal oscillating laser beam on weld formation, melt flow and grain structure during aluminum alloys lap welding, Journals of Materials Processing Technology, 298; 117314, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2021.117314

77-21   Yujie Cui, Yufan Zhao, Haruko Numata, Kenta Yamanaka, Huakang Bian, Kenta Aoyagi, Akihiko Chiba, Effects of process parameters and cooling gas on powder formation during the plasma rotating electrode process, Powder Technology, 393; pp. 301-311, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2021.07.062

76-21   Md Tusher Mollah, Raphaël Comminal, Marcin P. Serdeczny, David B. Pedersen, Jon Spangenberg, Stability and deformations of deposited layers in material extrusion additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing, 46; 102193, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102193

72-21   S. Sabooni, A. Chabok, S.C. Feng, H. Blaauw, T.C. Pijper, H.J. Yang, Y.T. Pei, Laser powder bed fusion of 17–4 PH stainless steel: A comparative study on the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties, Additive Manufacturing, 46; 102176, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102176

71-21   Yu Hao, Nannan Chena, Hui-Ping Wang, Blair E. Carlson, Fenggui Lu, Effect of zinc vapor forces on spattering in partial penetration laser welding of zinc-coated steels, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 298; 117282, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2021.117282

67-21   Lu Wang, Wentao Yan, Thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic model for laser-based metal additive manufacturing, Physical Review Applied, 15.6; 064051, 2021. doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.15.064051

61-21   Ian D. McCue, Gianna M. Valentino, Douglas B. Trigg, Andrew M. Lennon, Chuck E. Hebert, Drew P. Seker, Salahudin M. Nimer, James P. Mastrandrea, Morgana M. Trexler, Steven M. Storck, Controlled shape-morphing metallic components for deployable structures, Materials & Design, 208; 109935, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2021.109935

60-21   Mahyar Khorasani, AmirHossein Ghasemi, Martin Leary, William O’Neil, Ian Gibson, Laura Cordova, Bernard Rolfe, Numerical and analytical investigation on meltpool temperature of laser-based powder bed fusion of IN718, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 177; 121477, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2021.121477

57-21   Dae-Won Cho, Yeong-Do Park, Muralimohan Cheepu, Numerical simulation of slag movement from Marangoni flow for GMAW with computational fluid dynamics, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 125; 105243, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2021.105243

55-21   Won-Sang Shin, Dae-Won Cho, Donghyuck Jung, Heeshin Kang, Jeng O Kim, Yoon-Jun Kim, Changkyoo Park, Investigation on laser welding of Al ribbon to Cu sheet: Weldability, microstructure and mechanical and electrical properties, Metals, 11.5; 831, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/met11050831

50-21   Mohamad Bayat, Venkata K. Nadimpalli, Francesco G. Biondani, Sina Jafarzadeh, Jesper Thorborg, Niels S. Tiedje, Giuliano Bissacco, David B. Pedersen, Jesper H. Hattel, On the role of the powder stream on the heat and fluid flow conditions during directed energy deposition of maraging steel—Multiphysics modeling and experimental validation, Additive Manufacturing, 43;102021, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102021

47-21   Subin Shrestha, Kevin Chou, An investigation into melting modes in selective laser melting of Inconel 625 powder: single track geometry and porosity, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-021-07105-3

34-21   Haokun Sun, Xin Chu, Cheng Luo, Haoxiu Chen, Zhiying Liu, Yansong Zhang, Yu Zou, Selective laser melting for joining dissimilar materials: Investigations ofiInterfacial characteristics and in situ alloying, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 52; pp. 1540-1550, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s11661-021-06178-9

32-21   Shanshan Zhang, Subin Shrestha, Kevin Chou, On mesoscopic surface formation in metal laser powder-bed fusion process, Supplimental Proceedings, TMS 150th Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Virtual), pp. 149-161, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-65261-6_14

22-21   Patiparn Ninpetch, Pruet Kowitwarangkul, Sitthipong Mahathanabodee, Prasert Chalermkarnnon, Phadungsak Rattanadecho, Computational investigation of thermal behavior and molten metal flow with moving laser heat source for selective laser melting process, Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 24; 100860, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2021.100860

19-21   M.B. Abrami, C. Ransenigo, M. Tocci, A. Pola, M. Obeidi, D. Brabazon, Numerical simulation of laser powder bed fusion processes, La Metallurgia Italiana, February; pp. 81-89, 2021.

16-21   Wenjun Ge, Jerry Y.H. Fuh, Suck Joo Na, Numerical modelling of keyhole formation in selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 62; pp. 646-654, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2021.01.005

11-21   Mohamad Bayat, Venkata K. Nadimpalli, David B. Pedersen, Jesper H. Hattel, A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 166; 120766, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.120766

10-21   Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka, Akihiko Chiba, Thermal properties of powder beds in energy absorption and heat transfer during additive manufacturing with electron beam, Powder Technology, 381; pp. 44-54, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2020.11.082

9-21   Subin Shrestha, Kevin Chou, A study of transient and steady-state regions from single-track deposition in laser powder bed fusion, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 61; pp. 226-235, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2020.11.023

6-21   Qian Chen, Yunhao Zhao, Seth Strayer, Yufan Zhao, Kenta Aoyagi, Yuichiro Koizumi, Akihiko Chiba, Wei Xiong, Albert C. To, Elucidating the effect of preheating temperature on melt pool morphology variation in Inconel 718 laser powder bed fusion via simulation and experiment, Additive Manufacturing, 37; 101642, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101642

04-21   Won-Ik Cho, Peer Woizeschke, Analysis of molten pool dynamics in laser welding with beam oscillation and filler wire feeding, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 164; 120623, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.120623

128-20   Mahmood Al Bashir, Rajeev Nair, Martina M. Sanchez, Anil Mahapatro, Improving fluid retention properties of 316L stainless steel using nanosecond pulsed laser surface texturing, Journal of Laser Applications, 32.4, 2020. doi.org/10.2351/7.0000199

127-20   Eric Riedel, Niklas Bergedieck, Stefan Scharf, CFD simulation based investigation of cavitation cynamics during high intensity ultrasonic treatment of A356, Metals, 10.11; 1529, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10111529

126-20   Benjamin Himmel, Material jetting of aluminium: Analysis of a novel additive manufacturing process, Thesis, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany, 2020. 

121-20   Yufan Zhao, Yujie Cui, Haruko Numata, Huakang Bian, Kimio Wako, Kenta Yamanaka, Kenta Aoyagi, Akihiko Chiba, Centrifugal granulation behavior in metallic powder fabrication by plasma rotating electrode process, Scientific Reports, 10; 18446, 2020. doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75503-w

116-20   Raphael Comminal, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Thomas Juul Andersen, Henrik Stang, Jon Spangenberg, Modelling of 3D concrete printing based on computational fluid dynamics, Cement and Concrete Research, 138; 106256, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2020.106256

112-20   Peng Liu, Lijin Huan, Yu Gan, Yuyu Lei, Effect of plate thickness on weld pool dynamics and keyhole-induced porosity formation in laser welding of Al alloy, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 111; pp. 735-747, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-05818-5

108-20   Fan Chen, Wentao Yan, High-fidelity modelling of thermal stress for additive manufacturing by linking thermal-fluid and mechanical models, Materials & Design, 196; 109185, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2020.109185

104-20   Yunfu Tian, Lijun Yang, Dejin Zhao, Yiming Huang, Jiajing Pan, Numerical analysis of powder bed generation and single track forming for selective laser melting of SS316L stainless steel, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 58; pp. 964-974, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2020.09.002

100-20   Raphaël Comminal, Sina Jafarzadeh, Marcin Serdeczny, Jon Spangenberg, Estimations of interlayer contacts in extrusion additive manufacturing using a CFD model, International Conference on Additive Manufacturing in Products and Applications (AMPA), Zurich, Switzerland, September 1-3: Industrializing Additive Manufacturing, pp. 241-250, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-54334-1_17

97-20   Paree Allu, CFD simulation for metal Additive Manufacturing: Applications in laser- and sinter-based processes, Metal AM, 6.4; pp. 151-158, 2020.

95-20   Yufan Zhao, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka, Akihiko Chiba, Role of operating and environmental conditions in determining molten pool dynamics during electron beam melting and selective laser melting, Additive Manufacturing, 36; 101559, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101559

94-20   Yan Zeng, David Himmler, Peter Randelzhofer, Carolin Körner, Processing of in situ Al3Ti/Al composites by advanced high shear technology: influence of mixing speed, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 110; pp. 1589-1599, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-05956-w

93-20   H. Hamed Zargari, K. Ito, M. Kumar, A. Sharma, Visualizing the vibration effect on the tandem-pulsed gas metal arc welding in the presence of surface tension active elements, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 161; 120310, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.120310

90-20   Guangxi Zhao, Jun Du, Zhengying Wei, Siyuan Xu, Ruwei Geng, Numerical analysis of aluminum alloy fused coating process, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Science and Engineering, 42; 483, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s40430-020-02569-y

85-20   Wenkang Huang, Hongliang Wang, Teresa Rinker, Wenda Tan, Investigation of metal mixing in laser keyhold welding of dissimilar metals, Materials & Design, 195; 109056, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2020.109056

82-20   Pan Lu, Zhang Cheng-Lin, Wang Liang, Liu Tong, Liu Jiang-lin, Molten pool structure, temperature and velocity flow in selective laser melting AlCu5MnCdVA alloy, Materials Research Express, 7; 086516, 2020. doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/abadcf

80-20   Yujie Cui, Yufan Zhao, Haruko Numata, Huakang Bian, Kimio Wako, Kento Yamanaka, Kenta Aoyagi, Chen Zhang, Akihiko Chiba, Effects of plasma rotating electrode process parameters on the particle size distribution and microstructure of Ti-6Al-4 V alloy powder, Powder Technology, 376; pp. 363-372, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2020.08.027

78-20   F.Q. Liu, L. Wei, S.Q. Shi, H.L. Wei, On the varieties of build features during multi-layer laser directed energy deposition, Additive Manufacturing, 36; 101491, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101491

75-20   Nannan Chen, Zixuan Wan, Hui-Ping Wang, Jingjing Li, Joshua Solomon, Blair E. Carlson, Effect of Al single bond Si coating on laser spot welding of press hardened steel and process improvement with annular stirring, Materials & Design, 195; 108986, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2020.108986

72-20   Yujie Cui, Kenta Aoyagi, Yufan Zhao, Kenta Yamanaka, Yuichiro Hayasaka, Yuichiro Koizumi, Tadashi Fujieda, Akihiko Chiba, Manufacturing of a nanosized TiB strengthened Ti-based alloy via electron beam powder bed fusion, Additive Manufacturing, 36; 101472, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101472

64-20   Dong-Rong Liu, Shuhao Wang, Wentao Yan, Grain structure evolution in transition-mode melting in direct energy deposition, Materials & Design, 194; 108919, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2020.108919

61-20   Raphael Comminal, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Thomas Juul Andersen, Henrik Stang, Jon Spangenberg, Influence of processing parameters on the layer geometry in 3D concrete printing: Experiments and modelling, 2nd RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication, RILEM Bookseries, 28; pp. 852-862, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-49916-7_83

60-20   Marcin P. Serdeczny, Raphaël Comminal, Md. Tusher Mollah, David B. Pedersen, Jon Spangenberg, Numerical modeling of the polymer flow through the hot-end in filament-based material extrusion additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing, 36; 101454, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101454

58-20   H.L. Wei, T. Mukherjee, W. Zhang, J.S. Zuback, G.L. Knapp, A. De, T. DebRoy, Mechanistic models for additive manufacturing of metallic components, Progress in Materials Science, 116; 100703, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2020.100703

55-20   Masoud Mohammadpour, Experimental study and numerical simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow in laser welded and brazed joints, Thesis, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, US; Available in Mechanical Engineering Research Theses and Dissertations, 24, 2020.

48-20   Masoud Mohammadpour, Baixuan Yang, Hui-Ping Wang, John Forrest, Michael Poss, Blair Carlson, Radovan Kovacevica, Influence of laser beam inclination angle on galvanized steel laser braze quality, Optics and Laser Technology, 129; 106303, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2020.106303

34-20   Binqi Liu, Gang Fang, Liping Lei, Wei Liu, A new ray tracing heat source model for mesoscale CFD simulation of selective laser melting (SLM), Applied Mathematical Modeling, 79; pp. 506-520, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2019.10.049

27-20   Xuesong Gao, Guilherme Abreu Farira, Wei Zhang and Kevin Wheeler, Numerical analysis of non-spherical particle effect on molten pool dynamics in laser-powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Computational Materials Science, 179, art. no. 109648, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2020.109648

26-20   Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka and Akihiko Chiba, Isothermal γ → ε phase transformation behavior in a Co-Cr-Mo alloy depending on thermal history during electron beam powder-bed additive manufacturing, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 50, pp. 162-170, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2019.11.040

21-20   Won-Ik Cho and Peer Woizeschke, Analysis of molten pool behavior with buttonhole formation in laser keyhole welding of sheet metal, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 152, art. no. 119528, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.119528

06-20  Wei Xing, Di Ouyang, Zhen Chen and Lin Liu, Effect of energy density on defect evolution in 3D printed Zr-based metallic glasses by selective laser melting, Science China Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 63, art. no. 226111, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s11433-019-1485-8

04-20   Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch and Guha Manogharan, Novel sprue designs in metal casting via 3D sand-printing, Additive Manufacturing, 25, pp. 563-578, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.009

02-20   Dongsheng Wu, Shinichi Tashiro, Ziang Wu, Kazufumi Nomura, Xueming Hua, and Manabu Tanaka, Analysis of heat transfer and material flow in hybrid KPAW-GMAW process based on the novel three dimensional CFD simulation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 147, art. no. 118921, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.118921

01-20   Xiang Huang, Siying Lin, Zhenxiang Bu, Xiaolong Lin, Weijin Yi, Zhihong Lin, Peiqin Xie, and Lingyun Wang, Research on nozzle and needle combination for high frequency piezostack-driven dispenser, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 96, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2019.102453

88-19   Bo Cheng and Charles Tuffile, Numerical study of porosity formation with implementation of laser multiple reflection in selective laser melting, Proceedings Volume 1: Additive Manufacturing; Manufacturing Equipment and Systems; Bio and Sustainable Manufacturing, ASME 2019 14th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, Erie, Pennsylvania, USA, June 10-14, 2019. doi.org/10.1115/MSEC2019-2891

87-19   Shuhao Wang, Lida Zhu, Jerry Ying His Fuh, Haiquan Zhang, and Wentao Yan, Multi-physics modeling and Gaussian process regression analysis of cladding track geometry for direct energy deposition, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 127:105950, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2019.105950

78-19   Bo Cheng, Lukas Loeber, Hannes Willeck, Udo Hartel, and Charles Tuffile, Computational investigation of melt pool process dynamics and pore formation in laser powder bed fusion, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 28:11, 6565-6578, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s11665-019-04435-y

77-19   David Souders, Pareekshith Allu, Anurag Chandorkar, and Ruendy Castillo, Application of computational fluid dynamics in developing process parameters for additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing Journal, 9th International Conference on 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing Technologies (AM 2019), Bangalore, India, September 7-9, 2019.

75-19   Raphaël Comminal, Marcin Piotr Serdeczny, Navid Ranjbar, Mehdi Mehrali, David Bue Pedersen, Henrik Stang, Jon Spangenberg, Modelling of material deposition in big area additive manufacturing and 3D concrete printing, Proceedings, Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing, Nantes, France, September 16-18, 2019.

73-19   Baohua Chang, Zhang Yuan, Hao Cheng, Haigang Li, Dong Du 1, and Jiguo Shan, A study on the influences of welding position on the keyhole and molten pool behavior in laser welding of a titanium alloy, Metals, 9:1082, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/met9101082

57-19     Shengjie Deng, Hui-Ping Wang, Fenggui Lu, Joshua Solomon, and Blair E. Carlson, Investigation of spatter occurrence in remote laser spiral welding of zinc-coated steels, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 140, pp. 269-280, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.06.009

53-19     Mohamad Bayat, Aditi Thanki, Sankhya Mohanty, Ann Witvrouw, Shoufeng Yang, Jesper Thorborg, Niels Skat Tieldje, and Jesper Henri Hattel, Keyhole-induced porosities in Laser-based Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) of Ti6Al4V: High-fidelity modelling and experimental validation, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 30, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2019.100835

51-19     P. Ninpetch, P. Kowitwarangkul, S. Mahathanabodee, R. Tongsri, and P. Ratanadecho, Thermal and melting track simulations of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF), International Conference on Materials Research and Innovation (ICMARI), Bangkok, Thailand, December 17-21, 2018. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 526, 2019. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/526/1/012030

46-19     Hongze Wang and Yu Zou, Microscale interaction between laser and metal powder in powder-bed additive manufacturing: Conduction mode versus keyhole mode, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 142, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.118473

45-19     Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka, and Akihiko Chiba, Manipulating local heat accumulation towards controlled quality and microstructure of a Co-Cr-Mo alloy in powder bed fusion with electron beam, Materials Letters, Vol. 254, pp. 269-272, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2019.07.078

44-19     Guoxiang Xu, Lin Li, Houxiao Wang, Pengfei Li, Qinghu Guo, Qingxian Hu, and Baoshuai Du, Simulation and experimental studies of keyhole induced porosity in laser-MIG hybrid fillet welding of aluminum alloy in the horizontal position, Optics & Laser Technology, Vol. 119, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2019.105667

38-19     Subin Shrestha and Y. Kevin Chou, A numerical study on the keyhole formation during laser powder bed fusion process, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 141, No. 10, 2019. doi.org/10.1115/1.4044100

34-19     Dae-Won Cho, Jin-Hyeong Park, and Hyeong-Soon Moon, A study on molten pool behavior in the one pulse one drop GMAW process using computational fluid dynamics, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 139, pp. 848-859, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.05.038

30-19     Mohamad Bayat, Sankhya Mohanty, and Jesper Henri Hattel, Multiphysics modelling of lack-of-fusion voids formation and evolution in IN718 made by multi-track/multi-layer L-PBF, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 139, pp. 95-114, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.05.003

29-19     Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Daixiu Wei, Kenta Yamanaka, and Akihiko Chiba, Comprehensive study on mechanisms for grain morphology evolution and texture development in powder bed fusion with electron beam of Co–Cr–Mo alloy, Materialia, Vol. 6, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.mtla.2019.100346

28-19     Pareekshith Allu, Computational fluid dynamics modeling in additive manufacturing processes, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) 148th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, March 10-14, 2019.

24-19     Simulation Software: Use, Advantages & Limitations, The Additive Manufacturing and Welding Magazine, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2019

22-19     Hunchul Jeong, Kyungbae Park, Sungjin Baek, and Jungho Cho, Thermal efficiency decision of variable polarity aluminum arc welding through molten pool analysis, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 138, pp. 729-737, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.04.089

07-19   Guangxi Zhao, Jun Du, Zhengying Wei, Ruwei Geng and Siyuan Xu, Numerical analysis of arc driving forces and temperature distribution in pulsed TIG welding, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 41, No. 60, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s40430-018-1563-0

04-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch and Guha Manogharan, Novel sprue designs in metal casting via 3D sand-printing, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 25, pp. 563-578, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.009

03-19   Dongsheng Wu, Anh Van Nguyen, Shinichi Tashiro, Xueming Hua and Manabu Tanaka, Elucidation of the weld pool convection and keyhole formation mechanism in the keyhold plasma arc welding, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 131, pp. 920-931, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.11.108

97-18   Wentao Yan, Ya Qian, Wenjun Ge, Stephen Lin, Wing Kam Liu, Feng Lin, Gregory J. Wagner, Meso-scale modeling of multiple-layer fabrication process in Selective Electron Beam Melting: Inter-layer/track voids formation, Materials & Design, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.12.031

84-18   Bo Cheng, Xiaobai Li, Charles Tuffile, Alexander Ilin, Hannes Willeck and Udo Hartel, Multi-physics modeling of single track scanning in selective laser melting: Powder compaction effect, Proceedings of the 29th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, pp. 1887-1902, 2018.

81-18 Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Daixiu Wei, Kenta Yamanaka and Akihiko Chiba, Molten pool behavior and effect of fluid flow on solidification conditions in selective electron beam melting (SEBM) of a biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloy, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 26, pp. 202-214, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.002

77-18   Jun Du and Zhengying Wei, Numerical investigation of thermocapillary-induced deposited shape in fused-coating additive manufacturing process of aluminum alloy, Journal of Physics Communications, Vol. 2, No. 11, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/2399-6528/aaedc7

76-18   Yu Xiang, Shuzhe Zhang, Zhengying We, Junfeng Li, Pei Wei, Zhen Chen, Lixiang Yang and Lihao Jiang, Forming and defect analysis for single track scanning in selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V, Applied Physics A, 124:685, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s00339-018-2056-9

74-18   Paree Allu, CFD simulations for laser welding of Al Alloys, Proceedings, Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 15-17, 2018.

72-18   Hunchul Jeong, Kyungbae Park, Sungjin Baek, Dong-Yoon Kim, Moon-Jin Kang and Jungho Cho, Three-dimensional numerical analysis of weld pool in GMAW with fillet joint, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol. 19, No. 8, pp. 1171-1177, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s12541-018-0138-4

60-18   R.W. Geng, J. Du, Z.Y. Wei and G.X. Zhao, An adaptive-domain-growth method for phase field simulation of dendrite growth in arc preheated fused-coating additive manufacturing, IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1063, 012077, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012077

59-18   Guangxi Zhao, Jun Du, Zhengying Wei, Ruwei Geng and Siyuan Xu, Coupling analysis of molten pool during fused coating process with arc preheating, IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1063, 012076, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012076 (Available at http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012076/pdf and in shared drive)

58-18   Siyuan Xu, Zhengying Wei, Jun Du, Guangxi Zhao and Wei Liu, Numerical simulation and analysis of metal fused coating forming, IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1063, 012075, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012075

55-18   Jason Cheon, Jin-Young Yoon, Cheolhee Kim and Suck-Joo Na, A study on transient flow characteristic in friction stir welding with realtime interface tracking by direct surface calculation, Journal of Materials Processing Tech., vol. 255, pp. 621-634, 2018.

54-18   V. Sukhotskiy, P. Vishnoi, I. H. Karampelas, S. Vader, Z. Vader, and E. P. Furlani, Magnetohydrodynamic drop-on-demand liquid metal additive manufacturing: System overview and modeling, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of Fluid Flow, Heat and Mass Transfer, Niagara Falls, Canada, June 7 – 9, 2018; Paper no. 155, 2018. doi.org/10.11159/ffhmt18.155

52-18   Michael Hilbinger, Claudia Stadelmann, Matthias List and Robert F. Singer, Temconex® – Kontinuierliche Pulverextrusion: Verbessertes Verständnis mit Hilfe der numerischen Simulation, Hochleistungsmetalle und Prozesse für den Leichtbau der Zukunft, Tagungsband 10. Ranshofener Leichtmetalltage, 13-14 Juni 2018, Linz, pp. 175-186, 2018.

38-18   Zhen Chen, Yu Xiang, Zhengying Wei, Pei Wei, Bingheng Lu, Lijuan Zhang and Jun Du, Thermal dynamic behavior during selective laser melting of K418 superalloy: numerical simulation and experimental verification, Applied Physics A, vol. 124, pp. 313, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s00339-018-1737-8

19-18   Chenxiao Zhu, Jason Cheon, Xinhua Tang, Suck-Joo Na, and Haichao Cui, Molten pool behaviors and their influences on welding defects in narrow gap GMAW of 5083 Al-alloy, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 126:A, pp.1206-1221, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.05.132

16-18   P. Schneider, V. Sukhotskiy, T. Siskar, L. Christie and I.H. Karampelas, Additive Manufacturing of Microfluidic Components via Wax Extrusion, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, vol. 3, pp. 162 – 165, 2018.

09-18   The Furlani Research Group, Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal 3D Printing, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, © University at Buffalo, May 2018.

08-18   Benjamin Himmel, Dominik Rumschöttel and Wolfram Volk, Thermal process simulation of droplet based metal printing with aluminium, Production Engineering, March 2018 © German Academic Society for Production Engineering (WGP) 2018.

07-18   Yu-Che Wu, Cheng-Hung San, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Huey-Jiuan Lin, Raed Marwan, Shuhei Baba and Weng-Sing Hwang, Numerical modeling of melt-pool behavior in selective laser melting with random powder distribution and experimental validation, Journal of Materials Processing Tech. 254 (2018) 72–78.

60-17   Pei Wei, Zhengying Wei, Zhen Chen, Yuyang He and Jun Du, Thermal behavior in single track during selective laser melting of AlSi10Mg powder, Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 123:604, 2017. doi.org/10.1007/z00339-017-1194-9

51-17   Koichi Ishizaka, Keijiro Saitoh, Eisaku Ito, Masanori Yuri, and Junichiro Masada, Key Technologies for 1700°C Class Ultra High Temperature Gas Turbine, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Technical Review, vol. 54, no. 3, 2017.

49-17   Yu-Che Wu, Weng-Sing Hwang, Cheng-Hung San, Chih-Hsiang Chang and Huey-Jiuan Lin, Parametric study of surface morphology for selective laser melting on Ti6Al4V powder bed with numerical and experimental methods, International Journal of Material Forming, © Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2017. doi.org/10.1007/s12289-017-1391-2.

37-17   V. Sukhotskiy, I. H. Karampelas, G. Garg, A. Verma, M. Tong, S. Vader, Z. Vader, and E. P. Furlani, Magnetohydrodynamic Drop-on-Demand Liquid Metal 3D Printing, Solid Freeform Fabrication 2017: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference

15-17   I.H. Karampelas, S. Vader, Z. Vader, V. Sukhotskiy, A. Verma, G. Garg, M. Tong and E.P. Furlani, Drop-on-Demand 3D Metal Printing, Informatics, Electronics and Microsystems TechConnect Briefs 2017, Vol. 4

14-17   Jason Cheon and Suck-Joo Na, Prediction of welding residual stress with real-time phase transformation by CFD thermal analysis, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 131–132 (2017) 37–51.

91-16   Y. S. Lee and D. F. Farson, Surface tension-powered build dimension control in laser additive manufacturing process, Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2016) 85:1035–1044, doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7974-5.

84-16   Runqi Lin, Hui-ping Wang, Fenggui Lu, Joshua Solomon, Blair E. Carlson, Numerical study of keyhole dynamics and keyhole-induced porosity formation in remote laser welding of Al alloys, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 108 (2017) 244–256, Available online December 2016.

68-16   Dongsheng Wu, Xueming Hua, Dingjian Ye and Fang Li, Understanding of humping formation and suppression mechanisms using the numerical simulation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 104, January 2017, Pages 634–643, Published online 2016.

39-16   Chien-Hsun Wang, Ho-Lin Tsai, Yu-Che Wu and Weng-Sing Hwang, Investigation of molten metal droplet deposition and solidification for 3D printing techniques, IOP Publishing, J. Micromech. Microeng. 26 (2016) 095012 (14pp), doi: 10.1088/0960-1317/26/9/095012, July 8, 2016

29-16   Scott Vader, Zachary Vader, Ioannis H. Karampelas and Edward P. Furlani, Advances in Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Jet Printing, Nanotech 2016 Conference & Expo, May 22-25, Washington, DC.

26-16   Y.S. Lee and W. Zhang, Modeling of heat transfer, fluid flow and solidification microstructure of nickel-base superalloy fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, S2214-8604(16)30087-2, doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2016.05.003, ADDMA 86.

123-15   Koji Tsukimoto, Masashi Kitamura, Shuji Tanigawa, Sachio Shimohata, and Masahiko Mega, Laser welding repair for single crystal blades, Proceedings of International Gas Turbine Congress, pp. 1354-1358, 2015.

122-15   Y.S. Lee, W. Zhang, Mesoscopic simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow in laser powder bed additive manufacturing, Proceedings, 26th Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, Texas, 2015. 

116-15   Yousub Lee, Simulation of Laser Additive Manufacturing and its Applications, Ph.D. Thesis: Graduate Program in Welding Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2015, Copyright by Yousub Lee 2015

103-15   Ligang Wu, Jason Cheon, Degala Venkata Kiran, and Suck-Joo Na, CFD Simulations of GMA Welding of Horizontal Fillet Joints based on Coordinate Rotation of Arc Models, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Available online December 29, 2015

96-15   Jason Cheon, Degala Venkata Kiran, and Suck-Joo Na, Thermal metallurgical analysis of GMA welded AH36 steel using CFD – FEM framework, Materials & Design, Volume 91, February 5 2016, Pages 230-241, published online November 2015

86-15   Yousub Lee and Dave F. Farson, Simulation of transport phenomena and melt pool shape for multiple layer additive manufacturing, J. Laser Appl. 28, 012006 (2016). doi: 10.2351/1.4935711, published online 2015.

63-15   Scott Vader, Zachary Vader, Ioannis H. Karampelas and Edward P. Furlani, Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Jet Printing, TechConnect World Innovation Conference & Expo, Washington, D.C., June 14-17, 2015

46-15   Adwaith Gupta, 3D Printing Multi-Material, Single Printhead Simulation, Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop, July 20 – 21, 2015, Santa Fe, NM

25-15   Dae-Won Cho and Suck-Joo Na, Molten pool behaviors for second pass V-groove GMAW, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 88 (2015) 945–956.

21-15   Jungho Cho, Dave F. Farson, Kendall J. Hollis and John O. Milewski, Numerical analysis of weld pool oscillation in laser welding, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 29 (4) (2015) 1715~1722, www.springerlink.com/content/1738-494x, doi.org/10.1007/s12206-015-0344-2.

82-14  Yousub Lee, Mark Nordin, Sudarsanam Suresh Babu, and Dave F. Farson, Effect of Fluid Convection on Dendrite Arm Spacing in Laser Deposition, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, August 2014, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 1520-1529

59-14   Y.S. Lee, M. Nordin, S.S. Babu, and D.F. Farson, Influence of Fluid Convection on Weld Pool Formation in Laser Cladding, Welding Research/ August 2014, VOL. 93

18-14  L.J. Zhang, J.X. Zhang, A. Gumenyuk, M. Rethmeier, and S.J. Na, Numerical simulation of full penetration laser welding of thick steel plate with high power high brightness laser, Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2014), doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.03.016.

36-13  Dae-Won Cho,Woo-Hyun Song, Min-Hyun Cho, and Suck-Joo Na, Analysis of Submerged Arc Welding Process by Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2013. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.06.017

12-13 D.W. Cho, S.J. Na, M.H. Cho, J.S. Lee, A study on V-groove GMAW for various welding positions, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, April 2013, doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.02.015.

01-13  Dae-Won Cho & Suck-Joo Na & Min-Hyun Cho & Jong-Sub Lee, Simulations of weld pool dynamics in V-groove GTA and GMA welding, Weld World, doi.org/10.1007/s40194-012-0017-z, © International Institute of Welding 2013.

63-12  D.W. Cho, S.H. Lee, S.J. Na, Characterization of welding arc and weld pool formation in vacuum gas hollow tungsten arc welding, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2012.09.024, September 2012.

77-10  Lim, Y. C.; Yu, X.; Cho, J. H.; et al., Effect of magnetic stirring on grain structure refinement Part 1-Autogenous nickel alloy welds, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Volume: 15 Issue: 7, Pages: 583-589, doi.org/10.1179/136217110X12720264008277, October 2010

18-10 K Saida, H Ohnishi, K Nishimoto, Fluxless laser brazing of aluminium alloy to galvanized steel using a tandem beam–dissimilar laser brazing of aluminium alloy and steels, Welding International, 2010

58-09  Cho, Jung-Ho; Farson, Dave F.; Milewski, John O.; et al., Weld pool flows during initial stages of keyhole formation in laser welding, Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics, Volume: 42 Issue: 17 Article Number: 175502 ; doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/42/17/175502, September 2009

57-09  Lim, Y. C.; Farson, D. F.; Cho, M. H.; et al., Stationary GMAW-P weld metal deposit spreading, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Volume: 14 Issue: 7 ;Pages: 626-635, doi.org/10.1179/136217109X441173, October 2009

1-09 J.-H. Cho and S.-J. Na, Three-Dimensional Analysis of Molten Pool in GMA-Laser Hybrid Welding, Welding Journal, February 2009, Vol. 88

52-07   Huey-Jiuan Lin and Wei-Kuo Chang, Design of a sheet forming apparatus for overflow fusion process by numerical simulation, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 353 (2007) 2817–2825.

50-07  Cho, Min Hyun; Farson, Dave F., Understanding bead hump formation in gas metal arc welding using a numerical simulation, Metallurgical and Mateials Transactions B-Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science, Volume: 38, Issue: 2, Pages: 305-319, doi.org/10.1007/s11663-007-9034-5, April 2007

49-07  Cho, M. H.; Farson, D. F., Simulation study of a hybrid process for the prevention of weld bead hump formation, Welding Journal Volume: 86, Issue: 9, Pages: 253S-262S, September 2007

48-07  Cho, M. H.; Farson, D. F.; Lim, Y. C.; et al., Hybrid laser/arc welding process for controlling bead profile, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Volume: 12 Issue: 8, Pages: 677-688, doi.org/10.1179/174329307X236878, November 2007

47-07   Min Hyun Cho, Dave F. Farson, Understanding Bead Hump Formation in Gas Metal Arc Welding Using a Numerical Simulation, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 305-319, April 2007

36-06  Cho, M. H.; Lim, Y. C.; Farson, D. F., Simulation of weld pool dynamics in the stationary pulsed gas metal arc welding process and final weld shape, Welding Journal, Volume: 85 Issue: 12, Pages: 271S-283S, December 2006

Increasing Productivity by Reducing Ejection Times

Increasing Productivity by Reducing Ejection Times

This article was contributed by Eugene Moore of Hellebusch Tool & Die

시뮬레이션 소프트웨어는 설계자와 엔지니어가 주조 공정의 세부 사항을 이해하고 경쟁사보다 저렴한 비용으로 고품질 부품을 일관성 있게 제작할 수 있게 해주는 유용한 도구입니다. 고압 다이캐스팅에서 시뮬레이션 소프트웨어는 주조 내로 금속을 공급하고 난류로 인한 공기 유입을 방지하기 위해 샷 슬리브 팁의 타이밍을 개선하고 오버 플로우에 대한 가장 효과적인 위치를 식별하는 더 나은 게이팅 시스템을 설계하는 데 사용됩니다. 이 기사에서는 프로세스 시간을 단축하기 위해 부품을 다이에서 배출하기 전에 시간을 줄이는 방법을 살펴 보겠습니다.

비스킷은 주조 과정에서 고형화 된 마지막 장소이기 때문에 우리의 노력에 집중할 수 있는 자연스러운 곳이며 따라서 부품을 언제 꺼낼 수 있는지를 결정합니다. 따라서 비스킷의 응고 시간을 줄일 수 있다면 전반적인 공정 시간을 줄일 수 있습니다. 이를 수행하는 한 가지 방법은 유체와 접촉하는 영역의 양을 늘려 샷팁을 통해 금속에서 더 많은 열을 제거하는 것입니다. 이 경우 정확하게 적용할 수는 없지만, 아래에 표시된 정상상태 대류 방정식을 사용하면 이 접근법의 기초가 가장 쉽게 표시됩니다.

이 방정식에서 열 흐름은 대류 열 전달 계수이고, 금속 팁과 샷 팁 온도의 차이이며, 금속과 접촉하는 샷 팁의 표면적입니다. 그림 1에서 볼 수 있듯이 오늘날 시장에서 볼 수 있는 다양한 형태의 플런저 팁이 금속과 접촉하는 표면적을 증가시키도록 설계되었습니다.

Figure 1: Plunger tips varying in size and surface area [1]

비스킷에서 제거된 열을 증가시키는 또 다른 방법은 비스켓에서 샷 팁과 금속 사이의 온도 차이를 조절하는 것입니다. 이는 그림 2 에서처럼 냉각 선을 팁에 추가하여 수행됩니다. 이 접근법의 단점은 피스톤 어셈블리에 상당한 복잡성을 추가한다는 것입니다.

Figure 2: Cooling within plunger tip [2]

New design

이 기사에서 FLOW-3D Cast를 사용하여 새로운 플런저 팁 디자인을 분석하고 수정되지 않은 표준 원통형 팁과 비교했습니다. 그림 3에서와 같이 끝 부분에 별 모양의 컷 아웃이 있는 원통형 팁으로 구성된 수정된 팁은 수정되지 않은 샷 팁보다 20 % 더 많은 표면적을 갖습니다. 팁은 분석을 위해 물로 냉각되지 않습니다.

Figure 3: Shape of the modified tip to give 20% increase in area

 

Analysis

각 샷 팁 디자인에 대해 충진 (샷 팁 모션 포함) 및 응고 (플로우 미포함) 시뮬레이션을 실행했습니다. 모든 다른 매개 변수는 사례간에 동일합니다. 주요 관심사는 두 가지입니다. 즉, 충전 중 흐름 패턴과 전반적인 응고 시간입니다. 샷 팁 디자인이 파동 및 공기 유입을 유발하는 경우 팁 또는 샷 슬리브 프로파일을 다시 설계해야 하기 때문에 충진 중 흐름 패턴이 중요합니다.

첫 번째 비교는 그림 4에 표시된 샷 슬리브의 흐름 패턴입니다. 이 그림은 수정 된 팁이 있거나 없는 샷 슬리브 중 유체의 이미지를 보여 주며 팁의 모양이 샷 슬리브에 영향을 주지 않는 것으로 나타났습니다. 흐름 패턴. 샷 프로파일에 거의 영향을 주지 않기 때문에 응고에 집중할 수 있습니다.

Figure 4: Flow patterns in the shot sleeves from both tips.

 

두 번째 비교는 응고 시간입니다. 그림 5는 시간의 함수로서 팁의 평균 온도, 시간의 함수로서 금속으로부터 팁으로의 열 유속 및 추출시의 액체 금속의 온도 프로파일을 비교합니다

Figure 5: The above time plots show the average temperature in tip on the upper left hand corner and the heat flux from the metal to the tip in the upper right hand corner. The images below this show the metal temperature within the biscuit of the two castings.

그림 5에서 볼 수 있듯이, 그래프는 금속에서 더 많은 열을 추출했기 때문에 수정 된 팁의 평균 온도가 더 높음을 보여줍니다. 이것은 또한 열 유속 플롯에 표시됩니다. 그래프 아래의 이미지는 비스킷과 탄환의 경계면에서 액체금속을 보여줍니다. 데이터는 수정된 팁을 사용하여 열 제거가 12.7 % 증가한 것을 보여줍니다.

Conclusions

샷 팁 디자인은 주조 부품의 응고 시간에 눈에 띄는 영향을 미칩니다. 시뮬레이션 소프트웨어는 효과를 분석하고 이 지식을 사용하여 프로세스 매개변수를 최적화하는 방법을 제공합니다.

 

References
[1] http://www.metalminotti.it/copper-alloys-semi-and-finished-products/plunger-tips-for-die-casting/
[2] http://www.castool.com/product/plunger-rod

Learn more about the versatility and power of modeling metal casting processes with FLOW-3D Cast >

FLOW-3D CAST 사양

FLOW-3D CAST Feature


Active Simulation Control

실행중인 해석의 제어 파라미터는 History probes에서 사용자가 정의한 조건에 따라, 런타임 동안에 자동으로 변경 될 수 있습니다. History probes에 의해 기록된 시뮬레이션 변수는 경계 조건, mass source 및 General Moving Object 기능을 이용하여, 시간에 따른 개체의 동작을 제어하기 위해 사용될 수있습니다. 예를 들어, 고압다이캐스팅 해석에서 게이트에 설정한 History probes에 유체가 도달하면, 그 정보를 캡처하는 데이터 출력 주파수를 증가시켜 플런저의 속도를 고속으로 자동 전환 될 수있습니다. 고압다이캐스팅 해석은 유체가 게이트에 도달 할 때 자동으로 고속 전환됩니다. 이 프로세스는 새로운 실행 시뮬레이션 제어 기능을 통해 자동으로 진행됩니다. 저속 구간에서 플런저의 움직임은 trigger 슬리브의 용융물에 혼입되는 공기의 양을 최소화하기 위해 Barkhudarov 방법 1을 사용하여 계산됩니다. 이 결과는 훨씬 더 높은 품질의 주조품이 나올수 있도록 설계하는데 도움이 될 수 있습니다. Read the development note > Read the blog post >

Batch Postprocessing & Report Generation

Batch 후처리 및 보고서 생성은 해석 결과 분석시 사용자의 해석 처리 시간을 절약하기 위해 개발되었습니다. Batch 후처리는, 해석이 완료된 후, 사용자가 애니메이션, 시나리오, 그래프, 텍스트 데이터 시리즈를 정의하여 자동으로 생성되도록 할 수 있습니다. 그래픽 요청은 백그라운드에서 FlowSight를 실행하여 처리되도록 FLOW-3D Cast에 정의되어 있습니다. 원하는 해석 결과를 생성할 수 있는 컨텍스트 파일을 사용하면 Batch 후처리 기능을 사용할 수 있습니다. Batch 후처리가 완료되면, 사용자는 쉽게 자신의 관리자, 동료, 또는 클라이언트에 보낼 수있는 HTML5 형식의 완벽한 기능을 갖춘 보고서를 만들 수 있습니다. 이미지 및 동영상도 보고서에 포함 할 수 있고, 사용자는 텍스트, 캡션, 참고 문헌의 형식을 완벽하게 제어 하고 유지할 수 있습니다. Read the blog post >

Metal Casting Models

Squeeze Pin Model

스퀴즈 핀은 주조시 주입 공급이 어려운 영역에서, 응고하는 동안 금속 수축을 보상하기 위해 사용되는 실제의 다이 캐스팅 머신의 동작을 모델링하는 해석을 할 수 있습니다. 스퀴즈 핀은 선택된 표면에 cylinderical squeeze pin을 추가하여, STL 파일 또는 대화식으로 생성 될 수 있습니다. Read the development note >

Intensification Pressure Model

새로운 플런저 타입 형상이 추가 되었습니다. 강화된 압력 조건으로 macro-shrinkage 와 micro-porosity 제거를 지정할 수 있습니다.

Thermal Die Cycling model

FLOW-3D Cast v4.1's full process thermal die cycling model

다이싸이클링 (Thermal die cycling, TDC) 모델에 새로운 두 가지의 단계가 추가되었습니다. 금형이 열린 상태에서 제품이 여전히 금형 내부에 있는 ejection 단계와, 금형이 닫혔지만 사출 바로전의 preparation 단계가 추가되었습니다. 또한, 마지막 싸이클만이 아닌 모든 금형 싸이클 모두 수렴된 결과를 전달하기 위해 TDC 솔버가 성능 손실 없이 최적화 되었습니다. Read the blog post >

Valves and Vents

Modeling valves and vents in FLOW-3D Cast v4.1

밸브와 밴트의 외부 압력과 온도는 이제 사용자가 다이 캐스팅 공정에서 충진중에 보다 실제적인 동작을 정의 할 수 있도록, 시간의 표 함수로서 정의 할 수있습니다. 밸브 및 벤트의 압력 및 온도는 프로세스 설계 단계에서 유용한 제품 내부에 설정된 프로브에 의해 제어 될 수 있습니다.

PQ2 Diagram

PQ2다이어그램의 사용은 사용자가 더 나은 슬리브의 플런저 실제 움직임과 유사하게 적용 할 수 있습니다. 새로운 기능은 실제 공정 변수가 아직 알려져 있지 않았을 때 다이캐스팅 설계 단계 중에 특히 유용합니다. Read the blog post >

Cooling Channels

냉각 채널은 금형 각각의 냉각 유로에 의해 제거되거나 추가된 열의 총량에 의해 제어 될 수 있습니다. Read the development note >

Air Entrainment Model

Air entrainment 모델에 compressibility를 입력하는 새로운 옵션이 추가되었습니다. 고압 다이캐스팅의 충진 공정과 같은 경우, 공기 압축성은 유체 압력의 변화로 인한 유체의 흐름에 중요한 인자가 됩니다.
 

Cavitation Model

캐비테이션 모델은 유동 조건의 더 넓은 범위에 걸쳐 유체의 캐비테이션 거동을 나타내도록 개선되었습니다. 캐비테이션 생성에 대한 새로운 옵션은 경험적 관계를 기반으로, 기존의 일정한 속도로 생성되는 방식에서 보완되었습니다. 새로운 passive gas model 옵션은 open bubbles이 아닌 유체내에 cavitationg gas를 추적하여, 계산에 필요한 격자와 계산시간을 줄일 수 있습니다. Read the development note >

Two-fluid Phase Change Model

Two-fluid phase change model 은 과냉각을 포함하도록 확장되었습니다. 일정한 과냉각 온도를 정의하고 가스 온도가 응축이 일어나기 전에 포화점 이하로 내려갈 수 있게 함으로써 구현됩니다.

Simulation Results and Analysis

Simulation Results File Editor

사용자가 FLOW-3D Cast v4.1 결과 파일들을 병합 및 제거 할 수 있는 편집 유틸리티

Linking flsgrf.* files

Restart 해석 결과 파일들(flsgrf.*)은 FlowSight 에서 하나의 연속적인 애니메이션 결과를 표시하기 위해 restart source 결과로 링크될 수 있습니다.

Fluid/wall Contact Time

A new spatial quantity has been added to the solution output that stores the time that metal spent in contact with each geometric component, as well as the time spent by each component with metal.

용탕이 각 geometry 컴포넌트를 접촉한 시간과 각 컴포넌트가 용탕과의 접촉 시간을 나타내는 새로운 공간적 양이 해석 아웃풋에 추가 되었습니다.

Performance and Usability

Calculators

열전달 계수, 열 침투 깊이, 밸브 손실 계수, 슬리브에 용탕량(깊이), 플런저의 속도를 계산할 수 있는 Calculators 기능이 Model Setup 창에서 바로 가능해졌습니다. 또한 유틸리티 메뉴에서도 가능합니다.

Thermal Die Cycling

Heat transfer database in FLOW-3D Cast v4.1

열전달 계수 데이터베이스와 각 싸이클 단계들이 입력되어있어 간편하게 다이싸이클링 해석을 하실 수 있습니다.

GMRES Pressure Solver

GMRES pressure solver의 속도가 솔버 데이터 구조의 최적화로 인해 2배까지 향상되었습니다. 이로 인해 메모리 사용량이 20% 미만으로 증가할 수 있습니다. Read the blog post >

Sampling Volumes

Sampling volume 기능은 STL로 정의할 수 있습니다. 각 sampling volume에 의해 계산된 양들의 목록은 유체의 부피, 최대/최소 온도, 파티클의 갯수와 같은 전체 해석 영역에 대해 모두 같은 양이 되도록 확장되었습니다.

 

FSI/TSE Model

구조분석 모델의 성능이 부분적인 coupling으로 해석 솔버의 병렬화와 최적화를 통해 향상되었습니다.

Workspaces

Workspaces 를 이전에 설치된 FLOW-3D에서 가져올 수 있습니다. Workspaces 와 사용자가 선택한 시뮬레이션들을 복사할 수 있습니다.

Expanded Simulation Pre-check

Simulation pre-check 기능은 preprocessor checks를 포함하고, 문제가 발생하는 경우 링크됩니다.

Improved Transparency

Depth-peeling 옵션은 transparent geometries 를 좀 더 잘 표현하고, v4.0보다 10배 빨라졌습니다.

Interactive Tools

Baffles, history probes, void/fluid pointers, valves, mass-momentum sources, squeeze pins에 대한 새로운 대화형 생성 기능이 추가되었습니다. 또한 probing과 clipping 도구들이 대화형으로 개선되었습니다.

General Enable/Disable

모든 objects (e.g., mesh blocks)은 활성화/비활성화 할 수 있습니다.

Estimated Remaining Simulation Time

솔버 메세지 파일에 short-print로 추정된 잔여 해석 시간이 추가 되었습니다.

Tabular Data

테이블 형식의 데이터에서 선택된 데이터를 마우스 오른쪽 버튼을 클릭하여 csv파일 또는 외부 파일에 복사, 저장할 수 있습니다.

1 23-10 Michael R. Barkhudarov, Minimizing Air Entrainment, The Canadian Die Caster, June 2010

Microfluidics Bibliography

Microfluidics Bibliography

다음은 Microfluidics Bibliography의 기술 문서 모음입니다.
이 모든 논문은 FLOW-3D  결과를 특징으로  합니다. 미세 유체 공정 및 장치 를 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하기 위해 FLOW-3D 를 사용 하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오  .

2024년 3월 20일 Update

196-23 Daicong Zhang, Chunhui Jing, Wei Guo, Yuan Xiao, Jun Luo, Lehua Qi, Microchannels formed using metal microdroplets, Micromachines, 14.10; 1922, 2023. doi.org/10.3390/mi14101922

121-23 Feng Lin Ng, Zhanhong Cen, Yi-Chin Toh, Lay Poh Tan, A 3D-printed micro-perfused culture device with embedded 3D fibrous scaffold for enhanced biomimicry, International Journal of Bioprinting, 2023. doi.org/10.36922/ijb.0226

104-23 Cristina González-Fernández, Jenifer Gómez-Pastora, Eugenio Bringas, Inmaculada Ortiz, Computer-aided design of magnetophoretic microfluidic systems for enhanced recovery of target products, 33rd European Symposium on Computer-Aided Engineering (ESCAPE), 2023.

64-23   Tihomir Tjankov, Dimitar Trifonov, Conceptual design and 3D modeling of a microfluidic device for liver cells investigation, Industry 4.0, 8.2; pp. 39-41, 2023.

34-23   Chao Kang, Ikki Ikeda, Motoki Sakaguchi, Recoil and solidification of a paraffin droplet impacted on a metal substrate: Numerical study and experimental verification, Journal of Fluids and Structures, 118; 103839, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2023.103839

64-22   Babatunde Aramide, Computational modelling of electrohydrodynamic jetting (Taylor cone formation, dripping & jet evolution): Case study of electrospinning, Thesis, University College London, 2022.

42-22   Islam Hassan, P. Ravi Selvaganapathy, Microfluidic printheads for highly switchable multimaterial 3D printing of soft materials, Advanced Materials Technologies, 2101709, 2022. doi.org/10.1002/admt.202101709

138-21   Enver Guler, Mine Eti, Aydin Cihanoglu, Esra Altiok, Kadriye Ozlem Hamaloglu, Burcu Gokcal, Ali Tuncel, Nalan Kabay, Ion exchange membranes with enhanced antifouling properties to produce energy from renewable sources, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Green and Smart Technologies for a Sustainable Society, Santander, Cantabria, Spain, December 9-10, 2021.

45-21   Navid Tonekaboni, Mahdi Feizbahr, Nima Tonekaboni, Guang-Jun Jiang, Hong-Xia Chen, Optimization of solar CCHP systems with collector enhanced by porous media and nanofluid, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2021; 9984940, 2021. doi.org/10.1155/2021/9984840

40-21   B. Hayes, G.L. Whiting, R. MacCurdy, Modeling of contactless bubble–bubble interactions in microchannels with integrated inertial pumps, Physics of Fluids, 33.4; 042002, 2021. doi.org/10.1063/5.0041924

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Microfluidics Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate microfluidic processes and devices.

14-21   Jian-Chiun Liou, Chih-Wei Peng, Philippe Basset, Zhen-Xi Chen, DNA printing integrated multiplexer driver microelectronic mechanical system head (IDMH) and microfluidic flow estimation, Micromachines, 12.1; 25, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/mi12010025

08-20   Li Yong-Qiang, Dong Jun-Yan and Rui Wei, Numerical simulation for capillary driven flow in capsule-type vane tank with clearances under microgravity, Microgravity Science and Technology, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s12217-019-09773-z

89-19   Tim Dreckmann, Julien Boeuf, Imke-Sonja Ludwig, Jorg Lumkemann, and Jorg Huwyler, Low volume aseptic filling: impact of pump systems on shear stress, European Journal of Pharmeceutics and Biopharmeceutics, in press, 2019. doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2019.12.006

88-19   V. Amiri Roodan, J. Gomez-Pastora, C. Gonzalez-Fernandez, I.H. Karampelas, E. Bringas, E.P. Furlani, and I. Ortiz, CFD analysis of the generation and manipulation of ferrofluid droplets, TechConnect Briefs, pp. 182-185, 2019. TechConnect World Innovation Conference & Expo, Boston, Massachussetts, USA, June 17-19, 2019.

55-19     Julio Aleman, Sunil K. George, Samuel Herberg, Mahesh Devarasetty, Christopher D. Porada, Aleksander Skardal, and Graça Almeida‐Porada, Deconstructed microfluidic bone marrow on‐a‐chip to study normal and malignant hemopoietic cell–niche interactions, Small, 2019. doi: 10.1002/smll.201902971

37-19     Feng Lin Ng, Miniaturized 3D fibrous scaffold on stereolithography-printed microfluidic perfusion culture, Doctoral Thesis, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 2019.

32-19     Jenifer Gómez-Pastora, Ioannis H. Karampelas, Eugenio Bringas, Edward P. Furlani, and Inmaculada Ortiz, Numerical analysis of bead magnetophoresis from flowing blood in a continuous-flow microchannel: Implications to the bead-fluid interactions, Nature: Scientific Reports, Vol. 9, No. 7265, 2019. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-43827-x

01-19  Jelena Dinic and Vivek Sharma, Computational analysis of self-similar capillary-driven thinning and pinch-off dynamics during dripping using the volume-of-fluid method, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 31, 2019. doi: 10.1063/1.5061715

75-18   Tobias Ladner, Sebastian Odenwald, Kevin Kerls, Gerald Zieres, Adeline Boillon and Julien Bœuf, CFD supported investigation of shear induced by bottom-mounted magnetic stirrer in monoclonal antibody formulation, Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 35, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11095-018-2492-4

53-18   Venoos Amiri Roodan, Jenifer Gómez-Pastora, Aditi Verma, Eugenio Bringas, Inmaculada Ortiz and Edward P. Furlani, Computational analysis of magnetic droplet generation and manipulation in microfluidic devices, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of Fluid Flow, Heat and Mass Transfer, Niagara Falls, Canada, June 7 – 9, 2018; Paper no. 154, 2018.  doi: 10.11159/ffhmt18.154

35-18   Jenifer Gómez-Pastora, Cristina González Fernández, Marcos Fallanza, Eugenio Bringas and Inmaculada Ortiz, Flow patterns and mass transfer performance of miscible liquid-liquid flows in various microchannels: Numerical and experimental studies, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 344, pp. 487-497, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2018.03.110

16-18   P. Schneider, V. Sukhotskiy, T. Siskar, L. Christie and I.H. Karampelas, Additive Manufacturing of Microfluidic Components via Wax Extrusion, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, vol. 3, pp. 162 – 165, 2018.

15-18   J. Gómez-Pastora, I.H. Karampelas, A.Q. Alorabi, M.D. Tarn, E. Bringas, A. Iles, V.N. Paunov, N. Pamme, E.P. Furlani, I. Ortiz, CFD analysis and experimental validation of magnetic droplet generation and deflection across multilaminar flow streams, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, vol. 3, pp. 182-185, 2018.

14-18   J. Gómez-Pastora, C. González-Fernández, I.H. Karampelas, E. Bringas, E.P. Furlani, and I. Ortiz, Design of Magnetic Blood Cleansing Microdevices through Experimentally Validated CFD Modeling, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, vol. 3, pp. 170-173, 2018.

10-18   A. Gupta, I.H. Karampelas, J. Kitting, Numerical modeling of the formation of dynamically configurable L2 lens in a microchannel, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, Vol. 3, pp. 186 – 189, 2018.

17-17   I.H. Karampelas, J. Gómez-Pastora, M.J. Cowan, E. Bringas, I. Ortiz and E.P. Furlani, Numerical Analysis of Acoustophoretic Discrete Particle Focusing in Microchannels, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs 2017, Vol. 3

16-17   J. Gómez-Pastora, I.H. Karampelas, E. Bringas, E.P. Furlani and I. Ortiz, CFD analysis of particle magnetophoresis in multiphase continuous-flow bioseparators, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs 2017, Vol. 3

15-17   I.H. Karampelas, S. Vader, Z. Vader, V. Sukhotskiy, A. Verma, G. Garg, M. Tong and E.P. Furlani, Drop-on-Demand 3D Metal Printing, Informatics, Electronics and Microsystems TechConnect Briefs 2017, Vol. 4

102-16   J. Brindha, RA.G. Privita Edwina, P.K. Rajesh and P.Rani, “Influence of rheological properties of protein bio-inks on printability: A simulation and validation study,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 3, no.10, pp. 3285-3295, 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2016.10.010

99-16   Ioannis H. Karampelas, Kai Liu, Fatema Alali, and Edward P. Furlani, Plasmonic Nanoframes for Photothermal Energy Conversion, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2016, 120 (13), pp 7256–7264

98-16   Jelena Dinic and Vivek Sharma, Drop formation, pinch-off dynamics and liquid transfer of simple and complex fluidshttp://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2016.MAR.B53.12, APS March Meeting 2016, Volume 61, Number 2, March 14–18, 2016, Baltimore, Maryland

67-16  Vahid Bazargan and Boris Stoeber, Effect of substrate conductivity on the evaporation of small sessile droplets, PHYSICAL REVIEW E 94, 033103 (2016), doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.94.033103

57-16   Ioannis Karampelas, Computational analysis of pulsed-laser plasmon-enhanced photothermal energy conversion and nanobubble generation in the nanoscale, PhD Dissertation: Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, July 2016

44-16   Takeshi Sawada et al., Prognostic impact of circulating tumor cell detected using a novel fluidic cell microarray chip system in patients with breast cancer, EBioMedicine, Available online 27 July 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.07.027.

39-16   Chien-Hsun Wang, Ho-Lin Tsai, Yu-Che Wu and Weng-Sing Hwang, Investigation of molten metal droplet deposition and solidification for 3D printing techniques, IOP Publishing, J. Micromech. Microeng. 26 (2016) 095012 (14pp), doi: 10.1088/0960-1317/26/9/095012, July 8, 2016

30-16   Ioannis H. Karampelas, Kai Liu and Edward P. Furlani, Plasmonic Nanocages as Photothermal Transducers for Nanobubble Cancer Therapy, Nanotech 2016 Conference & Expo, May 22-25, Washington, DC.

29-16   Scott Vader, Zachary Vader, Ioannis H. Karampelas and Edward P. Furlani, Advances in Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Jet Printing, Nanotech 2016 Conference & Expo, May 22-25, Washington, DC.

02-16  Stephen D. Hoath (Editor), Fundamentals of Inkjet Printing: The Science of Inkjet and Droplets, ISBN: 978-3-527-33785-9, 472 pages, February 2016 (see chapters 2 and 3 for FLOW-3D results)

125-15   J. Berthier, K.A. Brakke, E.P. Furlani, I.H. Karampelas, V. Poher, D. Gosselin, M. Cubinzolles and P. Pouteau, Whole blood spontaneous capillary flow in narrow V-groove microchannels, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 206, pp. 258-267, 2015.

86-15   Yousub Lee and Dave F. Farson, Simulation of transport phenomena and melt pool shape for multiple layer additive manufacturing, J. Laser Appl. 28, 012006 (2016). doi: 10.2351/1.4935711, published online 2015.

77-15   Ho-Lin Tsai, Weng-Sing Hwang, Jhih-Kai Wang, Wen-Chih Peng and Shin-Hau Chen, Fabrication of Microdots Using Piezoelectric Dispensing Technique for Viscous Fluids, Materials 2015, 8(10), 7006-7016. doi: 10.3390/ma8105355

63-15   Scott Vader, Zachary Vader, Ioannis H. Karampelas and Edward P. Furlani, Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Jet Printing, TechConnect World Innovation Conference & Expo, Washington, D.C., June 14-17, 2015

46-15   Adwaith Gupta, 3D Printing Multi-Material, Single Printhead Simulation, Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop, July 20 – 21, 2015, Santa Fe, NM

28-15   Yongqiang Li, Mingzhu Hu, Ling Liu, Yin-Yin Su, Li Duan, and Qi Kang, Study of Capillary Driven Flow in an Interior Corner of Rounded Wall Under MicrogravityMicrogravity Science and Technology, June 2015

20-15   Pamela J. Waterman, Diversity in Medical Simulation Applications, Desktop Engineering, May 2015, pp 22-26,

16-15   Saurabh Singh, Ann Junghans, Erik Watkins, Yash Kapoor, Ryan Toomey, and Jaroslaw Majewski, Effects of Fluid Shear Stress on Polyelectrolyte Multilayers by Neutron Scattering Studies, © 2015 American Chemical Society, DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b00037, Langmuir 2015, 31, 2870−2878, February 17, 2015

11-15   Cheng-Han Wu and Weng-Sing Hwang, The effect of process condition of the ink-jet printing process on the molten metallic droplet formation through the analysis of fluid propagation direction, Canadian Journal of Physics, 2015. doi: 10.1139/cjp-2014-0259

03-15 Hanchul Cho, Sivasubramanian Somu, Jin Young Lee, Hobin Jeong and Ahmed Busnaina, High-Rate Nanoscale Offset Printing Process Using Directed Assembly and Transfer of Nanomaterials, Adv. Materials, doi: 10.1002/adma.201404769, February 2015

122-14  Albert Chi, Sebastian Curi, Kevin Clayton, David Luciano, Kameron Klauber, Alfredo Alexander-Katz, Sebastián D’hers and Noel M Elman, Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) implemented by integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 3D printed microfluidics, Research Gate, doi: 10.1007/s13346-014-0198-7, July 2014

113-14 Cihan Yilmaz, Arif E. Cetin, Georgia Goutzamanidis, Jun Huang, Sivasubramanian Somu, Hatice Altug, Dongguang Wei and Ahmed Busnaina, Three-Dimensional Crystalline and Homogeneous Metallic Nanostructures Using Directed Assembly of Nanoparticles, 10.1021/nn500084g, © 2014 American Chemical Society, April 2014

110-14 Koushik Ponnuru, Jincheng Wu, Preeti Ashok, Emmanuel S. Tzanakakis and Edward P. Furlani, Analysis of Stem Cell Culture Performance in a Microcarrier Bioreactor System, Nanotech, Washington, D.C., June 15-18, 2014

109-14   Ioannis H. Karampelas, Young Hwa Kim and Edward P. Furlani, Numerical Analysis of Laser Induced Photothermal Effects using Colloidal Plasmonic Nanostructures, Nanotech, Washington, D.C., June 15-18, 2014

108-14   Chenxu Liu, Xiaozheng Xue and Edward P. Furlani, Numerical Analysis of Fully-Coupled Particle-Fluid Transport and Free-Flow Magnetophoretic Sorting in Microfluidic Systems, Nanotech, Washington, D.C., June 15-18, 2014

95-14   Cheng-Han Wu, Weng-Sing Hwang, The effect of the echo-time of a bipolar pulse waveform on molten metallic droplet formation by squeeze mode piezoelectric inkjet printing, Accepted November 2014, Microelectronics Reliability (2014) , © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

85-14   Sudhir Srivastava, Lattice Boltzmann method for contact line dynamics, ISBN: 978-90-386-3608-5, Copyright © 2014 S. Srivastava

61-14   Chenxu Liu, A Computational Model for Predicting Fully-Coupled Particle-Fluid Dynamics and Self-Assembly for Magnetic Particle Applications, Master’s Thesis: State University of New York at Buffalo, 2014, 75 pages; 1561583, http://gradworks.umi.com/15/61/1561583.html

41-14 Albert Chi, Sebastian Curi, Kevin Clayton, David Luciano, Kameron Klauber, Alfredo Alexander-Katz, Sebastian D’hers, and Noel M. Elman, Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) implemented by integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 3D printed microfluidics, Drug Deliv. and Transl. Res., DOI 10.1007/s13346-014-0198-7, # Controlled Release Society 2014. Available for purchase online at SpringerLink.

21-14  Suk-Hee Park, Ung Hyun Koh, Mina Kim, Dong-Yol Yang, Kahp-Yang Suh and Jennifer Hyunjong Shin, Hierarchical multilayer assembly of an ordered nanofibrous scaffold via thermal fusion bonding, Biofabrication 6 (2014) 024107 (10pp), doi:10.1088/1758-5082/6/2/024107, IOP Publishing, 2014. Available for purchase online at IOP.

17-14   Vahid Bazargan, Effect of substrate cooling and droplet shape and composition on the droplet evaporation and the deposition of particles, Ph.D. Thesis: Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, March 2014, © Vahid Bazargan, 2014

73-13  Oliver G. Harlen, J. Rafael Castrejón-Pita, and Arturo Castrejon-Pita, Asymmetric Detachment from Angled Nozzles Plates in Drop-on Demand Inkjet Printing, NIP & Digital Fabrication Conference, 2013 International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies. Pages 253-549, pp. 277-280(4)

63-13  Fatema Alali, Ioannis H. Karampelas, Young Hwa Kim, and Edward P. Furlani, Photonic and Thermofluidic Analysis of Colloidal Plasmonic Nanorings and Nanotori for Pulsed-Laser Photothermal ApplicationsJ. Phys. Chem. C, Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/jp406986y, Copyright © 2013 American Chemical Society, September 2013.

25-13  Sudhir Srivastava, Theo Driessen, Roger Jeurissen, Herma Wijshoff, and Federico Toschi, Lattice Boltzmann Method to Study the Contraction of a Viscous Ligament, International Journal of Modern Physics © World Scientific Publishing Company, May 2013.

11-13  Li-Chieh Hsu, Yong-Jhih Chen, Jia-Huang Liou, Numerical Investigation in the Factors on the Pool Boiling, Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 311 (2013) pp 456-461, © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.311.456. Available for purchase online at Scientific.Net.

10-13 Pamela J. Waterman, CFD: Shaping the Medical World, Desktop Engineering, April 2013. Full article available online at Desktop Engineering.

90-12 Charles R. Ortloff and Martin Vogel, Spray Cooling Heat Transfer- Test and CFD Analysis, Electronics Cooling, June 2012. Available online at Electronics Cooling.

79-12    Daniel Parsaoran Siregar, Numerical simulation of evaporation and absorption of inkjet printed droplets, Ph.D. Thesis: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, September 18, 2012, Copyright 2012 by D.P. Siregar, ISBN: 978-90-386-3190-5.

71-12   Jong-hyeon Chang, Kyu-Dong Jung, Eunsung Lee, Minseog Choi, Seungwan Lee, and Woonbae Kim, Varifocal liquid lens based on microelectrofluidic technology, Optics Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 21, pp. 4377-4379 (2012) http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.37.004377

70-12   Jong-hyeon Chang, Kyu-Dong Jung, Eunsung Lee, Minseog Choi, and Seunwan Lee, Microelectrofluidic Iris for Variable ApertureProc. SPIE 8252, MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems XI, 82520O (February 9, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.906587

69-12   Jong-hyeon Chang, Eunsung Lee, Kyu-Dong Jung, Seungwan Lee, Minseog Choi, and  Woonbae Kim, Microelectrofluidic Lens for Variable CurvatureProc. SPIE 8486, Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Engineering XIII, 84860X (October 11, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.925852.

61-12  Biddut Bhattacharjee, Study of Droplet Splitting in an Electrowetting Based Digital Microfluidic System, Thesis: Doctor of Philosophy in the College of Graduate Studies (Applied Sciences), The University of British Columbia, September 2012, © Biddut Bhattacharjee.

55-12 Hejun Li, Pengyun Wang, Lehua Qi, Hansong Zuo, Songyi Zhong, Xianghui Hou, 3D numerical simulation of successive deposition of uniform molten Al droplets on a moving substrate and experimental validation, Computational Materials Science, Volume 65, December 2012, Pages 291–301. Available for purchase online at SciVerse.

54-12   Edward P. Furlani, Anthony Nunez, Gianmarco Vizzeri, Modeling Fluid Structure-Interactions for Biomechanical Analysis of the Human Eye, Nanotech Conference & Expo, June 18-21, 2012, Santa Clara, CA.

53-12   Xinyun Wu, Richard D. Oleschuk and Natalie M. Cann, Characterization of microstructured fibre emitters in pursuit of improved nano electrospray ionization performance, The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012, http://pubs.rsc.org, DOI: 10.1039/c2an35249d, May 2012

25-12    Edward P. Furlani, Ioannis H. Karampelas and Qian Xie, Analysis of Pulsed Laser Plasmon-assisted Photothermal Heating and Bubble Generation at the Nanoscale, Lab on a Chip, 10.1039/C2LC40495H, Received 01 May 2012, Accepted 07 Jun 2012. First published on the web 13 Jun 2012.

22-12  R.A. Sultanov, D. Guster, Numerical Modeling and Simulations of Pulsatile Human Blood Flow in Different 3D-Geometries, Book chapter #21 in Fluid Dynamics, Computational Modeling and Applications (2012), ISBN: 978-953-51-0052-2, p. 475 [18 pages]. Available online at INTECH.

21-12  Guo-Wei Huang, Tzu-Yi Hung, and Chin-Tai Chen, Design, Simulation, and Verification of Fluidic Light-Guide Chips with Various Geometries of Micro Polymer Channels, NEMS 2012, Kyoto, Japan, March 5-8, 2012. Available for purchase online at IEEE.

103-11   Suk-Hee Park, Development of Three-Dimensional Scaffolds containing Electrospun Nanofibers and their Applications to Tissue Regeneration, Ph.D. Thesis: School of Mechanical, Aersospace and Systems Engineering, Division of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 2011.

81-11   Xinyun Wu, Modeling and Characterization of Microfabricated Emitters-In Pursuit of Improved ESI-MS Performance, thesis: Department of Chemistry, Queen’s University, December 2011, Copyright © Xinyun Wu, 2011

79-11  Cong Lu, A Cell Preparation Stage for Automatic Cell Injection, thesis: Graduate Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Copyright © Cong Lu, 2011

77-11 Ge Bai, W. Thomas Leach, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) insights into agitation stress methods in biopharmaceutical development, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Available online 8 December 2011, ISSN 0378-5173, 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2011.11.044. Available online at SciVerse.

72-11  M.R. Barkhudarov, C.W. Hirt, D. Milano, and G. Wei, Comments on a Comparison of CFD Software for Microfluidic Applications, Flow Science Technical Note #93, FSI-11-TN93, December 2011

45-11  Chang-Wei Kang, Jiak Kwang Tan, Lunsheng Pan, Cheng Yee Low and Ahmed Jaffar, Numerical and experimental investigations of splat geometric characteristics during oblique impact of plasma spraying, Applied Surface Science, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 20 July 2011, ISSN 0169-4332, DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2011.06.081. Available to purchase online at SciVers

33-11  Edward P. Furlani, Mark T. Swihart, Natalia Litchinitser, Christopher N. Delametter and Melissa Carter, Modeling Nanoscale Plasmon-assisted Bubble Nucleation and Applications, Nanotech Conference and Expo 2011, Boston, MA, June 13-16, 2011

32-11  Lu, Cong and Mills, James K., Three cell separation design for realizing automatic cell injection, Complex Medical Engineering (CME), 2011 IEEE/ICME, pp: 599 – 603, Harbin, China, 10.1109/ICCME.2011.5876811, June 2011. Available online at IEEEXplore.

25-11 Issam M. Bahadur, James K. Mills, Fluidic vacuum-based biological cell holding device with piezoelectrically induced vibration, Complex Medical Engineering (CME), 2011 IEEE/ICME International Conference on, 22-25 May 2011, pp: 85 – 90, Harbin, China. Available online at: IEEE Xplore.

14-11  Edward P. Furlani, Roshni Biswas, Alexander N. Cartwright and Natalia M. Litchinitser, Antiresonant guiding optofluidic biosensor, doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2011.04.014, Optics Communication, April 2011

05-11 Hyeju Eom and Keun Park, Integrated numerical analysis to evaluate replication characteristics of micro channels in a locally heated mold by selective induction, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Volume 12, Number 1, 53-60, DOI: 10.1007/s12541-011-0007-x, 2011. Available online at: SpringerLink.

70-10  I.N. Volnov, V.S. Nagornyi, Modeling Processes for Generation of Streams of Monodispersed Fluid Droplets in Electro-inkjet Applications, Science and Technology News, St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, 4, pp 294-300, 2010. In Russian.

62-10  F. Mobadersani, M. Eskandarzade, S. Azizi and S. Abbasnezhad, Effect of Ambient Pressure on Bubble Growth in Micro-Channel and Its Pumping Effect, ESDA2010-24436, pp. 577-584, doi:10.1115/ESDA2010-24436, ASME 2010 10th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis (ESDA2010), Istanbul, Turkey, July 12–14, 2010. Available online at the ASME Digital Library.

58-10 Tsung-Yi Ho, Jun Zeng, and Chakrabarty, K, Digital microfluidic biochips: A vision for functional diversity and more than moore, Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), 2010 IEEE/ACM International Conference on, DOI: 10.1109/ICCAD.2010.5654199, © IEEE, November 2010. Available online at IEEE Explore.

51-10  Regina Bleul, Marion Ritzi-Lehnert, Julian Höth, Nico Scharpfenecker, Ines Frese, Dominik Düchs, Sabine Brunklaus, Thomas E. Hansen-Hagge, Franz-Josef Meyer-Almes, Klaus S. Drese, Compact, cost-efficient microfluidics-based stopped-flow device, Anal Bioanal Chem, DOI 10.1007/s00216-010-4446-5, Available online at Springer, November 2010

22-10    Krishendu Chakrabarty, Richard B. Fair and Jun Zeng, Design Tools for Digital Microfluidic Biochips Toward Functional Diversification and More than Moore, IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, Vol. 29, No. 7, July 2010

14-10 E. P. Furlani and M. S. Hanchak, Nonlinear analysis of the deformation and breakup of viscous microjets using the method of lines, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids (2010), © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Published online in Wiley InterScience. DOI: 10.1002/fld.2205

55-09 R.A. Sultanov, and D. Guster, Computer simulations of  pulsatile human blood flow through 3D models of the human aortic arch, vessels of simple geometry and a bifurcated artery, Proceedings of the 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society), Minneapolis, September 2-6, 2009, p.p. 4704-4710.

30-09 Anurag Chandorkar and Shayan Palit, Simulation of Droplet Dynamics and Mixing in Microfluidic Devices using a VOF-Based Method, Sensors & Transducers journal, ISSN 1726-5479 © 2009 by IFSA, Vol.7, Special Issue “MEMS: From Micro Devices to Wireless Systems,” October 2009, pp. 136-149.

13-09 E.P. Furlani, M.C. Carter, Analysis of an Electrostatically Actuated MEMS Drop Ejector, Presented at Nanotech Conference & Expo 2009, Houston, Texas, USA, May 3-7, 2009

12-09 A. Chandorkar, S. Palit, Simulation of Droplet-Based Microfluidics Devices Using a Volume-of-Fluid Approach, Presented at Nanotech Conference & Expo 2009, Houston, Texas, USA, May 3-7, 2009

3-09 Christopher N. Delametter, FLOW-3D Speeds MEMS Inkjet Development, Desktop Engineering, January 2009

42-08  Tien-Li Chang, Jung-Chang Wang, Chun-Chi Chen, Ya-Wei Lee, Ta-Hsin Chou, A non-fluorine mold release agent for Ni stamp in nanoimprint process, Microelectronic Engineering 85 (2008) 1608–1612

26-08 Pamela J. Waterman, First-Pass CFD Analyses – Part 2, Desktop Engineering, November 2008

09-08 M. Ren and H. Wijshoff, Thermal effect on the penetration of an ink droplet onto a porous medium, Proc. Eurotherm2008 MNH, 1 (2008)

04-08 Delametter, Christopher N., MEMS development in less than half the time, Small Times, Online Edition, May 2008

02-08 Renat A. Sultanov, Dennis Guster, Brent Engelbrekt and Richard Blankenbecler, 3D Computer Simulations of Pulsatile Human Blood Flows in Vessels and in the Aortic Arch – Investigation of Non-Newtonian Characteristics of Human Blood, The Journal of Computational Physics, arXiv:0802.2362v1 [physics.comp-ph], February 2008

01-08 Herman Wijshoff, thesis: University of Twente, Structure- and fluid dynamics in piezo inkjet printheads, ISBN 978-90-365-2582-4, Venlo, The Netherlands January 2008.

30-07 A. K. Sen, J. Darabi, and D. R. Knapp, Simulation and parametric study of a novel multi-spray emitter for ESI–MS applications, Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, Volume 3, Number 3, June 2007, pp. 283-298(16)

28-07 Dan Soltman and Vivek Subramanian, Inkjet-Printed Line Morphologies and Temperature Control of the Coffee Ring Effect, Langmuir; 2008; ASAP Web Release Date: 16-Jan-2008; (Research Article) DOI: 10.1021/la7026847

23-07 A K Sen and J Darabi, Droplet ejection performance of a monolithic thermal inkjet print head, Journal of Micromechanical and Microengineering,vol.17, pp.1420-1427 (2007) doi:10.1088/0960-1317/17/8/002; Abstract only.

18-07 Herman Wisjhoff, Better Printheads Via Simulation, Desktop Engineering, October 2007, Vol. 13, Issue 2

17-07 Jos de Jong, Ph.D. Thesis: University of Twente, Air entrapment in piezo inkjet printing, ISBN 978-90-365-2483-4, April 2007

15-07 Krishnendu Chakrabarty and Jun Zeng, (Ed.), Design Automation Methods and Tools for Microfluidics-Based Biochips, Springer, September 2006.

14-07 Fei Su and Jun Zeng, Computer-aided design and test for digital microfluidics, IEEE Design & Test of Computers, 24(1), 2007, 60-70.

13-07 Jun Zeng, Modeling and simulation of electrified droplets and its application to computer-aided design of digital microfluidics, IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 25(2), 2006, 224-233.

12-07 Krishnendu Chakrabarty and Jun Zeng, (2005), Automated top-down design for microfluidic biochips, ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems, 1(3), 2005, 186–223.

01-07 Wijshoff, Herman, Drop formation mechanisms in piezo-acoustic inkjet, NSTI-Nanotech 2007, ISBN 1420061844 Vol. 3, 2007)

23-06 John J. Uebbing, Stephan Hengstler, Dale Schroeder, Shalini Venkatesh, and Rick Haven, Heat and Fluid Flow in an Optical Switch Bubble, Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 15, No. 6, December 2006

21-06 Wijshoff, Herman, Manipulating Drop Formation in Piezo Acoustic Inkjet, Proc. IS&T’s NIP22, 79 (2006)

20-06 J. de Jong, H. Reinten, M. van den Berg, H. Wijshoff, M. Versluis, G. de Bruin, A. Prosperetti and D. Lohse, Air entrapment in piezo-driven inkjet printheads, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120(3), 1257 (2006)

11-06 A. K. Sen, J. Darabi, D. R. Knapp and J. Liu, Modeling and Characterization of a Carbon Fiber Emitter for Electrospray Ionization, 1 MEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208, USA, 2 Department of Pharmacology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC

5-06 E. P. Furlani, B. G. Price, G. Hawkins, and A. G. Lopez, Thermally Induced Marangoni Instability of Liquid Microjets with Application to Continuous Inkjet Printing, Proceedings of NSTI Nanotech Conference 2006, Vol. 2, pp 534-537.

28-05 O B Fawehinmi, P H Gaskell, P K Jimack, N Kapur, and H M Thompson, A combined experimental and computational fluid dynamics analysis of the dynamics of drop formation, May 2005. DOI: 10.1243/095440605X31788

5-05 E. P. Furlani, Thermal Modulation and Instability of Newtonian Liquid Microjets, presented at Nanotech 2005, Anaheim, CA, May 8-12, 2005.

1-05 C.W. Hirt, Electro-Hydrodynamics of Semi-Conductive Fluids: With Application to Electro-Spraying, Flow Science Technical Note #70, FSI-05-TN70

19-04 G. F. Yao, Modeling of Electroosmosis Without Resolving Physics Inside a Electric Double Layer, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-04-TN69)

12-04 Jun Zeng and Tom Korsmeyer, Principles of Droplet Electrohydrodynamics for Lab-on-a-Chip, Lab. Chip. Journal, 2004, 4(4), 265-277

9-04 Constantine N. Anagnostopoulos, James M. Chwalek, Christopher N. Delametter, Gilbert A. Hawkins, David L. Jeanmaire, John A. Lebens, Ali Lopez, and David P. Trauernicht, Micro-Jet Nozzle Array for Precise Droplet Metering and Steering Having Increased Droplet Deflection, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Solid State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, sponsored by IEEE, Boston, June 8-12, 2003, pp. 368-71

8-04 Christopher N. Delametter, David P. Trauernicht, James M. Chwalek, Novel Microfluidic Jet Deflection – Significant Modeling Challenge with Great Application Potential, Technical Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems sponsored by NSTI, San Juan, Puerto Rico, April 21-25, 2002, pp. 44-47

6-04 D. Vadillo*, G. Desie**, A Soucemarianadin*, Spreading Behavior of Single and Multiple Drops, *Laboratoire des Ecoulements Geophysiques et Industriels (LEGI), and **AGFA-Gevaert Group N.V., XXI ICTAM, 15-21 August 2004, Warsaw, Poland

2-04 Herman Wijshoff, Free Surface Flow and Acousto-Elastic Interaction in Piezo Inkjet, Nanotech 2004, sponsored by the Nano Science & Technology Institute, Boston, MA, March 2004

30-03 D Souders, I Khan and GF Yao, Alessandro Incognito, and Matteo Corrado, A Numerical Model for Simulation of Combined Electroosmotic and Pressure Driven Flow in Microdevices, 7th International Symposium on Fluid Control, Measurement and Visualization

27-03 Jun Zeng, Daniel Sobek and Tom Korsmeyer, Electro-Hydrodynamic Modeling of Electrospray Ionization – CAD for a µFluidic Device-Mass Spectrometer Interface, Agilent Technologies Inc, paper presented at Transducers 2003, June 03 Boston (note: Reference #10 is to FLOW-3D)

17-03 John Uebbing, Switching Fiber-optic Circuits with Microscopic Bubbles, Sensors Magazine, May 2003, Vol 20, No 5, p 36-42

16-03 CFD Speeds Development of MEMS-based Printing Technology, MicroNano Magazine, June 2003, Vol 8, No 6, p 16

3-03 Simulation Speeds Design of Microfluidic Medical Devices, R&D Magazine, March 2003, pp 18-19

1-03 Simulations Help Microscopic Bubbles Switch Fiber-Optic Circuits, Agilent Technologies, Fiberoptic Product News, January 2003, pp 22-23

27-02 Feng, James Q., A General Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Drop Ejection in Drop-on-Demand Ink Jet Devices, Journal of Imaging Science and Technology®, Volume 46, Number 5, September/October 2002

1-02 Feixia Pan, Joel Kubby, and Jingkuang Chen, Numerical Simulation of Fluid Structure Interaction in a MEMS Diaphragm Drop Ejector, Xerox Wilson Research Center, Institute of Physics Publishing, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 12 (2002), PII: SO960-1317(02)27439-2, pp. 70-76

48-01   Rainer Gruber, Radial Mass Transfer Enhancement in Bubble-Train Flow, PhD thesis in Engineering Sciences, Rheinisch- Westf alischen Technische Hochschule Aachen, December 2001.

34-01 Furlani, E.P., Delametter, C.N., Chwalek, J.M., and Trauernicht, D., Surface Tension Induced Instability of Viscous Liquid Jets, Fourth International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems, April 2001

12-01 C. N. Delametter, Eastman Kodak Company, Micro Resolution, Mechanical Engineering, Col 123/No 7, July 2001, pp 70-72

11-01 C. N. Delametter, Eastman Kodak Company, Surface Tension Induced Instability of Viscous Liquid Jets, Technical Proceeding of the Fourth International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems, April 2001

9-01 Aman Khan, Unipath Limited Research and Development, Effects of Reynolds Number on Surface Rolling in Small Drops, PVP-Col 431, Emerging Technologies for Fluids, Structures and Fluids, Structures and Fluid Structure Interaction — 2001

2-00 Narayan V. Deshpande, Significance of Inertance and Resistance in Fluidics of Thermal Ink-Jet Transducers, Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, Volume 40, Number 5, Sept./Oct. 1996, pp.457-461

4-98 D. Deitz, Connecting the Dots with CFD, Mechanical Engineering Magazine, pp. 90-91, March 1998

14-94 M. P. O’Hare, N. V. Deshpande, and D. J. Drake, Drop Generation Processes in TIJ Printheads, Xerox Corporation, Adv. Imaging Business Unit, IS&T’s Tenth International Congress on Advances in Non-Impact Printing, Tech. 1994

14-92 Asai, A.,Three-Dimensional Calculation of Bubble Growth and Drop Ejection in a Bubble Jet Printer, Journal of Fluids Engineering Vol. 114 December 1992:638-641

General Applications Bibliography

다음은 일반 응용 분야의 기술 문서 모음입니다.
이 모든 논문은 FLOW-3D  결과를 포함하고 있습니다. 복잡한 다중 물리와 관련된 문제를 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하기 위해 FLOW-3D를 사용 하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

Below is a collection of technical papers in our General Applications Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate problems that involve complex multiphysics.

2024년 3월 20일 Upate

204-23   Togo Shinonaga, Hibiki Tajima, Yasuhiro Okamoto, Akira Okada, Application of large-area electron beam irradiation to micro-edge filleting, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 107; pp. 65-73, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2023.10.039

167-23   Xiaoyong Cheng, Zhixian Cao, Ji Li, Alistair Borthwick, A numerical study of the settling of non-spherical particles in quiescent water, Physics of Fluids, 35.9; 2023. doi.org/10.1063/5.0165555

109-23 Dileep Karnam, Yu-Lung Lo, Chia-Hua Yang, Simulation study and parameter optimization of laser TSV using artificial neural networks, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 25; pp. 3712-3727, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2023.06.199

66-23   Erik Holmen Olofsson, Michael Roland, Jon Spangenberg, Ninna Halberg Jokil, Jesper Henri Hattel, A CFD model with free surface tracking: predicting fill level and residence time in a starve-fed single-screw extruder, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 126; pp. 3579-3591, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-023-11329-w

20-23   Giampiero Sciortino, Valentina Lombardi, Pietro Prestininzi, Modelling of cantilever-based flow energy harvesters featuring C-shaped vibration inducers: The role of the fluid/beam interaction, Applied Sciences, 13.1; 416, 2023. doi.org/10.3390/app13010416

134-22   Guozheng Ma, Shuying Chen, Haidou Wang, Impact spread behavior of flying droplets and properties of splats, Micro Process and Quality Control of Plasma Spraying, pp. 87-202, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-2742-3_3

111-22   Chia-Lin Chiu, Chia-Ming Fan, Chia-Ren Chu, Numerical analysis of two spheres falling side by side, Physics of Fluids, 34; 072112, 2022. doi.org/10.1063/5.0096534

58-21   Ruizhe Liu, Haidong Zhao, Experimental study and numerical simulation of infiltration of AlSi12 alloys into Si porous preforms with micro-computed tomography inspection characteristics, Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, 129.6; pp. 315-322, 2021. doi.org/10.2109/jcersj2.21018

56-20   Nils Steinau, CFD modeling of ascending Strombolian gas slugs through a constricted volcanic conduit considering a non-linear rheology, Thesis, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 2020.

30-20   Bita Bayatsarmadi, Mike Horne, Theo Rodopoulos and Dayalan Gunasegaram, Intensifying diffusion-limited reactions by using static mixer electrodes in a novel electrochemical flow cell, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 167.6, 2020. doi.org/10.1149/1945-7111/ab7e8f

75-19   Raphaël Comminal, Marcin Piotr Serdeczny, Navid Ranjbar, Mehdi Mehrali, David Bue Pedersen, Henrik Stang, Jon Spangenberg, Modelling of material deposition in big area additive manufacturing and 3D concrete printing, Proceedings, Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing, Nantes, France, September 16-18, 2019.

35-19     Sung-Won Ha, Tae-Won Kim, Joo-Hwan Choi, and Young-Jin Park, Study for flow phenomenon in the circulation water pump chamber using the Flow-3D model, Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 580-589, 2019. doi: 10.5762/KAIS.2019.20.4.580

27-19     Rolands Cepuritis, Elisabeth L. Skare, Evgeny Ramenskiy, Ernst Mørtsell, Sverre Smeplass, Shizhao Li, Stefan Jacobsen, and Jon Spangeberg, Analysing limitations of the FlowCyl as a one-point viscometer test for cement paste, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 218, pp. 333-340, 2019. doi: 10.1016.j.conbuildmat.2019.05.127

26-19     Shanshan Hu, Lunliang Duan, Qianbing Wan, and Jian Wang, Evaluation of needle movement effect on root canal irrigation using a computational fluid dynamics model, BioMedical Engineering OnLine, Vol. 18, No. 52, 2019. doi: 10.1186/s12938-019-0679-5

83-18   Elisabeth Leite Skare, Stefan Jacobsen, Rolands Cepuritis, Sverre Smeplass and Jon Spangenberg, Decreasing the magnitude of shear rates in the FlowCyl, Proceedings of the 12th fib International PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic, August 29-31, 2018.

71-18   Marc Bascompta, Jordi Vives, Lluís Sanmiqeul and José Juan de Felipe, CFD friction factors verification in an underground mine, Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Mechanical, Chemical, and Material Engineering, August 16 – 18, 2018, Madrid, Spain, Paper No. MMME 105, 2018. doi.org/10.11159/mmme18.105

56-18   J. Spangenberg, A. Uzala, M.W. Nielsen and J.H. Hattel, A robustness analysis of the bonding process of joints in wind turbine blades, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, vol. 85, pp. 281-285, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2018.06.009

21-18   Zhang Weikang and Gong Hongwei, Numerical Simulation Study on Characteristics of Airtight Water Film with Flow Deflectors, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science vol. 153, no. 3, pp. 032025, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/153/3/032025

59-17  Han Eol Park and In Cheol Bang, Design study on mixing performance of rotational vanes in subchannel with fuel rod bundles, Transactions of the Korean Nuclear Society Autumn Meeting, Gyeongju, Korea, October 26-27, 2017.

58-17  Jian Zhou, Claudia Cenedese, Tim Williams and Megan Ball, On the propagation of gravity currents over and through a submerged array of circular cylinders, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 831, pp. 394-417, 2017. doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2017.604

24-17   Zhiyuan Ge, Wojciech Nemec, Rob L. Gawthorpe, Atle Rotevatn and Ernst W.M. Hansen, Response of unconfined turbidity current to relay-ramp topography: insights from process-based numerical modelling, doi: 10.1111/bre.12255 This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

06-17   Masoud Hosseinpoor, Kamal H. Khayat, Ammar Yahia, Numerical simulation of self-consolidating concrete flow as a heterogeneous material in L-Box set-up: coupled effect of reinforcing bars and aggregate content on flow characteristics, A. Mater Struct (2017) 50: 163. doi:10.1617/s11527-017-1032-8

94-16   Mehran Seyed Ahmadi, Markus Bussmann and Stavros A. Argyropoulos, Mass transfer correlations for dissolution of cylindrical additions in liquid metals with gas agitation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 97, June 2016, Pages 767-778

83-16   Masoud Hosseinpoor, Numerical simulation of fresh SCC flow in wall and beam elements using flow dynamics models, Ph.D. Thesis: University of Sherbrooke, September 2016.

51-16   Aditi Verma, Application of computational transport analysis – Oil spill dynamics, Master Thesis: State University of New York at Buffalo, 2016, 56 pages; 1012775

37-16   Hannah Dietterich, Einat Lev, and Jiangzhi Chen, Benchmarking computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow simulation, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 18, EGU2016-2202, 2016, EGU General Assembly 2016, © Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

 19-16   A.J. Vellinga, M.J.B. Cartigny, E.W.M. Hansen, P.J. Tallinga, M.A. Clare, E.J. Sumner and J.T. Eggenhuisen, Process-based Modelling of Turbidity Currents – From Computational Fluid-dynamics to Depositional Signature, Second Conference on Forward Modelling of Sedimentary Systems, 25 April 2016, DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.201600374

106-15    Hidetaka Oguma, Koji Tsukimoto, Saneyuki Goya, Yoshifumi Okajima, Kouichi Ishizaka, and Eisaku Ito, Development of Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for High-efficiency Gas Turbines, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Technical Review Vol. 52 No. 4, December 2015

93-15   James M. Brethour, Modelling of Cavitation within Highly Transient Flows with the Volume of Fluid Method, 1st Pan-American Congress on Computational Mechanics, April 27-29, 2015

90-15   Troy Shinbrot, Matthew Rutala, Andrea Montessori, Pietro Prestininzi and Sauro Succi, Paradoxical ratcheting in cornstarch, Phys. Fluids 27, 103101 (2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4934709

84-15   Nicolas Roussel, Annika Gram, Massimiliano Cremonesi, Liberato Ferrara, Knut Krenzer, Viktor Mechtcherine, Sergiy Shyshko, Jan Skocec, Jon Spangenberg, Oldrich Svec, Lars Nyholm Thrane and Ksenija Vasilic, Numerical simulations of concrete flow: A benchmark comparison, Cem. Concr. Res. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2015.09.022

02-15   David Souders, FLOW-3D Version 11 Enhances CFD Simulation, Desktop Engineering, January 2015

125-14   Herbert Obame Mve, Romuald Rullière, Rémi Goulet and Phillippe Haberschill, Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer of a Flow Confined by Wire Screen in Lithium Bromide Absorption Process, Defect and Diffusion Forum, ISSN: 1662-9507, Vol. 348, pp 40-50, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/DDF.348.40, © 2014 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland

55-14   Agni Arumugam Selvi, Effect of Linear Direction Oscillation on Grain Refinement, Master’s Thesis: The Ohio State University, Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering, Copyright by Agni Arumugam Selvi, 2014

99-13   R. C. Givler and M. J. Martinez, Computational Model of Miniature Pulsating Heat Pipes, SANDIA REPORT, SAND2012-4750, Unlimited Release, Printed January 2013.

82-13    Shizhao Li, Jon Spangenberg, Jesper Hattel, A CFD Approach for Prediction of Unintended Porosities in Aluminum Syntactic Foam A Preliminary Study, 8th International Conference on Porous Metals and Metallic Foams (METFOAM 2013), Raleigh, NC, June 2013

81-13   S. Li, J. Spangenberg, J. H. Hattel, A CFD Model for Prediction of Unintended Porosities in Metal Matrix Composites A Preliminary Study, 19th International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM 2013), Montreal, Canada, July 2013

78-13   Haitham A. Hussein, Rozi Abdullah, Sobri, Harun and Mohammed Abdulkhaleq, Numerical Model of Baffle Location Effect on Flow Pattern in Oil and Water Gravity Separator Tanks, World Applied Sciences Journal 26 (10): 1351-1356, 2013, ISSN 1818-4952, DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.26.10.1239, © IDOSI Publications, 2013

74-13  Laetitia Martinie, Jean-Francois Lataste, and Nicolas Roussel, Fiber orientation during casting of UHPFRC: electrical resistivity measurements, image analysis and numerical simulations, Materials and Structures, DOI 10.1617/s11527-013-0205-3, November 2013. Available for purchase online at SpringerLink.

67-13 Stefan Jacobsen, Rolands Cepuritis, Ya Peng, Mette R. Geiker, and Jon Spangenberg, Visualizing and simulating flow conditions in concrete form filling using Pigments, Construction and Building Materials 49 (2013) 328–342, © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Available for purchase at ScienceDirect.

60-13 Huey-Jiuan Lin, Fu-Yuan Hsu, Chun-Yu Chiu, Chien-Kuo Liu, Ruey-Yi Lee, Simulation of Glass Molding Process for Planar Type SOFC Sealing Devices, Key Engineering Materials, 573, 131, September 2013. Available for purchase at Scientific.net.

32-13 M A Rashid, I Abustan and M O Hamzah, Numerical simulation of a 3-D flow within a storage area hexagonal modular pavement systems, 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (ICEE 2013), IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 16 (2013) 012056 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/16/1/012056. Full paper available at IOP.

105-12 Jon Spangenberg, Numerisk modellering af formfyldning ved støbning i selvkompakterende beton, Ph.D. Thesis: Technical University of Denmark, ID: 0eeede98-fb07-4800-86e2-0a6baeb1e7a3, 2012.

100-12 Nurul Hasan, Validation of CFD models using FLOW-3D for a Submerged Liquid Jet, Ninth International Conference on CFD in the Minerals and Process Industries, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia, 10-12 December 2012.

87-12  Abustan, Ismail, Hamzah, Meor Othman and Rashid, Mohd Aminur, A 3-Dimensional Numerical Study of a Flow within a Permeable Pavement, OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 04, No. 02, pp. 37-44, April 2012.

86-12 Abustan, Ismail, Hamzah, Meor Othman and Rashid, Mohd Aminur, Review of Permeable Pavement Systems in Malaysia Conditions, OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 04, No. 02, pp. 27-36, April 2012.

85-12  Mohd Aminur Rashid, Ismail Abustan, Meor Othman Hamzah, Infiltration Characteristic Modeling Using FLOW-3D within a Modular Pavement, Procedia Engineering, Volume 50, 2012, Pages 658-667, ISSN 1877-7058, 10.1016/j.proeng.2012.10.072.

73-12  Mohd Aminur Rashid, Ismail Abustan, Meor Othman Hamzah, Infiltration Characteristic Modeling Using FLOW-3D within a Modular Pavement, Procedia Engineering, Volume 50, 2012, Pages 658-667, ISSN 1877-7058, 10.1016/j.proeng.2012.10.072.

65-12  X.H. Yang, T.J. Lu, T. Kim, Influence of non-conducting pore inclusions on phase change behavior of porous media with constant heat flux boundaryInternational Journal of Thermal Sciences, Available online 10 October 2012. Available online at SciVerse.

56-12  Giancarlo Alfonsi, Agostino Lauria, Leonardo Primavera, Flow structures around large-diameter circular cylinder, Journal of Flow Visualization and Image Processing, DOI: 10.1615/JFlowVisImageProc.2012005088, 2012. Available for purchase online at Begell Digital Library.

49-12  M. Janocko, M.B.J. Cartigny, W. Nemec, E.W.M. Hansen, Turbidity current hydraulics and sediment deposition in erodible sinuous channels: laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, Marine and Petroleum Geology, Available online 17 September 2012. Available for purchase online at SciVerse.

32-12  Fatih Karadagli, Bruce E. Rittmann, Drew C. McAvoy, and John E. Richardson, Effect of Turbulence on the Disintegration Rate of Flushable Consumer Products, Water Environment Research, Volume 84, Number 5, May 2012

31-12    D. Valero Huerta and R. García-Bartual, Optimization of Air Conditioning Diffusers Location in Large Agricultural Warehouses Using CFD Techniques, International Conference of Agricultural Engineering (CIGR-AgEng2012) Valencia, Spain, July 8-12, 2012

16-12 Yi Fan Fu, Wei Dong, Ying Li, Yi Tan, Ming Hui Yi, Akira Kawasaki, Simulation of the Effects of the Physical Properties on Particle Formation of Pulsated Orifice Ejection Method (POEM), 2012, Advanced Materials Research, 509, 161. Available for purchase online at Scientific.Net.

92-11  Giancarlo Alfonsi, Agostino Lauria, Leonardo Primavera, The lower vertical structure past the Ahmed car model, International Conference on Computational Science, ICCS 2011. Available for purchase online at Begell Digital Library.

80-11  Ismail Abustan, Meor Othman Hamzah, Mohd Aminur Rashid, A 3-Dimensional Numerical Study of a Flow within a Permeable Pavement, OIDA International Conference on Sustainable Development, ISSN 1923-6670, Putrajaya, Malaysia, 5-7th December 2011

66-11   H. Kondo, T. Furukawa, Y. Hirakawa, K. Nakamura, M. Ida, K.Watanabe, T. Kanemura, E. Wakai, H. Horiike, N. Yamaoka, H. Sugiura, T. Terai, A. Suzuki, J. Yagi, S. Fukada, H. Nakamura, I. Matsushita, F. Groeschel, K. Fujishiro, P. Garin and H. Kimura, IFMIF-EVEDA lithium test loop design and fabrication technology of target assembly as a key componentNuclear Fusion Volume 51 Number 12, doi:10.1088/0029-5515/51/12/123008

49-11     N.I. Vatin, A.A. Girgidov, K.I. Strelets, Numerical modelling the three-dimensional velocity field in the cyclone, Inzhenerno-Stroitel’nyi Zhurnal, No. 4, 2011. In Russian.

41-11    Maiko Hosoda, Taichi Hirano, and Keiji Sakai, Low-Viscosity Measurement by Capillary Electromagnetically Spinning Technique, © 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, July 20, 2011.

18-11  Ortloff, C.R., Vogel, M., Spray cooling heat transfer — Test and CFD analysis, Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM), 2011 27th Annual IEEE, 20-24 March 2011, pp 245 – 252, San Jose, CA, 10.1109/STHERM.2011.5767208.

82-10   Dr. John Abbott, Two problems on the flow of viscous sheets of molten glass, 26th Annual Workshop on Mathematical Problems in Industry, Rensselear Polytechnic Institute, June 14-18, 2010

57-10  Chouet, B. A., Dawson, P. B., James, M. R. and Lane, S. J., Seismic source mechanism of degassing bursts at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: Results from waveform inversion in the 10–50 s band, J. Geophys. Res., 115, B09311, doi:10.1029/2009JB006661, September 2010. Available online at JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH.

55-10 Pamela Waterman, FEA and CFD: Getting Better All the Time, Desktop Engineering, December 2010.

53-10  Nicolas Fries, Capillary transport processes in porous materials – experiment and model, Cuvillier Verlag Göttingen; 2010; ISBN 978-3-86955-507-2. Available at www.cuvillier.de  and www.amazon.de.

45-10  Meiring Beyers, Thomas Harms, and Johan Stander, Mitigating snowdrift at the elevated SANAE IV research station in Antarctica CFD simulation and field application, The Fifth International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering (CWE2010), Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, May 23-27, 2010.

31-10 J. Spangenberg, N. Roussel, J.H. Hattel, J. Thorborg, M.R. Geiker, H. Stang and J. Skocek, Prediction of the Impact of Flow-Induced Inhomogeneities in Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC), Ch. 25 of “Design, Production and Placement of Self-Consolidating Concrete,” RILEM Bookseries, 2010, Volume 1, Part 5, 209-215, DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-9664-7_18. Available online at Springer Link.

28-10 Sirisha Burra, Daniel P. Nicolella, W. Loren Francis, Christopher J. Freitas, Nicholas J. Mueschke, Kristin Poole, and Jean X. Jiang, Dendritic processes of osteocytes are mechanotransducers that induce the opening of hemichannels, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jul 19. [Epub ahead of print], Available for purchase at PNAS.

19-10 Michael T. Tolley, Michael Kalontarov, Jonas Neubert, David Erickson and Hod Lipson, Stochastic Modular Robotic Systems A Study of Fluidic Assembly Strategies, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Vol. 26, NO. 3, June 2010

59-17   Han Eol Park and In Cheol Bang, Design study on mixing performance of rotational vanes in subchannel with fuel rod bundles, Transactions of the Korean Nuclear Society Autumn Meeting, Gyeongju, Korea, October 26-27, 2017.

44-09 Micah Fuller, Fabian Bombardelli, Deb Niemeier, Particulate Matter Modeling in Near-Road Vegetation Environments, Contract AQ-04-01: Developing Effective and Quantifiable Air Quality Mitigation Measures, UC Davis, Caltrans, September 2009

28-09 D. C. Lo, Dong-Taur Su and Jan-Ming Chen (2009), Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations to the Analysis of Bank Effects in Restricted Waters, Journal of Navigation, 62, pp 477-491, doi:10.1017/S037346330900527X; Purchase the article online (clicking on this link will take you to the Cambridge Journals website).

24-09 Richard C. Givler and Mario J. Martinez, Modeling of Pulsating Heat Pipes, Sandia Report, SAND2009-4520, Sandia National Laboratories, August 2009.

45-08  J. Saeki, Seikei Kakou, Three-Dimensional Flow Analysis of a Thermosetting Compound in a Motor Stator, 20, 750-754 (2008) [in Japanese] (Zipped file contains paper and appendices)

38-08 Yoshifumi Kuriyama, Ken’ichi Yano and Masafumi Hamaguchi, Trajectory Planning for Meal Assist Robot Considering Spilling Avoidance, 17th IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, Part of 2008 1EEE Multi-conference on Systems and Control, San Antonio, Texas, September 3-5, 2008

29-08 Ernst W.M. Hansen, Wojciech Nemec and Snorre Heimsund, Numerical CFD simulations — a new tool for the modelling of turbidity currents and sand dispersal in deep-water basins, Production Geoscience 2008 in Stavanger, Norway, © 2008

17-08 James, M. R., Lane, S. J. & Corder, S. B., Modelling the rapid near-surface expansion of gas slugs in low-viscosity magmas, In Lane S. J., Gilbert J. S. (eds) Fluid Motion in Volcanic Conduits: A Source of Seismic and Acoustic Signals. Geol. Soc., London, Spec. Pub., 307, 147-167, doi: 10.1144/SP307.9. 2008

16-08 Stefano Malavasi, Nicola Trabucchi, Numerical Investigation of the Flow Around a Rectangular Cylinder Near a Solid Wall, BBAA VI International Colloquium on: Bluff Bodies Aerodynamics & Applications, Milano, Italy, July 2008

41-07 Nicolas Roussel, Mette R. Geiker, Frederic Dufour, Lars N. Thrane and Peter Szabo, Computational modeling of concrete flow General Overview, Cement and Concrete Research 37 (2007) 1298-1307, © 2007 Elsevier Ltd.

40-07 Nemec, W., Heimsund, S., Xu, J. & Hansen, E.W.M., Numerical CFD simulation of turbidity currents, British Sedimentological Research Group (BSRG) Annual Meeting, Birmingham, 17-18 December 2007

39-07 Heimsund, S, Xu, J. & Nemec, W., Numerical Simulation of Recent Turbidity Currents in the Monterey Canyon System, Offshore California, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, 10-14 December 2007

32-07 James, M. R., Lane, S. J. & Corder, S. B., Modeling the near-surface expansion of gas slugs in basaltic magmaEos Trans. A.G.U., 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl.. Abs. V12B-03. 2007

31-07 James, M. R., Lane, S. J. and Corder, S. B., Degassing low-viscosity magma: Quantifying the transition between passive bubble-burst and explosive activityE.G.U. Geophys. Res. Abstr., 905336, SRef-ID: 1607-7962/gra/EGU2007-A-05336. 2007

35-06  S. Green and C. Manepally, Software Validation Report for FLOW-3D Version 9.0, Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, August 2006

33-06 N. Roussel, Correlation between yield stress and slump: Comparison between numerical simulations and concrete rheometers results, © RILEM 2006, Materials and Structures (2006) 39:501-509, Purchase online at Springer Link.

32-06 Heimsund, S., Möller, N. and Guargena, C., FLOW-3D simulation of the Ormen Lange field, mid-Norway, In: Hoyanagi, K., Takano, O. and Kano, K. (Ed.), Abstracts, International Association of Sedimentologists 17th International Sedimentological Congress, Fukuoka, Vol. B, p. 107, 2006

10-06 Gengsheng Wei, An Implicit Method to Solve Problems of Rigid Body Motion Coupled with Fluid Flow, Flow Science Technical Note #76, FSI-05-TN76.

8-06 Gengsheng Wei, Three-Dimensional Collision Modeling for Rigid Bodies and its Coupling with Fluid Flow Computation, Flow Science Technical Note #75, FSI-06-TN75.

34-05  Young Bae Kim, Kyung Do Kim, Sang Eui Hong, Jong Goo Kim, Man Ho Park, and Ju Hyun Kim, and Jae Keun Kweon, 3D Simulation of PU Foaming Flow in a Refrigerator Cabinet, Appliance Magazine.com, January 2005.

33-05 N. Roussel, Fifty-cent rheo-meter for yield stress measurements From slump to spreading flow, @2005 by The Society of Rheolgoy, Inc., J. Rheol. 49(3), 705-718 May/June (2005)

32-05 Heimsund, S., Möller, N., Guargena, C. and Thompson, L., Field-scale modeling of turbidity currents by FLOW-3D simulations, In: Workshop Abstracts, Modeling of Turbidity Currents and Related Gravity Currents, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2 p., (2005)

15-05 Gengsheng Wei, A Fixed-Mesh Method for General Moving Objects, Flow Science Technical Note #73, FSI-05-TN73

14-05 James M. Brethour, Incremental Thermoelastic Stress Model, Flow Science Technical Note #72, FSI-05-TN72

9-05 Gengsheng Wei, A Fixed-Mesh Method for General Moving Objects in Fluid Flow, Modern Physics Letters B, Vol. 19, Nos. 28-29 (2005) 1719-1722

1-05 C.W. Hirt, Electro-Hydrodynamics of Semi-Conductive Fluids: With Application to Electro-Spraying Flow Science Technical Note #70, FSI-05-TN70

35-04  J. Saeki, T. Kono and T. Teramae, Seikei Kakou, Formulation of Mathematical Models for Estimating Residual Stress and Strain Components Correlated with 3-D Flow of Thermosetting Compounds, 16, 5, 309-316 (2004) [in Japanese]. (Zipped file contains paper and appendices)

31-04 Heimsund, S., Möller, N., Guargena, C. and Thompson, L., The control of seafloor topography on turbidite sand dispersal in the Ormen Lange field: a large-scale application of FLOW-3D simulations, In: Martinsen, O.J. (Ed.), Abstracts and Proceedings of the Geological Society of Norway (NGF), Deep Water Sedimentary Systems of Arctic and North Atlantic Margins, Stavanger, 3, p. 25, (2004)

26-04 Beyers, J.H.M., Harms, T.M. and Sundsbø, P.A., 2004, Numerical simulation of three dimensional, transient snow drifting around a cube, Journal of wind engineering and industrial aerodynamics, vol. 92, pp. 725-747, ISSN 0167-6105

25-04 Beyers, J.H.M, Harms, T.M. and Sundsbø, P.A., 2004, Numerical simulation of snow drifting around an elevated obstacle, Proceedings of the 5th conference on snow engineering, Davos, Switzerland, pp.185-191

17-04 Michael Barkhudarov, Multi-Block Gridding Technique for FLOW-3D (Revised), Flow Science Technical Note #59-R2, FSI-00-TN59-R2

36-03 Heimsund, S., Hansen, E.W.M. and Nemec, W., Numerical CFD simulation of turbidity currents and comparison with laboratory data, In: Hodgetts, D., Hodgson, D. and Smith, R. (Ed.), Slope Modelling Workshop Abstracts, Experimental, Reservoir and Forward Modelling of Turbidity Currents and Deep-Water Sedimentary Systems, Liverpool Univ., p. 13., (2003b)

35-03 Heimsund, S., Hansen, E.W.M. and Nemec, W. Computational 3-D fluid-dynamics model for sediment transport, erosion and deposition by turbidity currents, In: Nakrem, H.A. (Ed.), Abstracts and Proceedings of the Geological Society of Norway (NGF), Den 18. Vinterkonferansen, Oslo, 1, p. 39., (2003a)

33-03 Beyers, J.H.M., Sundsbø, P.A. and Harms, T.M., 2003, Numerical simulation and verification of drifting snow around a cube, Proceedings of the 11th international conference on wind engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA, pp. 1886-1893

27-03 Jun Zeng, Daniel Sobek and Tom Korsmeyer, Electro-Hydrodynamic Modeling of Electrospray Ionization CAD for a µFluidic Device-Mass Spectrometer Interface, Agilent Technologies Inc, paper presented at Transducers 2003, June 03 Boston (note: Reference #10 is to FLOW-3D)

25-03 J. M Brethour, Moving Boundaries an Eularian Approach, Moving Boundaries VII, Computational Modelling of Free and Moving Boundary Problems, A. A. Mammoli & C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press

19-03 James Brethour, Incremental Elastic Stress Model, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-03-TN64)

18-03 Michael Barkhudarov, Semi-Lagrangian VOF Advection Method for FLOW-3D, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-03-TN63)

11-02 Junichi Saeki and Tsutomu Kono, Three-Dimensional Flow Analysis of a Thermosetting Compound during Mold Filling, Polymer Processing Society 18th Annual Meeting, June 2002, Guimares, Portugal.

46-01 Yasunori Iwai, Takumi Hayashi, Toshihiko Yamanishi, Kazuhiro Kobayashi and Masataka Nishi, Simulation of Tritium Behavior after Intended Tritium Release in Ventilated Room, Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Vol. 38, No. 1, p. 63-75, January 2001

23-01 Borre Bang, Dag Lukkassen, Application of Homogenization Theory Related to Stokes Flow in Porous Media, Applications of Mathematics, Narvik, Norway, No 4, pp. 309-319.

15-01 Ernst Hansen, SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway, Computer Simulation Helps Increase Flow Rate in Three-Phase Separator, Drilling Marketplace, Vol 55, No 10, May 15, 2001, pp.14

10-01 Ernst Hansen, SINTEF Energy Research, Phenomeological Modeling and Simulation of Fluid Flow and Separation Behaviour in Offshore Gravity Separators, PVP-Col 431, Emerging Technologies for Fluids, Structures and Fluids, Structures and Fluid Structure Interaction — 2001, ASME 2001, pp. 23-29

7-01 C. Bohm, D. A. Weiss, and C. Tropea, Multi-droplet Impact onto Solid Walls Droplet-droplet Interaction and Collision of Kinemeatic Discontinuities, DaimlerChrysler Research and Technology, ILASS-Europe 2000, September 11-13, 2000

6-01 Ernst Hansen, Simulation Raises Separator Flow RateEngineering Talk, March 21, 2001

3-01 M. Sick, H. Keck, G. Vullioud, and E. Parkinson, New Challenges in Pelton Research

1-01 Y. Darsht, K. Kuvanov, A. Puzanov, I. Kholkin, FLOW-3D in Designing Hydraulic Systems for Heavy Machinery  (in Russian), SAPR I Grafika (CAD and Graphics), August 2000, pp. 50-55.

22-00 A. K. Temu, O. K. Sønju and E. W. M. Hansen, Criteria for Minimum Particle Deposition onto a Cylinder in Crossflow, International Symposium on Multiphase Flow and Transport Phenomena, November 2000, Tekirova, Antalya, Turkey

21-00 Claus Maier, Stefan aus der Wiesche and Eberhard P. Hofer, Impact of Microdrops on Solid Surfaces for DNA-Synthesis, Department of Measurement, Control and Microtechnology, University of Ulm, Technical Proceedings of the 2000 International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems, pp. 586-589

11-00 Thomas K. Thiis, A Comparison of Numerical Simulations and Full-scale Measurements of Snowdrifts around Buildings, Wind and Structures – ISSN: 1226-6116,Vol. 3, nr. 2 (2000), pp. 73-81

10-00 P.A. Sundsbo and B. Bang, Snow drift control in residential areas-Field measurements and numerical simulations, Fourth International Conference on Snow Engineering, pp. 377-382

9-00 Thomas K. Thiis and Christian Jaedicke, The Snowdrift Pattern Around Two Cubical Obstacles with Varying Distance—Measurement and Numerical Simulations, Snow Engineering, edited by Hjorth-Hansen, et al, Balkema, Rotterdam, 2000, pp.369-375.

8-00 Thomas K. Thiis and Christian Jaedicke, Changes in the Snowdrift Pattern Caused by a Building Extension—Investigations Through Scale Modeling and Numerical Simulations, Snow Engineering, edited by Hjorth-Hansen, et al, Balkema, Rotterdam, 2000, pp. 363-368

7-00 Bruce Letellier, Louis Restrepo, and Clinton Shaffer, Near-Field Dispersion of Fission Products in Complex Terrain Using a 3-D Turbulent Fluid-Flow Model, CCPS International Conference, San Francisco, CA, September 28-October 1, 1999

6-00 Bruce Letellier, Patrick McClure, and Louis Restrepo, Source-Term and Building-Wake Consequence Modeling for the GODIVA IV Reactor at Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1999 Safety Analysis Workshop, Portland, Oregon, June 13-18, 1999

11-99 Thomas K. Thiis and Yngvar Gjessing, Large-scale Measurements of Snowdrifts Around Flat-roofed and Single-pitch-roofed Buildings, Cold Regions Science and Technology 30, Narvik, Norway, May 17, 1999, pp. 175-181

3-99 A. A. Gubaidullin, Jr., T. N. Dinh, and B. R. Sehgal, Analysis of Natural Convection Heat Transfer and Flows in Internally Heated Stratified Liquid, accepted for publication 33rd Natl. Heat Transfer Conf. CD proceedings, Albuquerque, NM, August 15-17, 1999

20-98 Mark W. Silva, A Computational Study of Highly Viscous Impinging Jets, published by the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, ANRCP-1998-18, November 1998

17-98 P. A. Sundsbo and B. Bang, 1998, Calculation of Snowdrift Around Roadside Safety Barriers, Proc of the International Snow Science Workshop, Sept. 1998, Sunriver, Oregon, USA 279-283

11-98 P-A Sundsbo, Numerical simulations of wind deflection fins to control snow accumulation in building steps, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 74-76 (1998) 543-552

23-97  P.E. O’Donoghue, M.F. Kanninen, C.P. Leung, G. Demofonti, and S. Venzi, The development and validation of a dynamic propagation model for gas transmission pipelines, Intl J. Pres. Ves. & Piping 70 (1997) 11-25, P11 : S0308 – 0161 (96) 00012 – 9.

22-97  Christopher J. Matice, Simulation of High Speed Filling, Presented at High Speed Processing & Filling of Plastic Containers, SME, Chicago, Illinois, November 11, 1997.

12-97 B. Entezam and W. K. Van Moorhem, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT and J. Majdalani, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, Modeling of a Rijke-Tube Pulse Combustor Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, presented at 33rd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, Seattle, WA, July 6-9, 1997.

11-97 B. Entezam, Computational and Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Flowfield Inside the Rijke Tube, doctoral thesis submitted to University of Utah, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, Salt Lake City, UT, June 1997

2-97 K. Fujisaki, T. Ueyama, and K. Okazawa, Magnetohydrodynamic Calculation of In-Mold Electromagnetic Stirring, Nippon Steel Corp., IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 33, No. 2, March 1997

1-97 P. A. Sundsbo, Four Layer Modelling and Numerical Simulations of Snow Drift, to be submitted to the Journal of Glaciology, 1997

23-96 Andy K Palmer, Computational Fluid Dynamic Software Comparison and Electrostatic Precipitator Modeling, Presented to the Faculty of California State University, Summer 1996

21-96 P. A. Sundsbo, Computer Simulation of Snow-Drift around Structures, Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Building Physics in the Nordic Countries, Vol. 2, 533-539, Finland, 9-10 Sep. 1996

20-96 P. A. Sundsbo and E.W.M. Hansen, Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Snow-Drift around Snow Fences, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Snow Engineering, Sendai, Japan, 26-31 May 1996

19-96 P. A. Sundsbo, Numerical Modelling and Simulation of Snow Accumulations around Porous FencesProceedings of the International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 6-10 Oct. 1996

18-96 T. Iverson, Editor, Applied Modelling and Simulation, Proceedings of the 38th SIMS Simulation Conference, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, June 11-13, 1996

17-96 C. L. Parish, Modeling Compressible Flow Through an Orifice Stack Using Numerical Methods, thesis submitted for M.S. Mech. Engineering, NM State University, Las Cruces, NM, December 1996

15-96 T. Wiik and R. K. Calay, A Study of Balcony on Flow-Field and Wind Loads for Low-Rise Buildings, Fourth Symposium on Building Physics in the Nordic Countries, Dipoli, Espoo, Finland, September 1996

14-96 T. Wiik, E.W.M. Hansen, The Assessment of Wind Loads on Roof Overhang of Low-Rise Buildings, Second International Symposium Wind Engineering, Fort Collins, CO, September 1996

13-96 T. Wiik, R. K. Calay, and A. Holdo, A Study of Effects of Eaves on Flow-Field and Wind Loads for Low-Rise Houses, Third International Colloquium on Bluff Body Aerodynamics and Applications, Blacksburg, Virginia, August 1996

11-96 Y. Miyamoto and M. Harada, A Flow Analysis accompanied by Formation of the Liquid Droplets shown with an Animation Display Technique, SEA Corporation, presented at Visualization Information Conference, Tokyo, Japan, July 17, 1996

8-96 J. Bakken, E. Naess, T. Engebretsen, and E. W. M. Hansen, Fluid Flow in Porous Media, proceedings of the 38th SIMS Simulations Conference, Norwegian Univ. of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway, June 11-13, 1996

7-96E. W. M. Hansen, Performance of Oil/Water Gravity Separators Imposed to Motion, proceedings of the 38th SIMS Simulations Conference, Norwegian Univ. of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway, June 11-13, 1996

8-95 J. J. Francis, Computational Hydrodynamic Study of Flow through a Vertical Slurry Heat Exchanger, NSF Summer Research Program, Dept. Mech. Engineering, Univ. of Nevada Las Vegas, August 9, 1995

4-94 J. L. Ditter and C. W. Hirt, A Scalable Model for Mixing Vessels, Flow Science report, FSI-94-00-1, presented at the 1994 ASME Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting, Incline Village, NV, June 1994

3-94 A. Nielsen, B. Bang, P. A. Sundsbo and T. Wiik, Computer Simulation of Windspeed, Windpressure and Snow Accumulation around Buildings (SNOW-SIM), 1st International Conference on HVAC in Cold Climate, Rovaniemi, Finland, from Narvik Institute of Technology, Narvik, Norway, March 1994

2-94 J. M. Sicilian, Addition of an Extended Bubble Model to FLOW-3D, Flow Science report, FSI-94-58-1, March 1994

1-94 T. Hong, C. Zhu, P. Cal and L-S Fan, Numerical Modeling of Basic Modes of Formation and Interactions of Bubbles in Liquids, Dept. Chem. Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, March 1994

14-93 J. L. Ditter and C. W. Hirt, A Scalable Model for Stir Tanks, Flow Science Technical Note #38, December 1993 (FSI-93-TN38)

13-93 J. Partinen, N. Saluja and J. K. Kirtley, Jr., Experimental and Computational Investigation of Rotary Electromagnetic Stirring in a Woods Metal System, Dept. of Math, Science and Engr. and Dept. of Electrical Engr. and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307

12-93 J. Partinen, N. Saluja and J. K. Kirtley, Jr., Modeling of Surface Deformation in an Electromagnetically Stirred Metallic Melt, Dept. of Math, Science, and Engr. and Dept. of Electrical Engr. and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307

10-93 C. Philippe, Summary Report on Test Calculations with FLOW-3D/CAST93, (coupled-rigid-body dynamics model), ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, September 17, 1993

5-93 J. M. Sicilian, J. L. Ditter and C. L. Bronisz, FLOW-3D Analyses of CFD Triathlon Benchmark, Flow Science report, presented at the ASME Fluids Engineering Conference, Washington DC, June 20-24, 1993

4-93 T. Wiik, Ventilation of the Attic due to Wind Loads on Low-Rise Buildings, paper for 3rd Symposium of Building Physics in Nordic Countries, Narvik Institute of Technology, Narvik, Norway, summer 1993

3-93 E. W. M. Hansen, Modelling and Simulation of Separation Effects and Fluid Flow Behaviour in Process-Units, SIMS’93 – 35th Simulation Conference, Kongsberg, Norway, June 9-11, 1993

2-93 M. A. Briones, R. S. Brodsky and J. J. Chalmers, Computer Simulation of the Rupture of a Gas Bubble at a Gas-Liquid Interface and its Implications in Animal Cell Damage, Dept. Chemical Engineering, Ohio State University, Manuscript No. RB68, April 1993

11-92 G. Trapaga, E. F. Matthys, J. J. Valencia and J. Szekely, Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer, and Solidification of Molten Metal Droplets Impinging on Substrates: Comparison of Numerical and Experimental Results, Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 23B, pp. 701-718, December 1992

10-92 J. B. Dalin, J. M. Le Guilly, P. Le Roy and E. Maas, Numerical Simulations Applied to the Production of Automotive Foundry Components, Numerical Methods in Industrial Forming Processes, Wood & Zienkiewicz (eds), Balkema, Rotterdam, 1992

5-92 C. W. Hirt, Volume-Fraction Techniques: Powerful Tools for Flow Modeling, Flow Science report (FSI-92-00-02), presented at the Computational Wind Engineering Conference, University of Tokyo, August 1992

3-92 C. L. Bronisz and C.W. Hirt, Lubricant Flow in a Rotary Lip Seal, Flow Science Technical Note #33, February 1992 (FSI-92-TN33)

16-91 A. Nielsen, SNOW-SIM – Computer Model for Simulation of Wind and Snow Loads on Buildings and Structures, Building Science, Narvik Institute of Technology, Narvik, Norway, (not dated)

15-91 E. W. M. Hansen, H. Heitmann, B. Laska, A. Ellingsen, O. Ostby, T. B. Morrow and F. T. Dodge, Fluid Flow Modelling of Gravity Separators, SINTEF, Norway and Southwest Research Institute, Texas, Elsevier Science Publishers, 1991

14-91 E. W. M. Hansen, H. Heitmann, B. Laska and M. Loes, Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow Behaviour Inside, and Redesign of a Field Separator, SINTEF, Norway and STATOIL, Norway (not dated)

13-91 G. Trapaga and J. Szekely, Mathematical Modeling of the Isothermal Impingement of Liquid Droplets in Spraying Processes, Metallurgical Transactions, Vol. 22B, pp. 901-914, December 1991

11-91 N. Saluja and J. Szekely, Velocity Fields and Free Surface Phenomena in an Inductively Stirred Mercury Pool, European Journal of Mechanics, B/Fluids, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 563-572, Oct. 1991

4-90 J. M. Sicilian, A Note on Implementing Specified Velocities and Momentum Sources, Flow Science report, September 1990 (FSI-90-00-5)

13-90 P. Jonsson, N. Saluja, O. J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, Fluid Flow Phenomena in the Filling of Cylindrical Molds Using Newtonian (Turbulent) and Non-Newtonian (Power Law) Fluids, submitted to Trans. of the American Foundrymen’s Soc., June 1990

12-90 N. Saluja, O. J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, On the Computation of the Velocity Fields and the Dynamic Free Surface Generated in a Liquid Metal Column by a Rotating Magnetic Field, submitted to J. Fluid Mech., July 1990

7-90 C. L. Bronisz and C. W. Hirt, Modeling Unsaturated Flow in Porous Media: A FLOW-3D Extension, Flow Science report, July 1990 (FSI-90-48-2)

5-90 C. L. Bronisz and C. W. Hirt, Hydrodynamic Ram Simulations Using FLOW-3D, Flow Science report, May 1990 (FSI-90-49-1)

3-90 C. W. Hirt, Turbojet Plume Flow Analysis, Flow Science report, February 1990 (FSI-90-45-1)

5-89 K. S. Eckhoff and E. W. M. Hansen, Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Investigation of Separation in Two-Phase Rotating Flow, SINTEF-Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway, Report No. OR 22 1907.00.01.89, 29 April 1989

2-89 J. M. Sicilian and J. R. Tegart, Comparisons of FLOW-3D Calculations with Very Large Amplitude Slosh Data, presented at the Symposium on Computational Experiments, PVP ASME Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 22-27, 1989

2-88 J. M. Sicilian and C. W. Hirt, AFT Field Joint: CFD Analysis Using the FLOW-3D Program, in Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor Circumferential Flow Technical Interchange Meeting Final Report, NASA-TWR-17788, February 1988

14-87 C. J. Freitas, S. T. Green, and T. B. Morrow, Fluid Dynamics Associated with Ductile Pipeline Fracture, Southwest Research Institute report presented at ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, December 1987

13-87 J. Sicilian, The FLOW-3D Model for Thermal Conduction in Solids, Flow Science report, Dec. 1987 (FSI-87-00-4)

7-87 C.W. Hirt, Vectored Nozzle Flow with Turbulence Modeling, Flow Science report, Sept. 1987 (FSI-87-29-1)

4-87 J.M. Sicilian, C.W. Hirt, and R. P. Harper, FLOW-3D: Computational Modeling Power for Scientists and Engineers, Flow Science report, 1987 (FSI-87-00-1)

3-86 J. M. Sicilian, Natural-Convection Heat-Transfer Analysis, Flow Science Technical Note #4, June 1986 (FSI-86-00-TN4)

2-86 J. Navickas and C. R. Cross, Air Circulation Characteristics and Convective Losses in a 5-MW Molten Salt Cavity Solar Receiver, ASME 8th Annual Conference on Solar Engineering, Anaheim, California, April 13-16, 1986

5-85 C. W. Hirt and R. P. Harper, Calculations of Vent Clearing in a Chemical Process Tank, Flow Science report, December 1985 (FSI-85-28-1)

2-84 Applications of SOLA-3D/FSI to Fluid Slosh, Flow Science report, May 1984