Fig. 11. Velocity vectors along x-direction through the center of the box culvert for B0, B30, B50, and B70 respectively.

Numerical investigation of scour characteristics downstream of blocked culverts

막힌 암거 하류의 세굴 특성 수치 조사

NesreenTahabMaged M.El-FekyaAtef A.El-SaiadaIsmailFathya
aDepartment of Water and Water Structures Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
bLab Manager, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt


횡단 구조물을 통한 막힘은 안정성을 위협하는 위험한 문제 중 하나입니다. 암거의 막힘 형상 및 하류 세굴 특성에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구는 거의 없습니다.

이 연구의 목적은 수면과 세굴 모두에서 상자 암거를 통한 막힘의 작용을 수치적으로 논의하는 것입니다. 이를 위해 FLOW 3D v11.1.0을 사용하여 퇴적물 수송 모델을 조사했습니다.

상자 암거를 통한 다양한 차단 비율이 연구되었습니다. FLOW 3D 모델은 실험 데이터로 보정되었습니다. 결과는 FLOW 3D 프로그램이 세굴 다운스트림 상자 암거를 정확하게 시뮬레이션할 수 있음을 나타냅니다.

막힌 경우에 대한 속도 분포, 최대 세굴 깊이 및 수심을 플롯하고 비차단된 사례(기본 사례)와 비교했습니다.

그 결과 암거 높이의 70% 차단율은 상류의 수심을 암거 높이의 2.3배 증가시키고 평균 유속은 기본 경우보다 3배 더 증가시키는 것으로 입증되었다. 막힘 비율의 함수로 상대 최대 세굴 깊이를 추정하는 방정식이 만들어졌습니다.

Blockage through crossing structures is one of the dangerous problems that threaten its stability. There are few researches concerned with blockage shape in culverts and its effect on characteristics of scour downstream it.

The study’s purpose is to discuss the action of blockage through box culvert on both water surface and scour numerically. A sediment transport model has been investigated for this purpose using FLOW 3D v11.1.0. Different ratios of blockage through box culvert have been studied. The FLOW 3D model was calibrated with experimental data.

The results present that the FLOW 3D program was capable to simulate accurately the scour downstream box culvert. The velocity distribution, maximum scour depth and water depths for blocked cases have been plotted and compared with the non-blocked case (base case).

The results proved that the blockage ratio 70% of culvert height makes the water depth upstream increases by 2.3 times of culvert height and mean velocity increases by 3 times more than in the base case. An equation has been created to estimate the relative maximum scour depth as a function of blockage ratio.

1. Introduction

Local scour is the removal of granular bed material by the action of hydrodynamic forces. As the depth of scour hole increases, the stability of the foundation of the structure may be endangered, with a consequent risk of damage and failure [1]. So the prediction and control of scour is considered to be very important for protecting the water structures from failure. Most previous studies were designed to study the different factors that impact on scour and their relationship with scour hole dimensions like fluid characteristics, flow conditions, bed properties, and culvert geometry. Many previous researches studied the effect of flow rate on scour hole by information Froude number or modified Froude number [2][3][4][5][6]. Cesar Mendoza [6] found a good correlation between the scour depth and the discharge Intensity (Qg−.5D−2.5). Breusers and Raudkiv [7] used shear velocity in the outlet-scour prediction procedure. Ali and Lim [8] used the densimetric Froude number in estimation of the scour depth [1][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. “The densimetric Froude number presents the ratio of the tractive force on sediment particle to the submerged specific weight of the sediment” [15](1)Fd=uρsρ-1gD50

Ali and Lim [8] pointed to the consequence of tailwater depth on scour behavior [1][2][8][13]. Abida and Townsend [2] indicated that the maximum depth of local scour downstream culvert was varying with the tailwater depth in three ways: first, for very shallow tailwater depths, local scouring decreases with a decrease in tailwater depth; second, when the ratio of tailwater depth to culvert height ranged between 0.2 and 0.7, the scour depth increases with decreasing tailwater depth; and third for a submerged outlet condition. The tailwater depth has only a marginal effect on the maximum depth of scour [2]. Ruff et al. [16] observed that for materials having similar mean grain sizes (d50) but different standard deviations (σ). As (σ) increased, the maximum scour hole depth decreased. Abt et al. [4] mentioned to role of soil type of maximum scour depth. It was noticed that local scour was more dangerous for uniform sands than for well-graded mixtures [1][2][4][9][17][18]. Abt et al [3][19] studied the culvert shape effect on scour hole. The results evidenced that the culvert shape has a limited effect on outlet scour. Under equivalent discharge conditions, it was noted that a square culvert with height equal to the diameter of a circular culvert would reduce scour [16][20]. The scour hole dimension was also effected by the culvert slope. Abt et al. [3][21] showed that the culvert slope is a key element in estimating the culvert flow velocity, the discharge capacity, and sediment transport capability. Abt et al. [21][22] tested experimentally culvert drop height effect on maximum scour depth. It was observed that as the drop height was increasing, the depth of scour was also increasing. From the previous studies, it could have noticed that the most scour prediction formula downstream unblocked culvert was the function of densimetric Froude number, soil properties (d50, σ), tailwater depth and culvert opening size. Blockage is the phenomenon of plugging water structures due to the movement of water flow loaded with sediment and debris. Water structures blockage has a bad effect on water flow where it causes increasing of upstream water level that may cause flooding around the structure and increase of scour rate downstream structures [23][24]. The blockage phenomenon through was studied experimentally and numerical [15][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]. Jaeger and Lucke [33] studied the debris transport behavior in a natural channel in Australia. Froude number scale model of an existing culvert was used. It was noticed that through rainfall event, the mobility of debris was impressed by stream shape (depth and width). The condition of the vegetation (size and quantities) through the catchment area was the main factor in debris transport. Rigby et al. [26] reported that steep slope was increasing the ability to mobilize debris that form field data of blocked culverts and bridges during a storm in Wollongong city.

Streftaris et al. [32] studied the probability of screen blockage by debris at trash screens through a numerical model to relate between the blockage probability and nature of the area around. Recently, many commercial computational fluid programs (CFD) such as SSIIM, Fluent, and FLOW 3D are used in the analysis of the scour process. Scour and sediment transport numerical model need to validate by using experimental data or field data [34][35][36][37][38]. Epely-Chauvin et al. [36] investigated numerically the effect of a series of parallel spur diked. The experimental data were compared by SSIIM and FLOW 3D program. It was found that the accuracy of calibrated FLOW 3D model was better than SSIIM model. Nielsen et al. [35] used the physical model and FLOW 3D model to analyze the scour process around the pile. The soil around the pile was uniform coarse stones in the physical models that were simulated by regular spheres, porous media, and a mixture of them. The calibrated porous media model can be used to determine the bed shear stress. In partially blocked culverts, there aren’t many studies that explain the blockage impact on scour dimensions. Sorourian et al. [14][15] studied the effect of inlet partial blockage on scour characteristics downstream box culvert. It resulted that the partial blockage at the culvert inlet could be the main factor in estimating the depth of scour. So, this study is aiming to investigate the effects of blockage through a box culvert on flow and scour characteristics by different blockage ratios and compares the results with a non-blocked case. Create a dimensionless equation relates the blockage ratio of the culvert with scour characteristics downstream culvert.

2. Experimental data

The experimental work of the study was conducted in the Hydraulics and Water Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Egypt. The flume had a rectangular cross-section of 66 cm width, 65.5 cm depth, and 16.2 m long. A rectangular culvert was built with 0.2 m width, 0.2 m height and 3.00 m long with θ = 25° gradually outlet and 0.8 m fixed apron. The model was located on the mid-point of the channel. The sediment part was extended for a distance 2.20 m with 0.66 m width and 0.20 m depth of coarse sand with specific weight 1.60 kg/cm3, d50 = 2.75 mm and σ (d90/d50) = 1.50. The particle size distribution was as shown in Fig. 1. The experimental model was tested for different inlet flow (Q) of 25, 30, 34, 40 l/s for different submerged ratio (S) of 1.25, 1.50, 1.75.

3. Dimensional analysis

A dimensional analysis has been used to reduce the number of variables which affecting on the scour pattern downstream partial blocked culvert. The main factors affecting the maximum scour depth are:(2)ds=f(ρ.ρ

Fig. 2 shows a definition sketch of the experimental model. The maximum scour depth can be written in a dimensionless form as:(3)dsh=f(B.Fd.S)where the ds/h is the relative maximum scour depth.

4. Numerical work

The FLOW 3D is (CFD) program used by many researchers and appeared high accuracy in solving hydrodynamic and sediment transport models in the three dimensions. Numerical simulation with FLOW 3D was performed to study the impacts of blockage ratio through box culvert on shear stress, velocity distribution and the sediment transport in terms of the hydrodynamic features (water surface, velocity and shear stress) and morphological parameters (scour depth and sizes) conditions in accurately and efficiently. The renormalization group (RNG) turbulence model was selected due to its high ability to predict the velocity profiles and turbulent kinetic energy for the flow through culvert [39]. The one-fluid incompressible mode was used to simulate the water surface. Volume of fluid (VOF) method was employed in FLOW 3D to tracks a liquid interface through arbitrary deformations and apply the correct boundary conditions at the interface [40].1.

Governing equations

Three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equation was applied for incompressible viscous fluid motion. The continuity equation is as following:(4)VF∂ρ∂t+∂∂xρuAx+∂∂yρvAy+∂∂zρwAz=RDIF(5)∂u∂t+1VFuAx∂u∂x+vAy∂u∂y+ωAz∂u∂z=-1ρ∂P∂x+Gx+fx(6)∂v∂t+1VFuAx∂v∂x+vAy∂v∂y+ωAz∂v∂z=-1ρ∂P∂y+Gy+fy(7)∂ω∂t+1VFuAx∂ω∂x+vAy∂ω∂y+ωAz∂ω∂z=-1ρ∂P∂z+Gz+fz

ρ is the fluid density,

VF is the volume fraction,

(x,y,z) is the Cartesian coordinates,

(u,v,w) are the velocity components,

(Ax,Ay,Az) are the area fractions and

RDIF is the turbulent diffusion.

P is the average hydrodynamic pressure,

(Gx, Gy, Gz) are the body accelerations and

(fx, fy, fz) are the viscous accelerations.

The motion of sediment transport (suspended, settling, entrainment, bed load) is estimated by predicting the erosion, advection and deposition process as presented in [41].

The critical shields parameter is (θcr) is defined as the critical shear stress τcr at which sediments begin to move on a flat and horizontal bed [41]:(8)θcr=τcrgd50(ρs-ρ)

The Soulsby–Whitehouse [42] is used to predict the critical shields parameter as:(9)θcr=0.31+1.2d∗+0.0551-e(-0.02d∗)(10)d∗=d50g(Gs-1ν3where:

d* is the dimensionless grain size

Gs is specific weight (Gs = ρs/ρ)

The entrainment coefficient (0.005) was used to scale the scour rates and fit the experimental data. The settling velocity controls the Soulsby deposition equation. The volumetric sediment transport rate per width of the bed is calculated using Van Rijn [43].2.

Meshing and geometry of model

After many trials, it was found that the uniform cell size with 0.03 m cell size is the closest to the experimental results and takes less time. As shown in Fig. 3. In x-direction, the total model length in this direction is 700 cm with mesh planes at −100, 0, 300, 380 and 600 cm respectively from the origin point, in y-direction, the total model length in this direction is 66 cm at distances 0, 23, 43 and 66 cm respectively from the origin point. In z-direction, the total model length in this direction is 120 cm. with mesh planes at −20, 0, 20 and 100 cm respectively.3.

Boundary condition

As shown in Fig. 4, the boundary conditions of the model have been defined to simulate the experimental flow conditions accurately. The upstream boundary was defined as the volume flow rate with a different flow rate. The downstream boundary was defined as specific pressure with different fluid elevation. Both of the right side, the left side, and the bottom boundary were defined as a wall. The top boundary defined as specified pressure with pressure value equals zero.

5. Validation of experimental results and numerical results

The experimental results investigated the flow and scour characteristics downstream culvert due to different flow conditions. The measured value of maximum scour depth is compared with the simulated depth from FLOW 3D model as shown in Fig. 5. The scour results show that the simulated results from the numerical model is quite close to the experimental results with an average error of 3.6%. The water depths in numerical model results is so close to the experimental results as shown in Fig. 6 where the experiment and numerical results are compared at different submerged ratios and flow rates. The results appear maximum error percentage in water depths upstream and downstream the culvert is about 2.37%. This indicated that the FLOW 3D is efficient for the prediction of maximum scour depth and the flow depths downstream box culvert.

6. Computation time

The run time was chosen according to reaching to the stability limit. Hydraulic stability was achieved after 50 s, where the scour development may still go on. For run 1, the numerical simulation was run for 1000 s as shown in Fig. 7 where it mostly reached to scour stability at 800 s. The simulation time was taken 500 s at about 95% of scour stability.

7. Analysis and discussions

Fig. 8 shows the study sections where sec 1 represents to upstream section, sec2 represents to inside section and sec3 represents to downstream stream section. Table 1 indicates the scour hole dimensions at different blockage case. The symbol (B) represents to blockage and the number points to blockage ratio. B0 case signifies to the non-blocked case, B30 is that blockage height is 30% to the culvert height and so on.

Table 1. The scour results of different blockage ratio.

Casehb cmB = hb/hQ lit/sSFdd50 mmds/h measuredls/hdd/hld/hds/h estimated

7.1. Scour hole geometry

The scour hole geometry mainly depends on the properties of soil of the bed downstream the fixed apron. From Table 1, the results show that the maximum scour depth in B0 case is about 0.58 of culvert height while the maximum deposition in B0 is 0.27 culvert height. There is a symmetric scour hole as shown in Fig. 9 in B0 case. An asymmetric scour hole is created in B50 and B70 due to turbulences that causes the deviation of the jet direction from the center of the flume where appear in Fig. 11 and Fig. 19.

7.2. Flow water surface

Fig. 10 presents the relative free surface water (hw/h) along the x-direction at center of the box culvert. From the mention Figure, it is easy to release the effect of different blockage ratios. The upstream water level rises by increasing the blockage ratio. Increasing upstream water level may cause flooding over the banks of the waterway. In the 70% blockage case, the upstream water level rises to 2.3 times of culvert height more than the non-blocked case at the same discharge and submerged ratio. The water surface profile shows an increase in water level upstream the culvert due to a decrease in transverse velocity. Because of decreasing velocity downstream culvert, there is an increase in water level before it reaches its uniform depth.

7.3. Velocity vectors

Scour downstream hydraulic structures mainly affects by velocities distribution and bed shear stress. Fig. 11 shows the velocity vectors and their magnitude in xz plane at the same flow conditions. The difference in the upstream water level due to the different blockage ratios is so clear. The maximum water level is in B70 and the minimum level is in B0. The inlet mean velocity value is about 0.88 m/s in B0 increases to 2.86 m/s in B70. As the blockage ratio increases, the inlet velocity increases. The outlet velocity in B0 case makes downward jet causes scour hole just after the fixed apron in the middle of the bed while the blockage causes upward water flow that appears clearly in B70. The upward jet decreases the scour depth to 0.13 culvert height less than B0 case. After the scour hole, the velocity decreases and the flow becomes uniform.

7.4. Velocity distribution

Fig. 12 represents flow velocity (Vx) distribution along the vertical depth (z/hu) upstream the inlet for the different blockage ratios at the same flow conditions. From the Figure, the maximum velocity creates closed to bed in B0 while in blocked case, the maximum horizontal velocity creates at 0.30 of relative vertical depth (z/hu). Fig. 13 shows the (Vz) distribution along the vertical depth (z/hu) upstream culvert at sec 1. From the mentioned Figure, it is easy to note that the maximum vertical is in B70 which appears that as the blockage ratio increases the vertical ratio also increases. In the non-blocked case. The vertical velocity (Vz) is maximum at (z/hu) equals 0.64. At the end of the fixed apron (sec 3), the horizontal velocity (Vx) is slowly increasing to reach the maximum value closed to bed in B0 and B30 while the maximum horizontal velocity occurs near to the top surface in B50 and B70 as shown in Fig. 14. The vertical velocity component along the vertical depth (z/hd) is presented in Fig. 15. The vertical velocity (Vz) is maximum in B0 at vertical depth (z/hd) 0.3 with value 0.45 m/s downward. Figs. 16 and 17 observe velocity components (Vx, Vz) along the vertical depth just after the end of blockage length at the centerline of the culvert barrel. It could be noticed the uniform velocity distribution in B0 case with horizontal velocity (Vx) closed to 1.0 m/s and vertical velocity closed to zero. In the blocked case, the maximum horizontal velocity occurs in depth more than the blockage height.

7.5. Bed velocity distribution

Fig. 18 presents the x-velocity vectors at 1.5 cm above the bed for different blockage ratios from the velocity vectors distribution and magnitude, it is easy to realize the position of the scour hole and deposition region. In B0 and B30, the flow is symmetric so that the scour hole is created around the centerline of flow while in B50 and B70 cases, the flow is asymmetric and the scour hole creates in the right of flow direction in B50. The maximum scour depth is found in the left of flow direction in B70 case where the high velocity region is found.

8. Maximum scour depth prediction

Regression analysis is used to estimate maximum scour depth downstream box culvert for different ratios of blockage by correlating the maximum relative scour by other variables that affect on it in one formula. An equation is developed to predict maximum scour depth for blocked and non-blocked. As shown in the equation below, the relative maximum scour depth(ds/hd) is a function of densimetric Froude number (Fd), blockage ratio (B) and submerged ratio (S)(11)dsh=0.56Fd-0.20B+0.45S-1.05

In this equation the coefficient of correlation (R2) is 0.82 with standard error equals 0·08. The developed equation is valid for Fd = [0.9 to 2.10] and submerged ratio (S) ≥ 1.00. Fig. 19 shows the comparison between relative maximum scour depths (ds/h) measured and estimated for different blockage ratios. Fig. 20 clears the comparison between residuals and ds/h estimated for the present study. From these figures, it could be noticed that there is a good agreement between the measured and estimated relative scour depth.

9. Comparison with previous scour equations

Many previous scour formulae have been produced for calculation the maximum scour depth downstream non-blockage culvert. These equations have been included the effect of flow regime, culvert shape, soil properties and the flow rate on maximum scour depth. Two of previous experimental studies data have been chosen to be compared with the present study results in non-blocked study data. Table 2 shows comparison of culvert shape, densmetric Froude number, median particle size and scour equations for these previous studies. By applying the present study data in these studies scour formula as shown in Fig. 21, it could be noticed that there are a good agreement between present formula results and others empirical equations results. Where that Lim [44] and Abt [4] are so closed to the present study data.

Table 2. Comparison of some previous scour formula.

ResearchersFdCulvert shaped50(mm)Proposed equationSubmerged ratio
Present study0.9–2.11square2.75dsh=0.56Fd-0.20B+0.45S-1.051.25–1.75
Lim [44]1–10Circular1.65dsh=0.45Fd0.47
Abt [4]Fd ≥ 1Circular0.22–7.34-dsh=3.67Fd0.57∗D500.4∗σ-0.4

10. Conclusions

The present study has shown that the FLOW 3D model can accurately simulate water surface and the scour hole characteristics downstream the box culvert with error percentage in water depths does not exceed 2.37%. Velocities distribution through and outlets culvert barrel helped on understanding the scour hole shape.

The blockage through culvert had caused of increasing of water surface upstream structure where the upstream water level in B70 was 2.3 of culvert height more than non-blocked case at the same discharge that could be dangerous on the stability of roads above. The depth averaged velocity through culvert barrel increased by 3 times its value in non-blocked case.

On the other hand, blockage through culvert had a limited effect on the maximum scour depth. The little effect of blockage on maximum scour depth could be noticed in Fig. 11. From this Figure, it could be noted that the residual part of culvert barrel after the blockage part had made turbulences. These turbulences caused the deviation of the flow resulting in the formation of asymmetric scour hole on the side of channel. This not only but in B70 the blockage height caused upward jet which made a wide far scour hole as cleared from the results in Table 1.

An empirical equation was developed from the results to estimate the maximum scour depth relative to culvert height function of blockage ratio (B), submerged ratio (S), and densimetric Froude number (Fd). The equation results was compared with some scour formulas at the same densimetric Froude number rang where the present study results was in between the other equations results as shown in Fig. 21.

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.


[1]P. Sarathi, M. Faruque, R. BalachandarInfluence of tailwater depth, sediment size and densimetric Froude number on scour by submerged square wall jetsJ. Hydraul. Res., 46 (2) (2008), pp. 158-175CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[2]H. Abida, R. TownsendLocal scour downstream of box-culvert outletsJ. Irrig. Drain. Eng., 117 (3) (1991), pp. 425-440CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[3]S.R. Abt, C.A. Donnell, J.F. Ruff, F.K. DoehringCulvert Slope and Shape Effects on Outlet ScourTransp. Res. Rec., 1017 (1985), pp. 24-30View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[4]S.R. Abt, R.L. Kloberdanz, C. MendozaUnified culvert scour determinationJ. Hydraul. Eng., 110 (10) (1984), pp. 1475-1479CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[5]J.P. Bohan, Erosion And Riprap Requirements At Culvert And Storm-Drain Outlets, ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MISS1970.Google Scholar[6]C. Mendoza, S.R. Abt, J.F. RuffHeadwall influence on scour at culvert outletsJ. Hydraul. Eng., 109 (7) (1983), pp. 1056-1060CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[7]H. Breusers, A. Raudkivi, Scouring, hydraulic structures design manual, vol. 143, IAHR, AA Balkema, Rotterdam, 1991.Google Scholar[8]K. Ali, S. LimLocal scour caused by submerged wall jetsProc. Inst. Civ. Eng., 81 (4) (1986), pp. 607-645CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[9]O. Aderibigbe, N. RajaratnamEffect of sediment gradation on erosion by plane turbulent wall jetsJ. Hydraul. Eng., 124 (10) (1998), pp. 1034-1042View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[10]F.W. Blaisdell, C.L. AndersonA comprehensive generalized study of scour at cantilevered pipe outletsJ. Hydraul. Res., 26 (4) (1988), pp. 357-376CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[11]Y.-M. Chiew, S.-Y. LimLocal scour by a deeply submerged horizontal circular jetJ. Hydraul. Eng., 122 (9) (1996), pp. 529-532View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[12]R.A. Day, S.L. Liriano, W.R. WhiteEffect of tailwater depth and model scale on scour at culvert outletsProc. Instit. Civil Eng. – Water Marit. Eng., 148 (3) (2001), pp. 189-198 Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[13]S. Emami, A.J. SchleissPrediction of localized scour hole on natural mobile bed at culvert outletsScour and Erosion (2010), pp. 844-853CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[14]S. Sorourian, A. Keshavarzi, J. Ball, B. SamaliStudy of Blockage Effect on Scouring Pattern Downstream of a Box Culvert under Unsteady FlowAustr. J Water Resor. (2013)Google Scholar[15]S. Sorourian, Turbulent Flow Characteristics At The Outlet Of Partially Blocked Box Culverts, in: 36th IAHR World Congress, The Hague, the Netherlands, 2015.Google Scholar[16]J. Ruff, S. Abt, C. Mendoza, A. Shaikh, R. KloberdanzScour at culvert outlets in mixed bed materialsUnited States. Federal Highway Administration. Office of Research and Development (1982)Google Scholar[17]S.A. Ansari, U.C. Kothyari, K.G.R. RajuInfluence of cohesion on scour under submerged circular vertical jetsJ. Hydraul. Eng., 129 (12) (2003), pp. 1014-1019View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[18]B. Crookston B. Tullis, Scour and Riprap Protection in a Bottomless Arch Culvert, in: World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2008: Ahupua’A, 2008, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar[19]S.R. Abt, J. Ruff, F. Doehring, C. DonnellInfluence of culvert shape on outlet scourJ. Hydraul. Eng., 113 (3) (1987), pp. 393-400View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[20]Y.H. Chen, Scour at outlets of box culverts, Colorado State University, 1970.Google Scholar[21]S. Abt, P. Thompson, T. LewisEnhancement of the culvert outlet scour estimation equationsTransp. Res. Rec. J. Transp. Res. Board, 1523 (1996), pp. 178-185View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[22]F.K. Doehring, S.R. AbtDrop height influence on outlet scourJ. Hydraul. Eng., 120 (12) (1994), pp. 1470-1476CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[23]W. Weeks, A. Barthelmess, E. Rigby, G. Witheridge, R. Adamson, Australian rainfall and runoff revison project 11: blockage of hydraulic structures, 2009.Google Scholar[24]W. Weeks, G. Witheridge, E. Rigby, A. BarthelmessProject 11: blockage of hydraulic structuresEngineers Australia (2013)Google Scholar[25]S.R. Abt, T.E. Brisbane, D.M. Frick, C.A. McKnightTrash rack blockage in supercritical flowJ. Hydraul. Eng., 118 (12) (1992), pp. 1692-1696View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[26]E. Rigby, M. Boyd, S. Roso, P. Silveri, A. Davis, Causes and effects of culvert blockage during large storms, in: Global solutions for urban drainage, 2002, pp. 1–16.Google Scholar[27]S. Roso, M. Boyd, E. Rigby, R. VanDrie“Prediction of increased flooding in urban catchments due to debris blockage and flow diversionsProceedings Novatech (2004), pp. 8-13View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[28]C.-D. Jan, C.-L. ChenDebris flows caused by Typhoon Herb in Taiwanin Debris-Flow Hazards and Related Phenomena, Springer (2005), pp. 539-563CrossRefGoogle Scholar[29]L.W. Zevenbergen, P.F. Lagasse, P.E. Clopper, Effects of debris on bridge pier scour, in: World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007: Restoring Our Natural Habitat, 2007, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar[30]A. Barthelmess, E. Rigby, Estimating Culvert and Bridge Blockages-a Simplified Procedure, in: Proceedings of the 34th World Congress of the International Association for Hydro-Environment Research and Engineering: 33rd Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium and 10th Conference on Hydraulics in Water Engineering, Engineers Australia, 2011, pp. 39.Google Scholar[31]E. Rigby, A. Barthelmess, Culvert Blockage Mechanisms and their Impact on Flood Behaviour, in: Proceedings of the 34th World Congress of the International Association for Hydro-Environment Research and Engineering: 33rd Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium and 10th Conference on Hydraulics in Water Engineering, Engineers Australia, 2011, pp. 380.Google Scholar[32]G. Streftaris, N. Wallerstein, G. Gibson, S. ArthurModeling probability of blockage at culvert trash screens using Bayesian approachJ. Hydraul. Eng., 139 (7) (2012), pp. 716-726Google Scholar[33]R. Jaeger, T. LuckeInvestigating the relationship between rainfall intensity, catchment vegetation and debris mobilityInt. J. GEOMATE, 12 (33) (2017), pp. 22-29 Download PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[34]S. Amiraslani, J. Fahimi, H. Mehdinezhad, The Numerical Investigation of Free Falling Jet’s Effect On the Scour of Plunge Pool, in: XVIII International conference on water resources, Tehran University, Iran, 2008.Google Scholar[35]A.W. Nielsen, X. Liu, B.M. Sumer, J. FredsøeFlow and bed shear stresses in scour protections around a pile in a currentCoast. Eng., 72 (2013), pp. 20-38ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[36]G. Epely-Chauvin, G. De Cesare, S. SchwindtNumerical modelling of plunge pool scour evolution in non-cohesive sedimentsEng. Appl. Comput. Fluid Mech., 8 (4) (2014), pp. 477-487 Download PDFCrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[37]H. Karami, H. Basser, A. Ardeshir, S.H. HosseiniVerification of numerical study of scour around spur dikes using experimental dataWater Environ. J., 28 (1) (2014), pp. 124-134CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[38]S.-H. Oh, K.S. Lee, W.-M. JeongThree-dimensional experiment and numerical simulation of the discharge performance of sluice passageway for tidal power plantRenew. Energy, 92 (2016), pp. 462-473ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[39]M.A. Khodier, B.P. TullisExperimental and computational comparison of baffled-culvert hydrodynamics for fish passageJ. Appl. Water Eng. Res. (2017), pp. 1-9CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[40]F.S. Inc., FLOW-3D user’s manual, Flow Science, Inc., 2009.Google Scholar[41]G. Wei, J. Brethour, M. Grünzner, J. BurnhamSedimentation scour modelFlow Science Report, 7 (2014), pp. 1-29View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[42]R. Soulsby, R. Whitehouse, Threshold of sediment motion in coastal environments, in: Pacific Coasts and Ports’ 97: Proceedings of the 13th Australasian Coastal and Ocean Engineering Conference and the 6th Australasian Port and Harbour Conference, vol. 1, Centre for Advanced Engineering, University of Canterbury, 1997, pp. 145.Google Scholar[43]L.C.v. RijnSediment transport, part II: suspended load transportJ. Hydraul. Eng., 110 (11) (1984), pp. 1613-1641View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[44]S Y LIMScour below unsubmerged full-flowing culvert outletsProc. Instit. Civil Eng. – Water Marit. Energy, 112 (2) (1995), pp. 136-149 Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

Peer review under responsibility of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University.

Figure 1. Experimental flume used (a) Side view of the flume; (b) Pool detail.

Modelling of Pool-Type Fishways Flows: Efficiency and Scale Effects Assessment

by Ana L. Quaresma *OrcID andAntónio N. PinheiroOrcID
CERIS—Civil Engineering for Research and Innovation for Sustainability, Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bommanna Krishnappan
Water 2021, 13(6), 851;
Received: 16 January 2021 / Revised: 8 March 2021 / Accepted: 18 March 2021 / Published: 20 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecohydraulics of Pool-Type Fishways)


이 연구에서는 전산 유체 역학 (CFD) 소프트웨어 (FLOW-3D®)를 사용하여 바닥 오리피스가 있는 풀형 어로에서 흐름의 3D 수치 모델링을 수행했습니다. 수치 결과는 음향 도플러 속도계 (ADV) 및 입자 이미지 속도계 (PIV) 측정에서 얻은 실험 데이터와 비교되었습니다.

흐름 깊이, 흐름 패턴, 수속, 난류 운동 에너지, Reynolds 수직 응력 및 바닥 구성 요소에 평행한 Reynolds 전단 응력과 같이 어로 효율에 영향을 미치는 여러 유체 역학적 변수를 정성 및 정량적으로 비교했습니다.

수치 모델은 복잡한 유동장을 정확하게 재현하여 수치 모델 예측과 분석 된 변수에 대한 실험 데이터 사이에 전반적으로 좋은 일치를 보여줍니다. 분석중인 모든 매개 변수에 대한 수치 모델 검증 수행의 중요성이 강조되었습니다.

또한 프로토 타입 어로의 업 스케일 된 수치 모델을 실행하여 스케일링 효과를 분석했습니다. 스케일 효과의 증거없이 실제 모델과 프로토 타입 치수 모두에 대해 유사한 정확도로 모델을 수행했습니다.

현재 연구는 CFD 모델 (즉, FLOW-3D®)이 새로운 수영장 유형 어로 형상을 위한 적절하고 효율적인 설계 및 분석 도구로 사용될 수 있으며 물리적 모델 테스트를 줄이고 보완 할 수 있다고 결론지었습니다.

In this study, the 3D numerical modelling of flow in a pool-type fishway with bottom orifices was performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software (FLOW-3D®). Numerical results were compared with experimental data obtained from acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Several hydrodynamic variables that influence fishways efficiencies, such as flow depths, flow patterns, water velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, Reynolds normal stresses, and Reynolds shear stress parallel to the bottom component, were qualitatively and quantitatively compared. The numerical model accurately reproduced the complex flow field, showing an overall good agreement between the numerical model predictions and the experimental data for the analysed variables. The importance of performing a numerical model validation for all the parameters under analyses was highlighted. Additionally, scaling effects were analysed by running an upscaled numerical model of the prototype fishway. The model performed with similar accuracy for both physical model and prototype dimensions with no evidence of scale effects. The present study concludes that CFD models (namely FLOW-3D®) may be used as an adequate and efficient design and analysis tool for new pool-type fishways geometries, reducing and complementing physical model testing.Keywords: pool-type fishways3D numerical modellingLESscale effectsflow patternsCFD model assessment


강의 종단 연결성을 복원하는 것은 담수 생태계의 회복에있어 여전히 중요한 문제입니다 [1,2]. 잘 설계되고 건설된 경우 어로는 물고기가 댐과 둑을 지나 계속 이동할 수 있는 경로를 제공합니다.

물고기 통과 효율성에 대한 검토에서 Noonan et al. [3]은 기존의 많은 어로의 설계 특성이 어종의 요구를 적절하게 충족시키지 못했지만, 풀형 어로가 모든 어류 그룹에 대해 가장 높은 효율성을 보여 주었다는 것을 발견했습니다.
여러 어종에 적합한 수영 조건을 제공하는 것은 어항의 흐름과 난류 패턴이 성공에 중요한 역할을 하기 때문에 다소 어려운 일입니다 [2,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12].

물리적 모델링은 풀형 유형 어로의 유체 역학을 연구하기 위한 주요 접근 방식이었습니다 (예 : [13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22]). 그러나 물리적 실험은 비용과 시간이 많이 소요됩니다. 따라서 컴퓨터 기술의 발전으로 인해 물리적 모델 테스트를 줄이기 위해 복잡한 기하학적 구조를 가진 유압 구조의 흐름 패턴을 분석하는 데 전산 유체 역학 (CFD) 3 차원 (3D) 모델이 점점 더 많이 사용되고 있습니다 [23,24].

따라서 이러한 모델은 어로 유체 역학 연구 및 효율적인 어로 설계에 필수적인 역할을 할 수 있습니다.
어로에 대한 수치 모델링 연구는 주로 수직 슬롯 어로에 초점을 맞추고 있습니다 [12,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37]. 수영장의 주요 부분에서 수직 슬롯 어로 흐름은 거의 2 차원 (2D)이고 수직 속도 구성 요소가 수평 요소 [26]보다 훨씬 작기 때문에 이러한 연구의 대부분은 2D 모델을 사용했습니다.

바닥 오리피스가있는 수영장 유형 어로에서는 흐름이 매우 복잡하고 3D이므로 정확한 유동장 특성화를 얻기 위해 3D 모델을 사용해야합니다. 이 어로 구성을 모델링하는 것은 높은 속도 구배, 높은 와도 및 높은 전단 영역을 포함하기 때문에 다소 어렵습니다.

이 연구에서는 FLOW-3D® (Flow Science, Inc., Santa Fe, NM, USA)를 사용하여 바닥 오리피스가 있는 수영장 유형 어로의 3D 수치 시뮬레이션을 수행하여 흐름 깊이, 속도 및 난류 패턴을 예측하는 능력을 평가했습니다. .

최근 몇 년 동안 실내에 가까운 프로토 타입 수영장 형 어로가 사이프 린드 종의 행동과 움직임을 연구하는데 사용되었습니다 [1,7,8,11,38,39,40,41,42,43]. Silva et al. [38]은 노치, 급락 및 스트리밍에 대한 두 가지 다른 유동 체제와 관련하여 조정 가능한 치수를 가진 침수된 오리피스와 표면 노치의 동시 존재에 대한 Iberian barbel Luciobarbus bocagei (Steindachner, 1864)의 반응을 평가했습니다.

이 연구의 결과는 이베리아 바벨이 어로를 협상하기 위해 오리피스 (76 %)를 선호했으며 어로에 들어가는 데 걸리는 시간도 오리피스에 비해 훨씬 적다는 것을 보여주었습니다.

Silva et al. [39] 오프셋 및 직선 오리피스가있는 수영장 유형 어로의 이베리아 바벨에 대한 적합성을 테스트했습니다. 이 연구는 오프셋 구성이 직선 오리피스 레이아웃 (28 %)에 비해 물고기 통과 성공률 (68 %)이 훨씬 더 높음을 발견했습니다. 어로를 성공적으로 협상하는 데 걸리는 시간도 오프셋 구성, 특히 작은 성인의 경우 훨씬 더 낮았습니다.

이 연구에서는 유속과 난류 매개 변수가 물고기 수영 성능에 미치는 영향을 분석했습니다. 수영장의 유동장을 특성화하기 위해 음향 도플러 속도계가 사용되었습니다.

이 연구의 결과에 따르면 레이놀즈 전단 응력은 어로 내 이베리아 미늘의 움직임에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 매개 변수임이 입증되었습니다. Branco et al. [40] 두 가지 다른 흐름을 가진 오리피스와 노치가 있는 풀형 유형 어로에서 형태 학적 및 생태학적 특성이 다른 두 종, 바닥 지향 이베리아 바벨 Luciobarbus bocagei 및 물기둥 수영 자 Iberian chub Squalius pyrenaicus의 거동과 성능을 평가했습니다.

풀의 유체 역학을 특성화하기 위해 음향 도플러 속도계가 사용되었습니다. 결과는 두 종 모두 흐름 흐름이있는 노치를 선호했으며 이 흐름 체제로 상류로 이동하는데 더 성공적이었습니다.
이 연구에서는 이 시설의 1 : 2.5 스케일 어로 모델을 사용하여 Silva et al.에 의해 테스트된 바닥 오리피스 구성이 있는 풀형 유형 어로의 속도와 난류를 측정했습니다.

[7,38] 효과가 입증된 바벨 사용. 2D 입자 이미지 속도계 (PIV) 시스템 및 음향 도플러 속도계 (ADV)를 사용하여 순간 속도의 광범위한 측정을 수행하고, 후 처리하고, 수치 모델 정확도를 평가하는 데 사용했습니다.

Haque et al. [44] 대부분의 경우 수치 모델의 검증에 사용할 수있는 실험 데이터 세트에 높은 측정 오류가 있고 / 또는 측정 메시가 너무 거칠어 서 이들의 예측 기능을 올바르게 평가할 수없는 문제를 언급했습니다.

모델. Blocken과 Gualtieri [23]는 검증 및 검증 연구가 필수적이며 CFD 연구를 검증하기위한 데이터를 제공하기 위해 고품질 실험이 필요하다고 언급합니다.

Fuentes-Pérez et al. [35]는 특히 난류 메트릭에 대한 어로 연구에서 수치 모델 검증 데이터를 찾는 데 어려움을 언급합니다. 두 가지 측정 기술을 사용하고 상당한 양의 실험 데이터를 얻었기 때문에 이 연구에서는 이러한 문제를 극복했습니다.

물리적 모델은 종종 Froude 수 유사성을 기반으로하며, 두 유사성 법칙을 모두 충족하는 데 어려움이있어 무시되는 레이놀즈 수 유사성입니다. 프로토 타입 레이놀즈 수가 일반적으로 훨씬 더 크기 때문에 레이놀즈 수 관련 스케일 효과가 도입될 수 있습니다.

레이놀즈 수 증가는 속도 분포와 경계층 속성에 영향을 미칠 수 있습니다 [45]. 척도 효과를 평가하기 위해 수치 시뮬레이션을 사용할 수 있습니다 [46,47]. 따라서 본 연구에서는 바닥 오리피스 흐름이있는 풀형어도에 대한 스케일 효과를 분석하기 위해 두 가지 크기의 수치 모델을 개발했습니다.

프로토 타입 치수의 대형 모델과 물리적 모델 치수의 스케일 된 소형 모델입니다. .
바닥 오리피스가있는 수영장 형 어로의 유동장은 수직 슬롯 어로 (VSF)의 유동장보다 매우 3 차원 적이며 훨씬 더 복잡합니다. 이는 어로 수치 모델 검증에 대한 이전 연구에서 더 자주 고려 된 설계입니다 [26, 27,28,29,35].

저자가 아는 한, 이것은 바닥 오리피스가있는 풀형 어로에 대한 최초의 CFD 연구이며, 여기에는 실험 속도 데이터와 풀형 어로에 대한 3 차원 수치 모델링 결과 간의 가장 광범위한 비교도 포함됩니다. 두 가지 다른 측정 기술 (PIV 및 ADV)이 사용되어 자세한 비교가 가능하고 이러한 유형의 유동장에 대한 CFD 시뮬레이션 결과에 대한 확신을 제공합니다.

이 연구는 다른 어로 유형의 이전 수치 모델 연구에서 제시되지 않았던 난류 매개 변수를 포함하여 수치 모델 결과와 측정 간의 일치에 대한 통계적 테스트를 통해 정성적 비교 뿐만 아니라 상세한 정량적 비교도 제공합니다. 스케일 효과도 다룹니다.

따라서 이 연구는 전 세계적으로 가장 많이 사용되는 풀 유형 어로의 CFD 모델 검증을 원활하게 할 것이며 [10] 설계자들의 사용을 장려 할 것입니다.
또한 새로운 풀 유형 어로 형상을 위한 설계 도구로 CFD 모델 (즉, FLOW 3D®)을 사용하는 방법에 대해 설명합니다.

Figure 1. Experimental flume used (a) Side view of the flume; (b) Pool detail.
Figure 1. Experimental flume used (a) Side view of the flume; (b) Pool detail.
Figure 2. Three dimensional representations of a pool showing the measurement planes and the acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) measurement grid (a) measurement planes parallel to the flume bottom; (b) vertical measurement planes (ADV measurement grid is only shown in one plane).
Figure 2. Three dimensional representations of a pool showing the measurement planes and the acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) measurement grid (a) measurement planes parallel to the flume bottom; (b) vertical measurement planes (ADV measurement grid is only shown in one plane).
Figure 3. Computational domain, showing Pool 3 mesh block.
Figure 3. Computational domain, showing Pool 3 mesh block.
Figure 4. Streamlines of time-averaged velocities (left: PIV; right: mesh Amodel): (a,b) plane 2 (z = 0.088 m); (c,d) plane 5 (y = 0.20 m).
Figure 4. Streamlines of time-averaged velocities (left: PIV; right: mesh Amodel): (a,b) plane 2 (z = 0.088 m); (c,d) plane 5 (y = 0.20 m).
Figure 5. Longitudinal variation of velocity components: (a,c,e) planes 1 and 6 intersection (y = 0.36 m and z = 0.04 m); (b,d,f) planes 2 and 5 intersection (y = 0.20 m and z = 0.088 m).
Figure 5. Longitudinal variation of velocity components: (a,c,e) planes 1 and 6 intersection (y = 0.36 m and z = 0.04 m); (b,d,f) planes 2 and 5 intersection (y = 0.20 m and z = 0.088 m).
Figure 6. Longitudinal variation of Reynolds normal stress components and Reynolds shear stress parallel to the bottom component: (a,c,e,g) planes 1 and 6 intersection (y = 0.36 m and z = 0.04m); (b,d,f,h) planes 2 and 5 intersection (y = 0.20 m and z = 0.088 m).
Figure 6. Longitudinal variation of Reynolds normal stress components and Reynolds shear stress parallel to the bottom component: (a,c,e,g) planes 1 and 6 intersection (y = 0.36 m and z = 0.04m); (b,d,f,h) planes 2 and 5 intersection (y = 0.20 m and z = 0.088 m).


  1. Santos, J.M.; Branco, P.J.; Silva, A.T.; Katopodis, C.; Pinheiro, A.N.; Viseu, T.; Ferreira, M.T. Effect of two flow regimes on the upstream movements of the Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei) in an experimental pool-type fishway. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 2012, 29, 425–430. [CrossRef]
  2. Williams, J.G.; Armstrong, G.; Katopodis, C.; Larinier, M.; Travade, F. Thinking like a fish: A key ingredient for development of
    effective fish passage facilities at river obstructions. River Res. Appl. 2012, 28, 407–417. [CrossRef]
  3. Noonan, M.J.; Grand, J.W.A.; Jackson, C.D. A quantitative assessment of fish passage efficiency. Fish Fish. 2012, 13, 450–464. [CrossRef]
  4. Haro, A.; Kynard, B. Video Evaluation of Passage Efficiency of American Shad and Sea Lamprey in a Modified Ice Harbor Fishway. N. Am. J. Fish. Manag. 1997, 17, 981–987. [CrossRef]
  5. Odeh, M.; Noreika, J.F.; Haro, A.; Maynard, A.; Castro-Santos, T. Evaluation of the Effects of Turbulence on the Behavior of Migratory Fish; Contract no. 00000022, Project no. 200005700 (BPA Report DOE/BP-00000022-1); Report to the Bonneville Power
    Administration: Portland, Oregon, 2002.
  6. Enders, E.C.; Boisclair, D.; Roy, A.G. The effect of turbulence on the cost of swimming for juveniles of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2003, 60, 1149–1160. [CrossRef]
  7. Silva, A.T.; Santos, J.M.; Ferreira, M.T.; Pinheiro, A.N.; Katopodis, C. Effects of water velocity and turbulence on the behaviour of Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei, Steindachner, 1864) in an experimental pool-type fishway. River Res. Appl. 2011, 27, 360–373. [CrossRef]
  8. Silva, A.T.; Katopodis, C.; Santos, J.M.; Ferreira, M.T.; Pinheiro, A.N. Cyprinid swimming behaviour in response to turbulent flow. Ecol. Eng. 2012, 44, 314–328. [CrossRef]
  9. Lacey, R.W.J.; Neary, V.S.; Liao, J.C.; Enders, E.C.; Tritico, H.M. The IPOS framework: Linking fish swimming performance in altered flows from laboratory experiments to rivers. River Res. Appl. 2012, 28, 429–443. [CrossRef]
  10. Santos, J.M.; Silva, A.T.; Katopodis, C.; Pinheiro, P.J.; Pinheiro, A.N.; Bochechas, J.; Ferreira, M.T. Ecohydraulics of pool-type fishways: Getting past the barriers. Ecol. Eng. 2012, 48, 38–50. [CrossRef]
  11. Branco, P.J.; Santos, J.M.; Katopodis, C.; Pinheiro, A.N.; Ferreira, M.T. Effect of flow regime hydraulics on passage performance of Iberian chub (Squalius pyrenaicus) (Günther, 1868) in an experimental pool-and-weir fishway. Hydrobiologia 2013, 714,
    145–154. [CrossRef]
  12. Gao, Z.; Andersson, H.I.; Dai, H.; Jiang, F.; Zhao, L. A new Eulerian-Lagrangian agent method to model fish paths in a vertical slot fishways. Ecol. Eng. 2016, 88, 217–225. [CrossRef]
  13. Rajaratnam, N.; Katopodis, C.; Mainali, M. Pool-orifice and pool-orifice-weir fishways. Can. J. Civ. Eng. 1989, 16, 774–777. [CrossRef]
  14. Wu, S.; Rajaratnam, N.; Katopodis, C. Structure of flow in vertical slot fishway. J. Hydraul. Eng. 1999, 125, 351–360. [CrossRef]
  15. Kim, J.H. Hydraulic characteristics by weir type in a pool-weir fishway. Ecol. Eng. 2001, 16, 425–433. [CrossRef]
  16. Ead, S.A.; Katopodis, C.; Sikora, G.J.; Rajaratnam, N. Flow regimes and structure in pool and weir fishways. J. Environ. Eng. Sci. 2004, 3, 379–390. [CrossRef]
  17. Puertas, J.; Pena, L.; Teijeiro, T. Experimental approach to the hydraulics of vertical slot fishways. J. Hydraul. Eng. 2004, 130,10–23. [CrossRef]
  18. Liu, M.; Rajaratnam, N.; Zhu, D.D. Mean flow and turbulence structure in vertical slot fishways. J. Hydraul. Eng. 2006, 132,765–777. [CrossRef]
  19. Yagci, O. Hydraulic aspects of pool-weir fishways as ecologically friendly water structure. Ecol. Eng. 2010, 36, 36–46. [CrossRef]
  20. Tarrade, L.; Pineau, G.; Calluaud, D.; Texier, A.; David, L.; Larinier, M. Detailed experimental study of hydrodynamic turbulent flows generated in vertical slot fishways. Environ. Fluid Mech. 2011, 11, 1–21. [CrossRef]
  21. Calluaud, D.; Pineau, G.; Texier, A.; David, L. Modification of vertical slot fishway flow with a supplementary cylinder. J. Hydraul. Res. 2014, 52, 614–629. [CrossRef]
  22. Ballu, A.; Calluaud, D.; Pineau, G.; David, L. Experimental study of the influence of macro-roughnesses on vertical slot fishway flows. La Houille Blanche 2017, 2, 9–14. [CrossRef]
  23. Blocken, B.; Gualtieri, C. Ten iterative steps for model development and evaluation applied to computational fluid dynamics for
    environmental fluid mechanics. Environ. Model. Softw. 2012, 33, 1–22. [CrossRef]
  24. Zhang, J.; Tejada-Martínez, A.E.; Zhang, Q. Developments in computational fluid dynamics-based modeling for disinfection
    technologies over the last two decades: A review. Environ. Model. Softw. 2014, 58, 71–85. [CrossRef]
  25. Khan, L.A. A Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Model Analysis of Free Surface Hydrodynamics and Fish Passage Energetics in a Vertical-Slot Fishway. N. Am. J. Fish. Manag. 2006, 26, 255–267. [CrossRef]
  26. Cea, L.; Pena, L.; Puertas, J.; Vazquez-Cendon, M.E.; Peña, E. Application of several depth-averaged turbulence models to simulate flow in vertical slot fishways. J. Hydraul. Eng. 2007, 133, 160–172. [CrossRef]
  27. Barton, A.F.; Keller, R.J.; Katopodis, C. Verification of a numerical model for the prediction of low slope vertical slot fishway hydraulics. Aust. J. Water Res. 2009, 13, 53–60. [CrossRef]
  28. Chorda, J.; Maubourguet, M.M.; Roux, H.; George, J.; Larinier, M.; Tarrade, L.; David, L. Two-dimensional free surface flow numerical model for vertical slot fishways. J. Hydraul. Res. 2010, 48, 141–151. [CrossRef]
  29. Bombaˇc, M.; Novak, G.; Rodiˇc, P.; Cetina, M. Numerical and physical model study of a vertical slot fishway. ˇ J. Hydrol. Hydromech.
    2014, 62, 150–159. [CrossRef]
  30. Bombaˇc, M.; Novak, G.; Mlacnik, J.; Cetina, M. Extensive field measurements of flow in vertical slot fishway as data for validation ˇ of numerical simulations. Ecol. Eng. 2015, 84, 476–484. [CrossRef]
  31. Bombaˇc, M.; Cetina, M.; Novak, G. Study on flow characteristics in vertical slot fishways regarding slot layout optimization. ˇ Ecol.
    Eng. 2017, 107, 126–136. [CrossRef]
  32. Marriner, B.A.; Baki, A.B.M.; Zhu, D.Z.; Thiem, J.D.; Cooke, S.J.; Katopodis, C. Field and numerical assessment of turning pool hydraulics in a vertical slot fishway. Ecol. Eng. 2014, 63, 88–101. [CrossRef]
  33. Marriner, B.A.; Baki, A.B.M.; Zhu, D.Z.; Cooke, S.J.; Katopodis, C. The hydraulics of a vertical slot fishway: A case study on the multi-species Vianney-Legendre fishway in Quebec, Canada. Ecol. Eng. 2016, 90, 190–202. [CrossRef]
  34. Quaranta, E.; Katopodis, C.; Revelli, R.; Comoglio, C. Turbulent flow field comparison and related suitability for fish passage of a standard and a simplified low-gradient vertical slot fishway. River Res. Appl. 2017, 33, 1295–1305. [CrossRef]
  35. Fuentes-Pérez, J.F.; Silva, A.T.; Tuhtan, J.A.; García-Vega, A.; Carbonell-Baeza, R.; Musall, M.; Kruusmaa, M. 3D modelling of
    non-uniform and turbulent flow in vertical slot fishways. Environ. Model. Softw. 2018, 99, 156–169. [CrossRef]
  36. Stamou, A.; Mitsopoulos, G.; Rutschmann, P.; Bui, M. Verification of a 3D CFD model for vertical slot fish-passes. Environ. Fluid
    Mech. 2018, 18, 1435–1461. [CrossRef]
  37. Sanagiotto, D.; Rossi, J.; Bravo, J. Applications of computational fluid dynamics in the design and rehabilitation of nonstandard
    vertical slot fishways. Water 2019, 11, 199. [CrossRef]
  38. Silva, A.T.; Santos, J.M.; Franco, A.C.; Ferreira, M.T.; Pinheiro, A.N. Selection of Iberian barbel Barbus bocagei (Steindachner, 1864)
    for orifices and notches upon different hydraulic configurations in an experimental pool-type fishway. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 2009, 25,
    173–177. [CrossRef]
  39. Silva, A.T.; Santos, J.M.; Ferreira, M.T.; Pinheiro, A.N.; Katopodis, C. Passage efficiency of offset and straight orifices for upstream movements of Iberian barbel in a pool-type fishway. River Res. Appl. 2012, 28, 529–542. [CrossRef]
  40. Branco, P.; Santos, J.M.; Katopodis, C.; Pinheiro, A.; Ferreira, M.T. Pool-Type Fishways: Two Different Morpho-Ecological Cyprinid Species Facing Plunging and Streaming Flows. PLoS ONE 2013, 8, e65089. [CrossRef]
  41. Romão, F.; Quaresma, A.L.; Branco, P.; Santos, J.M.; Amaral, S.; Ferreira, M.T.; Katopodis, C.; Pinheiro, A.N. Passage performance
    of two cyprinids with different ecological traits in a fishway with distinct vertical slot configurations. Ecol. Eng. 2017, 105, 180–188. [CrossRef]
  42. Romão, F.; Branco, P.; Quaresma, A.L.; Amaral, S.; Pinheiro, A.N. Effectiveness of a multi-slot vertical slot fishway versus a standard vertical slot fishway for potamodromous cyprinids. Hydrobiologia 2018, 816, 153–163. [CrossRef]
  43. Romão, F.; Quaresma, A.L.; Santos, J.M.; Branco, P.; Pinheiro, A.N. Cyprinid passage performance in an experimental multislot fishway across distinct seasons. Mar. Freshw. Res. 2019, 70, 881–890. [CrossRef]
  44. Haque, M.M.; Constantinescu, G.; Weber, L. Validation of a 3D RANS model to predict flow and stratification effects related to fish passage at hydropower dams. J. Hydraul. Res. 2007, 45, 787–796. [CrossRef]
  45. Dargahi, B. Flow characteristics of bottom outlets with moving gates. J. Hydraul. Res. 2010, 48, 476–482. [CrossRef]
  46. Huang, W.; Yang, Q.; Xiao, H. CFD modelling of scale effects on turbulence flow and scour around bridge piers. Comput. Fluids 2009, 38, 1050–1058. [CrossRef]
  47. Heller, V. Scale effects in physical hydraulic engineering models. J. Hydraul. Res. 2011, 49, 293–306. [CrossRef]
  48. Larinier, M. Pool fishways, pre-barrages and natural bypass channels. Bull. Français de la Pêche et de la Piscic. 2002, 364, 54–82. [CrossRef]
  49. Quaresma, A.L.; Ferreira, R.M.L.; Pinheiro, A.N. Comparative analysis of particle image velocimetry and acoustic Doppler
    velocimetry in relation to a pool-type fishway flow. J. Hydraul. Res. 2017, 55, 582–591. [CrossRef]
  50. Flow Science, Inc. Flow-3D Version 11.2 User Manual; Flow Science, Inc.: Los Alamos, NM, USA, 2016.
  51. Hirt, C.W.; Sicilian, J.M. A porosity technique for the definition of obstacles in rectangular cell meshes. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics, Washington, DC, USA, 4 September 1985.
  52. Savage, B.M.; Johnson, M.C. Flow over ogee spillway: Physical and numerical model case study. J. Hydraul. Eng. 2001, 127, 640–649. [CrossRef]
  53. Abad, J.D.; Rhoads, B.L.; Güneralp, I.; García, M.H. Flow structure at different stages in a meander-bend with bendway weirs. J. Hydraul. Eng. 2008, 134, 1052–1063. [CrossRef]
  54. Bombardelli, F.A.; Meireles, I.; Matos, J. Laboratory measurements and multi-block numerical simulations of the mean flow and
    turbulence in the non-aerated skimming flow region of steep stepped spillways. Environ. Fluid Mech. 2011, 11, 263–288. [CrossRef]
  55. Bayon, A.; Valero, D.; García-Bartual, R.; López-Jiménez, P.A. Performance assessment of OpenFOAM and FLOW-3D in the numerical modeling of a low Reynolds number hydraulic jump. Environ. Model. Softw. 2016, 80, 322–335. [CrossRef]
  56. Duguay, J.M.; Lacey, R.W.J.; Gaucher, J. A case study of a pool and weir fishway modeled with OpenFOAM and FLOW-3D. Ecol. Eng. 2017, 103, 31–42. [CrossRef]
  1. Hirt, C.W.; Nichols, B.D. Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries. J. Comp. Phys. 1981, 39, 201–225. [CrossRef]
  2. Van Leer, B. Towards the ultimate conservative difference scheme. IV. A new approach to numerical convection. J. Comp. Phys. 1977, 23, 276–299. [CrossRef]
  3. Celik, I.B.; Ghia, U.; Roache, P.J.; Freitas, C.J.; Coleman, H.; Raad, P.E. Procedure for Estimation and Reporting of Uncertainty Due
    to Discretization in CFD Applications. J. Fluids Eng. 2008, 130, 078001 (4pages). [CrossRef]
  4. Smagorinsky, J. General circulation experiments with the primitive equations: I. The Basic Experiment. Mon. Weather Rev. 1963,
    91, 99–164. [CrossRef]
  5. Meyers, J.; Geurts, B.J.; Baelmans, M. Database analysis of errors in large-eddy simulation. Phys. Fluids 2003, 15, 2740–2755.[CrossRef]
  6. Celik, I.B.; Cehreli, Z.N.; Yavuz, I. Index of Resolution Quality for Large Eddy Simulations. J. Fluids Eng. 2005, 127, 949–958. [CrossRef]
  7. Freitag, M.; Klein, M. An improved method to assess the quality of large eddy simulations in the context of implicit filtering. J. Turbul. 2006, 7, 1–11. [CrossRef]
  8. Gousseau, P.; Blocken, B.; van Heijst, G.J.F. Quality assessment of Large-Eddy Simulation of wind flow around a high-rise building: Validation and solution verification. Comput. Fluids 2013, 79, 120–133. [CrossRef]
  9. Celik, I.; Li, J.; Hu, G.; Shaffer, C. Limitations of Richardson Extrapolation and Some Possible Remedies. J. Fluids Eng. 2005, 127, 795–805. [CrossRef]
  10. Pope, S.B. Turbulent Flows; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2000.
  11. Legates, D.R.; McCabe, G.J., Jr. Evaluating the use of “goodness-of-fit” Measures in hydrologic and hydroclimatic model validation. Water Resour. Res. 1999, 35, 233–241. [CrossRef]
  12. Bennett, N.D.; Crok, B.F.W.; Guariso, G.; Guillaume, J.H.A.; Hamilton, S.H.; Jakeman, A.J.; Marsili-Libelli, S.; Newhama, L.T.H.; Norton, J.P.; Perrin, C.; et al. Characterising performance of environmental models. Environ. Model. Softw. 2013, 40, 1–20. [CrossRef]
  13. Willmott, C.J.; Robeson, S.M.; Matsuura, K. A refined index of model performance. Int. J. Climatol. 2012, 32, 2088–2094. [CrossRef]
  14. Lane, S.N.; Richards, K.S. The “validation” of hydrodynamic models: Some critical perspectives. In Model Validation for Hydrological
    and Hydraulic Research; Bates, P.D., Anderson, M.G., Eds.; John Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2001; pp. 413–438.
  15. Bradbrook, K.F.; Biron, P.M.; Lane, S.N.; Richards, K.S.; Roy, A.G. Investigation of controls on secondary circulation in a simple confluence geometry using a three-dimensional numerical model. Hydrol. Process. 1998, 12, 1371–1396. [CrossRef]
  16. Bradbrook, K.F.; Lane, S.N.; Richards, K.S.; Biron, P.M.; Roy, A.G. Role of bed discordance at asymmetrical river confluences. J. Hydraul. Eng. 2001, 127, 351–368. [CrossRef]
  17. Ferguson, R.I.; Parsons, D.R.; Lane, S.N.; Hardy, R.J. Flow in meander bends with recirculation at the inner bank. Water Resour. Res. 2003, 39, 1322–1334. [CrossRef]
  18. Haltigin, T.W.; Biron, P.M.; Lapointe, M.F. Predicting equilibrium scour-hole geometry near angled stream deflectors using a three-dimensional numerical flow model. J. Hydraul. Eng. 2007, 133, 983–988. [CrossRef]
  19. Haltigin, T.W.; Biron, P.M.; Lapointe, M.F. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of flow around stream deflectors: The effects of obstruction angle and length. J. Hydraul. Res. 2007, 45, 227–238. [CrossRef]
  20. Han, S.S.; Biron, P.M.; Ramamurthy, A.S. Three-dimensional modelling of flow in sharp open-channel bends with vanes. J. Hydraulic Res. 2011, 49, 64–72. [CrossRef]
  21. Klein, M. An Attempt to assess the quality of large eddy simulations in the context of implicit filtering. Flow Turbul. Combust. 2005, 75, 131–147. [CrossRef]

수자원 분야

Water & Environmental

FLOW-3D는 작은 하수 처리 시스템부터 대형 수력 발전 프로젝트까지 수처리 및 환경 산업에 직면한 광범위한 문제를 해결할 수 있는 뛰어난 CFD 소프트웨어 입니다. FLOW-3D는 시뮬레이션의 복잡성을 감소시키고 최적의 솔루션에 대해 노력을 집중할 수 있도록 해줍니다. 이를 통해 통해 파악된 가치 있는 통찰력은 귀하의 상당한 시간과 비용을 절약 할 수 있습니다.

실제 지형을 적용하여 3차원 shallow water hybrid model을 이용한 댐 붕괴 시뮬레이션

FLOW-3D는 자유표면 흐름이 있는 수치해석 알고리듬에 의해 유동의 표면이 시공간적으로 변하는 모사를 위한 이상적인 도구라고 할 수 있습니다. 자유 표면은 물과 공기 같은 높은 비율의 밀도 변화를 가지는 유체들 사이의 특정한 경계를 일컫습니다. 자유 표면 흐름을 모델링하는 것은 일반적인 유동방정식과 난류 모델이 결합된 고급 알고리즘을 필요로 합니다. 이 기능은 FLOW-3D로 하여금 침수 구조에 의해 형성된 방수, 수력 점프 및 수면 변화의 흐름의 궤적을 포착 할 수 있습니다.

Bibliography & Technical Data

Study on the critical sediment concentration determining the optimal transport capability of submarine sediment flows with different particle size composition

Study on the critical sediment concentration determining the optimal transport capability of submarine sediment flows with different particle size composition

Yupeng Ren abc, Huiguang Zhou cd, Houjie Wang ab, Xiao Wu ab, Guohui Xu cd, Qingsheng Meng cd Abstract 해저 퇴적물 흐름은 퇴적물을 심해로 운반하는 주요 수단 중 하나이며, 종종 장거리를 이동하고 수십 또는 수백 킬로미터에 걸쳐 ...
Figure 2-15: Système expérimental du plan incliné

새로운 콘크리트의 유체 흐름 모델링

Sous la direction de :Marc Jolin, directeur de rechercheBenoit Bissonnette, codirecteur de recherche Modélisation de l’écoulement du béton frais Abstract ...
Figure 1. US bath modified as an EC reactor

물에서 초음파를 이용한 전기화학적 스트론튬 제거에 대한 단시간 수치 시뮬레이션

전기화학 반응기에 대한 3D 수치 시뮬레이션 및 측정을 사용하여 동시 초음파 처리 유무에 관계없이 물에서 스트론튬 제거 효율을 분석했습니다. 초음파는 ...
Validity evaluation of popular liquid-vapor phase change models for cryogenic self-pressurization process

극저온 자체 가압 공정을 위한 인기 있는 액체-증기 상 변화 모델의 타당성 평가

액체-증기 상 변화 모델은 밀폐된 용기의 자체 가압 프로세스 시뮬레이션에 매우 큰 영향을 미칩니다. Hertz-Knudsen 관계, 에너지 점프 모델 및 ...
Intrusion of fine sediments into river bed and its effect on river environment – a research review

미세한 퇴적물이 강바닥에 침투하고 하천 환경에 미치는 영향 – 연구 검토

Intrusion of fine sediments into river bed and its effect on river environment – a research review Nilav Karna,K.S. Hari ...
Fig. 1. Protection matt over the scour pit.

그물형 세굴방지매트를 사용한 수직말뚝의 흐름에 대한 수치적 연구

Numerical study of the flow at a vertical pile with net-like scour protection mattMinxi Zhanga,b, Hanyan Zhaoc, Dongliang Zhao d, ...
Effects of pile-cap elevation on scour and turbulence around a complex bridge pier

복잡한 교각 주변의 세굴 및 난기류에 대한 말뚝 뚜껑 높이의 영향

ABSTRACT 이 연구에서는 세 가지 다른 말뚝 뚜껑 높이에서 직사각형 말뚝 캡이 있는 복잡한 부두 주변의 지역 세굴 및 관련 ...
Effects of surface roughness on overflow discharge of embankment weirs

표면 거칠기가 제방 둑의 오버플로 배출에 미치는 영향

Effects of surface roughness on overflow discharge of embankment weirs Shang-tuo Qian, Yan Zhang, Hui Xu, Xiao-sheng Wang, Jian-gang Feng ...
Figure 4.2 Protrusion length investigation under R1 regime Q=1 m³/s with non-constrained BC elevation, 3 cm, 4 cm, 5 cm, 6cm & 7 cm from up to down respectively (grid M3 is employed).

Mathematical Modelling of Air-water flow Structure in Circular Dropshafts

Alternate title: Dairesel Düşülü Bacalarda Hava-Su Karışımının Matematiksel ModellemesiUçar, Muhammed.   Necmettin Erbakan University (Turkey) ProQuest Dissertations Publishing,  2021. 28840631. Abstract Citizens’ daily ...
Figure 11. Sketch of scour mechanism around USAF under random waves.

Scour Characteristics and Equilibrium Scour Depth Prediction around Umbrella Suction Anchor Foundation under Random Waves

by Ruigeng Hu 1,Hongjun Liu 2,Hao Leng 1,Peng Yu 3 andXiuhai Wang 1,2,* 1College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266000, China 2Key ...

FLOW-3D Water & Environmental Brochure (FSI) Bibliography


Case Studies

Conference Proceedings

Figure 1. Right: Absolute velocities in the vertical sluice gate fish pass. Level difference between the pools is 0.20 m. Left: Isosurface of the surface structure (blue), Right and left: Isosurface of absolute velocity 1.50 m/s (yellow)

Success Criterion for Fish Passages |수력 발전소 물고기 통로

São Roque 수력 발전소 물고기 통로

이 기사는 Matthias Haselbauer, RMD Consult  및 Carlos Barreira Martinez (  Minas Gerais 연방 대학교) 가 기고했습니다  .

브라질에서는 지난 150 년 동안 지표수의 사용이 지속적으로 증가했습니다. 항행성을 유지하고, 수력을 생성하고, 홍수를 방지하기 위해 자연 흐름을 방해하는 많은 장애물과 우회로가 세워졌습니다. 강에 서식하는 물고기 및 기타 작은 동물은 이러한 변화로 고통 받습니다. 일부 종의 멸종 시점까지 어류 수가 크게 감소한 것이 관찰되었습니다. 어류, 조류 및 포유류 개체수가 동시에 감소함에 따라 먹이 사슬에 대한 인간의 엄청난 영향이 분명해졌습니다.

강을 물고기를 위해 개방하기 위해 브라질에 많은 수의 물고기 통로가 건설되었지만 생물학적 및 기술적 측면에서 효율성이 떨어지는 경우가 많았습니다. 종종 1 차원적이고 경험적인 가정을 사용하여 설계된 통로의 흐름 상황은 과도한 선택과 열악한 위치를 초래합니다. 전통적인 1 차원 디자인의 물고기 통로와 달리 오늘날 더 적절한 도구를 사용할 수 있습니다. CFD (전산 유체 역학) 시뮬레이션을 사용하면 평균 속도 필드 뿐만 아니라 물고기 통로의 유용성에 상당한 영향을 미치는 과도 흐름 효과를 조사 할 수 있습니다. 최적의 결과를 얻으려면 설계 프로세스에서 수력 학적 고려 사항과 생물학적 고려 사항의 결합이 필수적입니다.

이 연구에서는주기적인 수직 수문 물고기 통로 내부의 난류 응집 구조에 대해 논의합니다. 길이가 4.50m이고 너비가 각각 3.30 인 두 개의 웅덩이 사이에서 흐름은 0.50m의 확장이 있는 작은 수직 개구부를 통과해야 합니다 (그림 1). 

CFD 시뮬레이션은 FLOW-3D 로 수행되었습니다 . 흐름 방향의 주기적 경계 조건에서 달성 가능한 해상도는 약 2.5cm입니다. 두 웅덩이 사이의 수면 Δh의 레벨 차이는 20cm였다. 따라서 절대 속도의 최대 값은 약 2m / s ≈ Δh * 2g입니다. 전체 위치 에너지는 운동 에너지로 변환되고 나중에 풀에서 소멸됩니다. 제트가 벽에서 분리되는 고속 영역이 형성됩니다.

절대 속도 수문 물고기 통과
그림 1. 오른쪽 : 수직 수문 물고기 통과의 절대 속도. 수영장 사이의 레벨 차이는 0.20m입니다. 왼쪽 : 표면 구조의 등면 (파란색), 오른쪽 및 왼쪽 : 절대 속도 1.50m / s (노란색)의 등면

LES (Large Eddy Simulation)를 통해 순간 흐름 영역에 대한 자세한 분석이 가능했습니다. 속도 및 난류 장의 분포와 풀 내의 일관된 난류 구조는 물고기의 행동을 더 잘 이해할 수있게했습니다.

난류 압력 변동

순간 속도 또는 압력 필드는 평균 값과 해당 변동으로 나눌 수 있습니다. 변동 압력에 대한 각 방정식은 다음과 같습니다.

{\tilde{p}}’=\tilde{p}-\left\langle {\tilde{p}} \right\rangle

난류 압력 장을 살펴보면 와류 내부의 난류 압력이 음수임을 알 수 있습니다. 난류 압력의 국부적 최소값은 그림 2와 같이 대규모 와류의 코어를 나타냅니다. 물고기 통로에서 여러 개의 수평 롤러가 관찰 될 수 있습니다. 와류는 수 문의 전 단층 내부에 형성됩니다. 정점의 주행 거리가 증가하면 와류 직경이 증가하고 난류 압력 진폭이 감소하여 롤러 내부의 난류 압력이 증가합니다.

일관된 구조와 관련하여 개방 채널 흐름의 난류 압력을 분석하는 것은 매우 어렵습니다. 대규모 와류는 직접 관찰로 거의 감지 할 수 없습니다. 이는 수면의 변동과 전체 전류 내부의 관련 압력 변동 때문입니다. 표면파에 의해 유발 된 압력 변동은 다음 지수 법칙에 따라 수심 z에 따라 감소합니다 [Kundu, 2004] :

{p}’\propto {{e}^{{-kz}}}

난류 압력 장을 살펴보면 와류 내부의 난류 압력이 음수임을 알 수 있습니다. 난류 압력의 국부적 최소값은 그림 2와 같이 대규모 와류의 코어를 나타냅니다. 물고기 통로에서 여러 개의 수평 롤러가 관찰 될 수 있습니다. 와류는 수 문의 전 단층 내부에 형성됩니다. 정점의 주행 거리가 증가하면 와류 직경이 증가하고 난류 압력 진폭이 감소하여 롤러 내부의 난류 압력이 증가합니다.

개방 채널 흐름의 난류 압력
그림 2 : 난류 압력 변동의 등면 = -500 Pa.

일관된 구조와 관련하여 개방 채널 흐름의 난류 압력을 분석하는 것은 매우 어렵습니다. 대규모 와류는 직접 관찰로 거의 감지 할 수 없습니다. 이는 수면의 변동과 전체 전류 내부의 관련 압력 변동 때문입니다. 표면파에 의해 유발 된 압력 변동은 다음 지수 법칙에 따라 수심 z에 따라 감소합니다 [Kundu, 2004] :

서로 다른 압력 변동의 중첩으로 인해 표면 근처의 대규모 일관된 구조를 감지하기가 어렵습니다.

Q- 기준

와류 감지를위한 또 다른 도구는 Dubrief (2000)와 Hunt (1988)가 제안했으며, 이들은 압력, 와도 및 Q- 기준의 등면을 비교했습니다. Q- 기준은 다음과 같이 계산됩니다.

\displaystyle {{\tilde{\Omega }}{{ij}}}=\frac{1}{2}\left( {\frac{{\partial {{{\tilde{U}}}{i}}}}{{{{x}{j}}}}-\frac{{{{{\tilde{U}}}{j}}}}{{\partial {{x}_{i}}}}} \right)

\displaystyle {\tilde{\Omega }}{ij}=\frac{1}{2}\left( {\frac{\tilde{U}{i}} {x}{j}-\frac{\tilde{U}{j}} {x}_{i}} \right)

공간적으로 필터링 된 속도 구배의 비대칭 및 대칭 부분. 그림 3에서는 Q ~ = 50s-2의 계산 된 등가 곡면이 표시됩니다. Q- 기준으로 소규모 와류가 감지됩니다. 난류 압력 변동과는 달리, Q- 기준 계산을 위해 자유 표면 상태는 탐지 가능성을 방해하지 않습니다. 이는 ∇²p 계산에 선형 정압 분포가 사용되지 않기 때문 입니다. 흐름에서 흐름 방향으로 작은 헤어 라인 소용돌이를 볼 수 있습니다.

Isosurfaces 난류 압력 변동
그림 3 : 난류 압력 변동의 등면


다른 스케일의 소용돌이를 시각화하면 엔지니어는 물고기가 수로를 통과해야하는 일관된 구조에 대해 좋은 느낌을 갖게됩니다. 감지 된 대규모 롤러가 주요 구조입니다. 물고기는 이러한 구조에 대한 흐름에서 안정화되어야합니다. 이 롤러의 축은 메인 스트림 방향에 부분적으로 수직이므로 물고기가 안정화를 위해 메인 핀을 사용할 수 있습니다.

소규모 구조물은 물고기의 수영 방향과 평행합니다. 물고기는 이러한 와류에서 안정화를 위해 수직 지느러미 만 사용할 수 있기 때문에 대규모 롤러보다 안정화를 위해 더 많은 노력을 기울여야합니다.

계산 된 LES 결과를 사용하여 물고기 통과 내부의 흐름 조건에 대한 생물 학자와 엔지니어 간의 예비 토론을 시작할 수 있습니다. 감지 된 난류 구조는 물고기 통과의 성공에 중요합니다. 이러한 구조를 통과하는 데는 고속 영역을 통과하는 것보다 더 많은 에너지가 필요할 수 있습니다.

다음 달에 브라질 벨루 오리 존치에있는 미나스 제 라이스 연방 대학교에서 이러한 난류 구조와 물고기가 이러한 구조를 탐색하는 능력 사이의 상관 관계를 확인하기 위해 일련의 실험실 실험이 수행 될 것입니다.

참고 문헌

Dubrief, Yves; Delcayre, Frank: On Coherent-vortex identification in turbulence. In: Journal of Turbulence 1 (2000), pp. 1-22

Haselbauer M.: Geräuscharme Fischaufstiegsgerinne – Experimentelle und numerische Analyse des Fischpasses vom Typ periodische Schütze. PhD-Thesis, Fachgebiet Hydromechanik, TU München, 2008

Hunt, J.C.R.; Wray, A.A.; Moin, P.: Eddies, streams, and convergence zones in turbulent flows. In: CTR-S88 (1988), pp. 193-208

Kundu, Pijush K; Cohen, Ira M: Fluid Mechanics. San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press, 2004

Wilczak, J. M: Large-scale eddies in the unstably stratified atmospheric surface layer. Part I: Velocity and temperature structure. In: J. Atmos. Sci. 41 (1984), pp. 3537-3550

Acknowledgement: All results were post-processed with Paraview.

Figure 1. Alaska requires minimum water depth for fish passage to be 2.5 times the height of the caudal fin (D) (Hotchkiss and Frei 2007).


물고기 통로 유압 구조효과 :2D VS 3D 유압 분석 방법의 평가


채널 스패닝 유압 구조물은 상류 물고기 이동에 대한 장벽 역할을 할 수 있습니다. 이러한 종단 적 서식지 연결의 중단과 관련된 부정적인 결과는 정확하고 실행 가능한 평가 기술의 필요성을 강조합니다.

3 차원 평가 방법은 인스트림 구조에서 복잡한 흐름을 해결하고 물고기 움직임을 정확하게 예측하는 것으로 나타났습니다. 그러나 3 차원 모델링은 시간과 리소스 요구 사항으로 인해 비실용적 일 수 있습니다.

이 연구는 2 차원 전산 유체 역학 모델과 통계 분석을 사용하여 콜로라도 주 리옹에있는 화이트 워터 공원 구조의 수력 조건을 설명하는 것을 조사합니다. 물고기의 움직임 관찰은 잠재적 인 수영 경로를 나타내는 공간적으로 명시적이고 연속적인 경로를 따라 결과 수력 변수와 쌍을 이룹니다.

로지스틱 회귀 분석은 흐름 깊이와 속도가 어류 통과와 밀접한 관련이 있음을 나타냅니다. 결합 된 깊이 및 속도 변수무지개 송어 (92 %를 정확하게 예측Oncorhynchus mykiss) 및 갈색 송어 (Salmo trutta)는 이 유압 구조에서) 움직임 관찰을 합니다.

이 연구의 결과는 2 차원 분석 방법이 3 차원 분석이 불가능한 경우 유사한 수력 학적 구조가 어류 통과에 미치는 영향을 평가하는 비용 효율적인 접근 방식을 제공할 수 있음을 시사합니다. 또한,이 연구의 결론은 비교적 낮은 수영 성능을 가진 송어와 물고기 모두에 대한 관리 및 설계 결정을 안내하는 데 사용할 수 있습니다.


수력 구조물은 수생 생물의 종 방향 서식지 연결을 의도적으로든 우연히든 효과적으로 차단할 수 있습니다. 의도적 장벽은 일반적으로 침입성 종의 도입 또는 교잡을 방지하기 위해 관리자에 의해 배치됩니다 (Holthe et al. 2005; Fausch et al. 2006). 그러나 구조물을 설계하고 설치할 때 물고기 통행 촉진을 고려하지 않았기 때문에 장벽이 더 자주 생성됩니다. 따라서 인위적 장애로 인해 전 세계 수로가 분열되었습니다 (Williams et al. 2012). 철새 어종의 성공적인 수명주기를 위해서는 종단 서식지 연결이 필수적입니다 (Schlosser and Angermeier 1995). 상류 이동에 대한 지연 또는 종료는 인구에 부정적인 영향을 미치고 생태계 기능을 방해 할 수 있습니다 (Beechie et al. 2010). 

수로를 가로 지르는 수력 구조물은 어류 통행에 미치는 영향을 철저히 평가하지 않고 하천과 강에 계속 배치됩니다 (Cada 1998; Noonan et al. 2012). 그러나 강 조각화와 관련된 문제에 대한 인식이 높아짐에 따라 설계 프로세스 전반에 걸쳐 물고기 통과 문제가 해결되는 방식에서 패러다임 전환이 일어나고 있습니다 (Katopodis and Williams 2012). 비 연어 종은 경제적 가치가 높은 종을 선호하는 경우가 많지만, 칼륨 종의 상류 이동 요구가 점점 더 중요하게 고려되고 있습니다 (Santos et al. 2012; Silva et al 2012) (Katopodis 2005; Roscoe and Hinch 2010). . 천연 자원 관리자는 제안 된 수력 구조물에 대해 의견을 제시하고 허용하도록 자주 요청받으며 (Kondratieff 2015),이 검토 과정에서 엔지니어와 과학자는 설계에 대한 예상 어류 통과 성능에 대한 모델 기반 증거를 제공하도록 요청받을 수 있습니다. 어류 통행과 관련하여 기존의 수력 구조물을 평가하고 우선 순위를 정하는 여러 방법이 현재 사용 가능하지만 (Kemp et al. 2010), 이전에 이 중요한 지점에서 제안된 구조물의 통행 효율성을 평가할 수있는 정확하고 실행 가능한 승인 및 설치 도구가 필요합니다.  

이러한 요구를 해결하는 데 초점을 맞춘 이전 작업은 3D 수력 모델링 기술이 상류 어류 이동을 평가할 목적으로 채널 스패닝 구조의 복잡한 유체 역학을 적절하게 해결할 수 있음을 보여주었습니다 (Stephens 2014).

이러한 새로운 3D 분석 방법은 전체 예측 정확도가 80 % 이상 (Stephens 2014)으로 매우 효과적 일 수 있지만 3D CFD (전산 유체 역학) 모델을 개발하는 데는 시간과 리소스가 많이 사용됩니다.

추가 데이터 수집, 소프트웨어 라이선스, 모델링 전문 지식 등에 대한 필요성은 많은 하천 관리 결정에 3D 분석을 비실용적으로 만들 수 있습니다. 다양한 2D 모델 플랫폼이 홍수 배출을 추정하고 (Horritt and Bates 2002; Merwade et al. 2008) 인스 트림 평가에 광범위하게 사용 되었기 때문에 실무 엔지니어와 과학자는 대부분의 수력 구조물 프로젝트에서 2D 수력 모델링을 수행 할 가능성이 더 높습니다.

물고기 서식지 (Clark et al. 2008; Katopodis 2012). 2D 및 3D 유압 모델의 실제 비교가보고되었지만 (Lane et al. 1999; Shen and Diplas 2008; Kolden 2013), 어류 통과에 대한 2D 및 3D 모델 기반 평가의 효능을 조사한 연구는 현재에서 발견되지 않았습니다.


천연 자원 관리자와 설계 엔지니어가 Stephens (2014)의 매우 효과적인 3D 방법에 더 쉽게 접근 할 수 있도록하기 위해이 연구는 자유롭게 사용할 수있는 산업 표준 2D CFD 모델 인 River2D (Steffler and Blackburn 2002)를 사용하여 타당성을 조사합니다. 수력 구조가 어류 통로에 미치는 영향을 평가합니다.

유사한 접근 방식을 기반으로하고 이전의 수력 학 및 어류 이동 데이터 세트 (Fox 2013, Kolden 2013, Stephens 2014)를 사용하여 이 2 개의 연구는 2D 분석 방법을 사용하여 St. Vrain River의 WWP (화이트 워터 파크) 구조를 평가합니다. Lyons, CO.이 연구의 구체적인 목표는 다음과 같습니다. 

1. WWP 구조에서 복잡한 유압 환경을 설명하는 2D CFD 모델을 개발합니다. 

2.이 2D CFD 모델의 결과를 사용하여 WWP 구조를 통해 잠재적 인 물고기 이동 경로를 따라 연속적이고 공간적으로 명시적인 수력 학적 설명을 생성합니다. 

3. 무지개 송어 (대해 사용 가능한 어류 이동 데이터와 가장 밀접하게 관련된 수리적 변수를 결정Oncorhynchus mykiss) 및 갈색 송어 (Salmo trutta)에합니다. 

4. 이전에 개발 된 3D 접근 방식 (Stephens 2014)의 PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) 태그 연구의 움직임 데이터를 기반으로 한 예측 평가 능력을이 연구의 2D 접근 방식과 비교합니다. 

5. 어류 통행의 관점에서 수력 구조물에 대한 비용 효율적인 평가를 통해 천연 자원 관리자 및 설계자를 지원하기위한 권장 사항을 제공합니다.


상류 어류 이동에 대한 장벽은 유속 깊이, 유속 또는 유속과 거리의 조합을 포함한 다양한 물리적 조건에 의해 생성 될 수 있습니다 (Coffman 2005; Cahoon et al. 2005). 깊이 장벽은 일반적으로 흐름 깊이가 너무 얕아 통과 시도를 허용하지 않을 때 생성됩니다.

깊이 장벽은 또한 자리 잡은 구조물의 낙하 높이 및 플런지 풀 깊이가 도약 제약으로 인해 통과를 허용하지 않을 때 존재할 수 있습니다. 유속이 구조물을 통과하려는 물고기의 수영 능력을 초과 할 때 속도 장벽이 생성되어 상류 진행을 방해합니다. 수력 구조물에 의해 생성 된 난류는 물고기의 통과에도 역할을 할 수 있습니다. 조건에 따라 난류는 물고기 수영에 긍정적 인 영향과 부정적인 영향을 모두 미칠 수 있습니다 (Liao 2007; Cotel and Webb 2012; Lacey et al. 2012).  

수영 성능 지표는 종종 기존의 수력 학적 구조가 물고기 통행의 장벽으로 작용하는지 여부를 평가하는 데 사용됩니다. 이러한 메트릭 중 가장 일반적인 것은 달리기 속도라고도 하는 버스트 수영 속도와 지구력 곡선입니다 (Castro-Santos et al. 2013).

물고기는 지속, 연장, 파열의 세 가지 수영 모드를 나타냅니다 (Peake et al. 1997). 지속적인 수영은 이론적으로 무한정 유지 될 수 있지만 장시간 및 버스트 수영 속도는 제한된 시간 동안만 유지 될 수 있습니다.

지구력 곡선은 세 가지 수영 모드 (Videler and Wardle 1991)에 걸쳐 연속적으로 수영 속도와 피로 시간 사이의 역 관계를 설명하여 생성됩니다. 버스트 수영 속도는 속도 장벽을 식별 할 때 유용하며 (Haro et al. 2004) 지구력 곡선은 잠재적 인 완전 장벽을 식별하는 데 도움이됩니다 (Castro-Santos et al. 2013). 현재 물고기 수영 성능과 난류 임계 값 또는 분포 사이의 물리적 관계는 잘 알려져 있지 않습니다 (Liao 2007).

그러나 총 운동 에너지 (TKE), 총 수력 변형, 레이놀즈 전단 응력 및 와도와 같은 일부 프록시 변수는 난류가 어류에 미치는 영향을 정량화 할 때 유용한 것으로 나타났습니다 (Nestler et al. 2008; Cotel and Webb 2012; Lacey et al. 2012; Silva et al. 2012). 

장벽은 완전 할 수 있으며, 물고기 통행을 허용하지 않거나 선택적 통행 성공이 생리적 또는 수리적 특성에 따라 결정되는 경우 부분적 일 수 있습니다. 이 연구의 목적을 위해 총 시도 횟수에 대한 성공적인 통과 횟수를 기반으로 한 인구 수준의 통과 효율을 사용하여 유압 구조로 인한 상류 이동 억제 정도를 정량화합니다 (Haro et al. 2004). 다양한 방법 개발되었습니다. 

장벽이 물고기 통로 (켐프와 O’Hanley 2010)에 영향을 미치는 방법을 정량화하기 위해  한 가지 접근 방식은 통계 모델을 사용하여 통과 효율 추정치를 0 ~ 100 %의 연속 척도로 표현할 수 있습니다. 과거에는 규칙 기반 또는 회귀 기법을 사용하여 암거 (Coffman 2005; Burford et al. 2009), 도로 횡단 (Warren and Pardew 1998) 또는 수로 실험 설정 (Haro et al. 2004)을 다양한 성공으로 평가했습니다.

통계적 방법은 다양한 척도에서 수리적 변수에 대한 정보를 결합하여 통과에 큰 영향을 미치는 변수를 식별 할 수 있습니다 (Kemp and O’Hanley 2010). 이러한 모델은 현장 기반 어류 이동 관찰을 사용하여 검증 할 수도 있습니다 (Coffman 2005; Burford 2009).

2014 년에 Stephens는 3D CFD 모델 출력 (Kolden 2013)을 활용하여 수력 구조물에서 물고기 통과를 평가하기위한 연속적이고 공간적으로 명시적인 분석 방법을 만드는 새로운 통계 방법을 개발했습니다. 이 방법은 콜로라도에있는 3 개의 파도 생성, 인공 화이트 워터 파크 (WWP) 구조물에서 수집 한 수력 측정 및 PIT 태그 통과 관찰 (Fox 2013)을 통해 검증되었습니다. 통계 결과에 따르면 Stephens (2014) 방법은 전체 정확도가 80 % 이상인 통과 효율을 예측할 수 있습니다. 

Stephens는 3D CFD 모델의 결과를 사용했지만 다른 연구에서는 2D CFD 모델을 사용하여 물고기와 관련된 규모의 복잡한 흐름을 설명하는 데 초점을 맞추 었습니다 (Lane et al. 1999; Crowder and Diplas 2000; Shen and Diplas 2008). 2D CFD 모델링의 주요 관심사는 물고기 서식지 및 수영 성능에 중요한 중간 규모 기능과 관련된 복잡성을 포착 할 수 있는지 여부였습니다 (Crowder and Diplas 2000).

혼합된 결과는 서식지 평가를 위해 모델링되는 도달 범위의 특성에 따라 2D CFD 모델이 수력 조건에 대한 적절한 설명을 제공하거나 제공하지 않을 수 있음을 보여줍니다 (Clark et al. 2008; Shen and Diplas 2008; Kozarek et al. 2010) . 서식지 또는 지형 모델링에 중점을 두는 경우 깊이 평균 2D 모델과 직접 비교할 때 3D 모델 사용이 선호되었습니다 (Lane et al. 1999; Shen and Diplas 2008). 그러나 수력 구조물에서 상류 어류의 움직임을 평가할 때 2D 및 3D 모델의 성능을 비교 평가 한 연구는 거의 없습니다. 

이 연구에서 CFD 모델의 비교는 2D 소프트웨어 River2D와 3D 소프트웨어 FLOW-3D에 중점을 둡니다 (Flow Science, 2009). 2D 모델과 3D 모델의 가장 큰 차이점은 2D 모델은 각 계산 노드에서 유압 변수의 값을 깊이 평균한다는 것입니다. 이 깊이 평균은 구조물의 물고기 친화성에 큰 영향을 미칠 수있는 중요한 흐름 특징과 경계층 효과를 배제 할 수있는 잠재력을 가지고 있습니다.

예를 들어, 수심 평균 속도 값은 WWP 구조 하류의 수력 조건이 동일한 도달 범위 내의 자연 풀에있는 것과 유사하다고 잘못 제안 할 수 있습니다. 실제로 두 유동장은 어류 개체군에 다르게 영향을 미칠 수있는 고유 한 특성을 가지고 있습니다 (Kolden 2013). River2D는 또한 정수압과 일정한 수평 속도 분포를 가정하는 반면 FLOW-3D는 이러한 가정을 피할 수 있습니다.

대부분의 2D CFD 모델링 프로그램 (Toombes and Chanson 2011)에서 요구하는 정수압 가정은 가파른 경사 (> 10 %)와 급변하는 경사 (Steffler and Blackburn 2002)에서 계산 정확도를 제한합니다. 속도 분포가 일정하다는 가정은 수직 속도 구성 요소가 무시할 수 있음을 의미하며 본질적으로 2D CFD 모델을 사용하여 2 차 흐름 및 강한 순환을 분석하는 기능을 제거합니다 (Steffler and Blackburn 2002; Toombes and Chanson 2011).

이러한 가정과 2D 물리적 표현의 단순화 된 특성을 고려할 때 2D CFD 모델이 물고기 통과 예측 평가를 위해 채널 스패닝 구조의 복잡한 유체 역학을 적절하게 해결할 수 있는지 여부는 불분명합니다.

Figure 1. Alaska requires minimum water depth for fish passage to be 2.5 times the height of the caudal fin (D) (Hotchkiss and Frei 2007).
Figure 1. Alaska requires minimum water depth for fish passage to be 2.5 times the height of the caudal fin (D) (Hotchkiss and Frei 2007).
Figure 2. Depth (m) and velocity magnitude (m/s) River2D contours for 0.42 cms.
Figure 2. Depth (m) and velocity magnitude (m/s) River2D contours for 0.42 cms.

구체적인 내용은 아래 원문을 참고하시기 바랍니다.

FLOW-3D HYDRO- Dams & Spillways

Dams & spillways Long history of success

  • Government regulators
  • Hydro-power utilities
  • Engineering consultants
  • Hydraulics laboratories
  • CFD consultants
  • Academia

Dams & spillways

•Wide range of applications

•Wide range of flow conditions:
–Open channel
–Pressurized –Mixed

•Wide range of models
FLOW-3D HYDRO is a solution that is:

  • Versatile
  • Robust
  • Accurate

Spillway rating curve
Draft tube exit hydraulics
Flow distribution at turbine entrance
Head loss & energy dissipation
Forces on dams
Aerated flows
Spillway approach conditions
Jet deflection on upper spillway
Spillway water profile
Fish passage hydraulics
Forces on Spillways
Sediment & Scour

Limitless dam, spillway & stilling basin configurations

–Weirs & hydraulic controls
–Morning glory
–Piano Key weir
–Arced weirs

FLOW-3D HYDRO에는 수십 가지 예가 사전 탑재되어 있어 응용 프로그램 모델링을 시작할 수 있는 좋은 출발점을 제공합니다.

Ray-tracing an upcoming post-processing feature


기하학적 또는 흐름 구성에 대한 제한 없음: FLOW-3D HYDO는 속도, 공기 흡입 및 난류장과 같은 중요한 흐름 특성을 매우 정확하게 표현합니다.

  • Natural fishways
  • Pool & weir
  • Pool & orifice
  • Larinier
  • Ice-harbor
  • Natural
  • Baffle
  • Vertical slot
  • Denil •…
  • Simulation outputs
  • Detail of velocity field
  • Water elevation profiles

Spatial mapping of turbulence intensity

Determination of flow conditions:

A vertical jet flowing into a moving cross stream

공기 유입 / Air Entrainment

Air Entrainment / 공기 유입

A vertical jet flowing into a moving cross stream

FLOW-3D 의 공기 혼입 모델(air entrainment model)은 자유 표면에서 용해되지 않은 공기 혼입을 시뮬레이션하는 강력한 도구입니다. 제트 및 방수로 충돌시 관찰되는 국부적이고 난류가없는 자유 표면 혼입 기능이 있습니다. 이러한 기능은 엔지니어가 설계시 공기 유입을 예측하고, 공기유입이 안전하게 작동하도록 적절한 수정을 할 수 있게 합니다.

Spillway hydraulics / 여수로 수리장치

여수로 구조는 다양한 작동 조건을 처리 할 수 ​​있도록 설계되어야 합니다. 유동 조건이 설계 범위의 상단에 도달하면 여수로 표면의 불규칙성으로 인해 유동이 분리 될 수 있습니다. 이는 여수로 표면의 압력이 캐비테이션을 일으킬 정도로 낮아지게 합니다. 캐비테이션은 구조물의 강도에 매우 해로우며 치명적인 손상을 초래할 수 있습니다.

공기 유입은 캐비테이션의 가능성을 줄이는 수단입니다. 물이 공기에 존재하면 캐비테이션 영역의 붕괴하는 기포에 감쇠 효과를 추가하여 캐비테이션 손상을 줄입니다. 여수로의 속도가 충분히 높으면 공기를 동반시키고 캐비테이션을 줄이기 위해 폭기 장치를 추가해야합니다.

폭기 흐름의 시뮬레이션과 폭기 장치에서 포획된 공기의 예측.

왼쪽 이미지는 거시적 인 밀도에 의해 착색됩니다. 오른쪽 그래프는 폭기 장치에 유입 된 수분의 일정한 부피와 폭기 장치 이후의 수분 및 공기의 양을 비교 한 것입니다.

아래 동영상은 FLOW-3D에서 공기 유입 과정을 시뮬레이션하는 방법을 보여줍니다. 여기에는 공기혼입 및 드리프트 플럭스 모델의 이론에 대한 세부 정보와 FLOW-3D에서 기본 공기혼입 시뮬레이션을 설정하는 방법에 대한 데모가 포함되어 있습니다.

Fish passage design / 물고기 개체수 유지를 위한 어도 설계

공기가 물로 혼입되면 미생물의 성장을 유지하고 건강한 어류 개체군의 생존을 보장 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 과포화 상태의 용존 기체는 수생 생물에 부정적인 영향을 미치는 수질 문제가 됩니다. 공기 동반 모델의 또 다른 용도는 강의 하류로 방출되는 배수로에서 동반되는 공기의 농도를 결정하기 위해 해양 생물학에서 사용됩니다.
이 모델에 대한 더 자세한 정보는 Air Entrainment 의 Flow Science Report를 다운로드하십시오.

Culvert Application / 암거 시설물

Culvert Applications / 암거 시설물 유동해석 개요

Brain Fox / CFD Engineer, Flow Science, inc

근래 이상기후에 의한 강우량 증대와 도시화에 따른 첨두 유출량의 증대 및 도달시간의 단축은 하류지점의 빈번한 범람을 유발하여, 이러한 문제들의 해결을 위해 저류지와 같은 우수 유출 저감시설 구축을 추진하고 있습니다.

Culvert 시설물의 최적 설계 또는 기존 시설물의 개선을 통한 문제점 해결에 필요한 3차원 유동 해석은 FLOW-3D를 활용하여 도움을 받을 수 있습니다.

암거 흐름은 지형 및 수리조건에 따라 복잡하고 다양한 흐름 특성을나타내고 있으며, 이로 인해 암거의 3차원 유동해석(CFD)이 점점 더 필수적인 업무 과정이 되어 가고 있습니다.

기본 Culvert 유동

FLOW-3D를 이용한 Culvert 유동해석



Energy Dissipiration

Fish Passage / 어도

Sedimentation / Outlet Scour

Multi-ballel culvert

Moning Glory Spillway

Air entrainment

FLOW-3D를 이용한 실제 해석

초기 해석 조건


Water & Environmental Bibliography

다음은 수자원 및 환경 분야에 대한 참고 문 기술 문서 모음입니다.
이 모든 논문은 FLOW-3D  해석 결과를 사용하였습니다. FLOW-3D  를 사용하여 수처리 및 환경 산업을 위한 응용 프로그램을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

Water and Environmental Bibliography

2023년 8월 7일 Update

77-23   Paolo Peruzzo, Matteo Cappozzo, Nicola Durighetto, Gianluca Botter, Local processes with global impact: unraveling the dynamics of gas evasion in a step-and-pool configuration, Biogeosciences, 2023.

74-23   Kaywan Othman Ahmed, Nazim Nariman, Dara Muhammad Hawez, Ozgur Kisi, Ata Amini, Predicting and optimizing the influenced parameters for culvert outlet scouring utilizing coupled FLOW 3D-surrogate modeling, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology: Transactions of Civil Engineering, 47; pp. 1763-1776, 2023.

73-23   Ashkan Pilbala, Mahmood Shafai Bejestan, Seyed Mohsen Sajjadi, Luigi Fraccarollo, Investigation of the different models of elliptical-Lopac gate performance under submerged flow conditions, Water Resources Management, 2023.

69-23   Chonoor Abdi Chooplou, Masoud Ghodsian, Davoud Abediakbar, Aram Ghafouri, An experimental and numerical study on the flow field and scour downstream of rectangular piano key weirs with crest indentations, Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, 8; 140, 2023.

68-23   Mahmood Shafai Bajestan, Mostafa Adineh, Hesam Ghodousi, Numerical modeling of sediment washing (flushing) in dams (Case study of Sefidrood dam), Journal of Irrigation Sciences and Engineering, 2023.

65-23   Charles R. Ortloff, CFD investigations of water supply and distribution systems of ancient old and new world archaeological sites to recover ancient water engineering technologies, Water, 15.7; 1363, 2023.

63-23   Rasoul Daneshfaraz, Reza Norouzi, Parisa Ebadzadeh, Alban Kuriqi, Effect of geometric shapes of chimney weir on discharge coefficient, Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research, 2023.

59-23   Hongbo Mi, Chuan Wang, Xuanwen Jia, Bo Hu, Hongliang Wang, Hui Wang, Yong Zhu, Hydraulic characteristics of continuous submerged jet impinging on a wall by using numerical simulation and PIV experiment, Sustainability, 15.6; 5159, 2023.

58-23   O.P. Maurya, K.K. Nandi, S. Modalavalasa, S. Dutta, Flow hydrodynamics influences due to flood plain sand mining in a meandering channel, Sustainable Environment (NERC 2022), Eds. D. Deka, S.K. Majumder, M.K., Purkait, 2023.

57-23   Harshvardhan Harshvardhan, Deo Raj Kaushal, CFD modelling of local scour and flow field around isolated and in-line bridge piers using FLOW-3D, EGU General Assembly, EGU23-3820, 2023.

54-23   Reza Nematzadeh, Gholam-Abbas Barani, Ehsan Fadaei-Kermani, Numerical investigation of bed-load changes on sediment flushing cavity, Journal of Hydraulic Structures, 4; 2023.

53-23   Rasoul Daneshfaraz, Reza Norouzi, Parisa Ebadzadeh, Alban Kuriqi, Influence of sill integration in labyrinth sluice gate hydraulic performance, Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, 8.118; 2023.

52-23   Shu Jiang, Yutong Hua, Mengxing He, Ying-Tien Lin, Biyun Sheng, Effect of a circular cylinder on hydrodynamic characteristics over a strongly curved channel, Sustainability, 15.6; 4890, 2023.

51-23   Ehsan Aminvash, Kiyoumars Roushangar, Numerical investigation of the effect of the frontal slope of simple and blocky stepped spillway with sem-circular crest on its hydraulic parameters, Iranian Journal of Irrigation and Drainage, 17.1; pp. 102-116, 2023.

50-23   Shizhuang Chen, Anchi Shi, Weiya Xu, Long Yan, Huanling Wang, Lei Tian, Wei-Chau Xie, Numerical investigation of landslide-induced waves: a case study of Wangjiashan landslide in Baihetan Reservoir, China, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 82.110; 2023.

49-23   Jiří Procházka, Modelling flow distribution in inlet galleries, VTEI, 1; 2023.

47-23   M. Cihan Aydin, Ali Emre Ulu, Numerical investigation of labyrinth‑shaft spillway, Applied Water Science, 13.89; 2023.

46-23   Guangwei Lu, Jinxin Liu, Zhixian Cao, Youwei Li, Xueting Lei, Ying Li, A computational study of 3D flow structure in two consecutive bends subject to the influence of tributary inflow in the middle Yangtze River, Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, 17.1; 2183901, 2023.

44-23   Xun Huang, Zhijian Zhang, Guoping Xiang, Sensitivity analysis of a built environment exposed to the synthetic monophasic viscous debris flow impacts with 3-D numerical simulations, Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, 23; pp. 871-889, 2023.

43-23   Yisheng Zhang, Jiangfei Wang, Qi Zhou, Haisong Li, Wei Tang, Investigation of the reduction of sediment deposition and river flow resistance around dimpled surface piers, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2023.

41-23   Nejib Hassen Abdullahi, Zulfequar Ahmad, Experimental and CFD studies on the flow field and bed morphology in the vicinity of a sediment mining pit, EGU General Assembly, 2023.

40-23   Seonghyeon Ju, Jongchan Yi, Junho Lee, Jiyoon Kim, Chaehwi Lim, Jihoon Lee, Kyungtae Kim, Yeojoon Yoon, High-efficiency microplastic sampling device improved using CFD analysis, Sustainability, 15.5; 3907, 2023.

37-23   Muhammad Waqas Zaffar, Ishtiaq Hassan, Hydraulic investigation of stilling basins of the barrage before and after remodelling using FLOW-3D, Water Supply, 23.2; pp. 796-820, 2023.

35-23   Mehmet Cihan, Ali Emre Ulu, Developing and testing a novel pressure-controlled hydraulic profile for siphon-shaft spillways, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 90; 102332, 2023.

28-23   Yuhan Li, Deshen Chen, Yan Zhang, Hongliang Qian, Jiangyang Pan, Yinghan Huang, Boo Cheong Khoo, Thermal structure and hydrodynamic analysis for a new type of flexible temperature-control curtain, Journal of Hydrology, 618; 129170, 2023.

22-23   Rong Lu, Wei Jiang, Jingjing Xiao, Dongdong Yuan, Yupeng Li, Yukai Hou, Congcong Liu, Evaluation of moisture migration characteristics of permeable asphalt pavement: Field research, Journal of Environmental Management, 330; 117176, 2023.

18-23   Thu Hien-T. Le, Van Chien Nguyen, Cong Phuc Dang, Thanh Thin-T. Nguyen, Bach Quynh-T. Pham, Ngoc Thoa Le, Numerical assessment on hydraulic safety of existing conveyance structures, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2023.

17-23   Meysam Nouri, Parveen Sihag, Ozgur Kisi, Mohammad Hemmati, Shamsuddin Shahid, Rana Muhammad Adnan, Prediction of the discharge coefficient in compound broad-crested weir gate by supervised data mining techniques, Sustainability, 15.1; 433, 2023.

16-23   Mohammad Bananmah, Mohammad Reza Nikoo, Mehrdad Ghorbani Mooselu, Amir H. Gandomi, Optimum design of the chute-flip bucket system using evolutionary algorithms considering conflicts between decision-makers, Expert Systems with Applications, 216; 119480, 2023.

13-23   Xiaoyu Yi, Wenkai Feng, Botao Li, Baoguo Yin, Xiujun Dong, Chunlei Xin, Mingtang Wu, Deformation characteristics, mechanisms, and potential impulse wave assessment of the Wulipo landslide in the Baihetan reservoir region, China, Landslides, 20; pp. 615-628, 2023.

11-23 Şebnem Elçi, Oğuz Hazar, Nisa Bahadıroğlu, Derya Karakaya, Aslı Bor, Destratification of thermally stratified water columns by air diffusers, Journal of Hydro-environment Research, 46; pp. 44-59, 2023.

7-23 Shikang Liu, Yuxiang Jian, Pengcheng Li, Ruifeng Liang, Xuefeng Chen, Yunong Qin, Yuanming Wang, Kefeng Li, Optimization schemes to significantly improve the upstream migration of fish: A case study in the lower Yangtze River basin, Ecological Engineering, 186; 106838, 2023.

6-23 Maryam Shahabi, Javad Ahadiyan, Mehdi Ghomeshi, Marjan Narimousa, Christos Katopodis, Numerical study of the effect of a V-shaped weir on turbulence characteristics and velocity in V-weir fishways, River Research and Applications, 2023.

5-23 Muhammad Nur Aiman Bin Roslan, Hee Min Teh, Faris Ali Hamood Al-Towayti, Numerical simulations of wave diffraction around a low-crested semicircular breakwater, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Water Resources (ICWR), Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 293.1; pp. 421-433, 2023.

4-23 V.K. Krishnasamy, M.H. Jamal, M.R. Haniffah, Modelling of wave runup and overtopping over Accropode II breakwater, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Water Resources (ICWR), Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 293.1; pp. 435-444, 2023.

3-23 Anas S. Ghamam, Mohammed A. Abohatem, Mohd Ridza Bin Mohd Haniffah, Ilya K. Othman, The relationship between flow and pressure head of partially submerged orifice through CFD modelling using Flow-3D, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Water Resources (ICWR), Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 293.1; pp. 235-250, 2023.

2-23 M.Y. Zainab, A.L.S. Zebedee, A.W. Ahmad Khairi, I. Zulhilmi, A. Shahabuddin, Modelling of an embankment failure using Flow-3D, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Water Resources (ICWR), Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 293.1; pp. 273-282, 2023.

1-23 Gaetano Crispino, David Dorthe, Corrado Gisonni, Michael Pfister, Hydraulic capacity of bend manholes for supercritical flow, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 149.2; 2022.

178-22 Greg Collecutt, Urs Baeumer, Shuang Gao, Bill Syme, Bridge deck afflux modelling — benchmarking of CFD and SWE codes to real-world data, Hydrology & Water Resources Symposium, 2022.

177-22 Kyle Thomson, Mitchell Redenbach, Understanding cone fishway flow regimes with CFD, Hydrology & Water Resources Symposium, 2022.

176-22 Kyle Thomson, Practical application of CFD for fish passage design, Hydrology & Water Resources Symposium, 2022.

173-22 Melquisedec Cortés Zambrano, Helmer Edgardo Monroy González, Wilson Enrique Amaya Tequia, Three-dimensional numerical evaluation of hydraulic efficiency and discharge coefficient in grate inlets, Environmental Research, Engineering and Management, 78.4; 2022.

168-22 Mohammad Javadi Rad, Pedram Eshaghieh Firoozbadi, Fatemeh Rostami, Numerical investigation of the effect dimensions of rectangular sedimentation tanks on its hydraulic efficiency using Flow-3D Software, Acta Technica Jaurinensis, 15.4; 2022.

165-22 Saman Mostafazadeh-Fard, Zohrab Samani, Dissipating culvert end design for erosion control using CFD platform FLOW-3D numerical simulation modeling, Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice, 14.1; 2022.

164-22 Mohammad Ahmadi, Alban Kuriqi, Hossein Mohammad Nezhad, Amir Ghaderi, Mirali Mohammadi, Innovative configuration of vertical slot fishway to enhance fish swimming conditions, Journal of Hydrodynamics, 34; pp. 917-933, 2022.

160-22 Serife Yurdagul Kumcu, Kamil Ispir, Experimental and numerical modeling of various energy dissipator designs in chute channels, Applied Water Science, 12; 266, 2022.

154-22 Usama Majeed, Najam us Saqib, Muhammad Akbar, Numerical analysis of energy dissipator options using computational fluid dynamics modeling — a case study of Mirani Dam, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 15; 1614, 2022.

151-22 Meibao Chen, Xiaofei Jing, Xiaohua Liu, Xuewei Huang, Wen Nie, Multiscale investigations of overtopping erosion in reinforced tailings dam induced by mud-water mixture overflow, Geofluids, 7209176, 2022.

150-22   Daniel Damov, Francis Lepage, Michel Tremblay, Arian Cueto Bergner, Marc Villaneuve, Frank Scarcelli, Gord McPhail, Calabogie GS redevelopment—Capacity upgrade and hydraulic design, CDA Annual Conference, Proceedings, 2022.

147-22   Hien T.T. Le, Chien Van Nguyen, Duc-Hau Le, Numerical study of sediment scour at meander flume outlet of boxed culvert diversion work, PLoS One, 17.9; e0275347, 2022.

140-22   Jackson Tellez-Alvarez, Manuel Gómez, Beniamino Russo, Numerical simulation of the hydraulic behavior of stepped stairs in a metro station, Advances in Hydroinformatics, Eds. P. Gourbesville, G. Caignaert, pp. 1001-1009, 2022.

139-22   Juan Yu, Keyao Liu, Anbin Li, Mingfei Yang, Xiaodong Gao, Xining Zhao, Yaohui Cai, The effect of plug height and inflow rate on water flow characteristics in furrow irrigation, Agronomy, 12; 2225, 2022.

138-22   Nejib Hassen Abdullahi, Zulfequar Ahmad, Flow and morphological characteristics in mining pits of a river through numerical and experimental modeling, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2022.

137-22   Romain N.H.M. Van Mol, Christian Mörtl, Azin Amini, Sofia Siachou, Anton Schleiss, Giovanni De Cesare, Plunge pool scour and bank erosion: assessment of protection measures for Ilarion dam by physical and numerical modelling, HYDRO 2022, Proceedings, 27.02, 2022.

136-22   Yong Cheng, Yude Song, Chunye Liu, Wene Wang, Xiaotao Hu, Numerical simulation research on the diversion characteristics of a trapezoidal channel, Water, 14.17; 2706, 2022.

135-22   Zegao Yin, Yao Li, Jiahao Li, Zihan Zheng, Zihan Ni, Fuxiang Zheng, Experimental and numerical study on hydrodynamic characteristics of a breakwater with inclined perforated slots under regular waves, Ocean Engineering, 264; 112190, 2022.

133-22   Azin Amini, Martin Wickenhauser, Azad Koliji, Three-dimensional numerical modelling of Al-Salam storm water pumping station in Saudi Arabia, 39th IAHR World Congress, 2022.

131-22   Alireza Koshkonesh, Mohammad Daliri, Khuram Riaz, Fariba Ahmadi Dehrashid, Farhad Bahmanpouri, Silvia Di Francesco, Dam-break flow dynamics over a stepped channel with vegetation, Journal of Hydrology, 613.A; 128395, 2022.

129-22   Leona Repnik, Samuel Vorlet, Mona Seyfeddine, Asin Amini, Romain Dubuis, Giovanni De Cesare, Pierre Bourqui, Pierre-Adil Abdelmoula, Underground flow section modification below the new M3 Flon Metro station in Lausanne, Advances in Hydroinformatics, Eds. P. Gourbesville, G. Caignaert, pp. 979-999, 2022.

127-22   Qin Panpan, Huang Bolin, Li Bin, Chen Xiaoting, Jiang Xiannian, Hazard analysis of landslide blocking a river in Guang’an Village, Wuxi County, Chongqing, China, Landslides, 2022.

124-22   Vaishali P. Gadhe, S.R. Patnaik, M.R. Bhajantri, V.V. Bhosekar, Physical and numerical modeling of flow pattern near upstream guide wall of Jigaon Dam spillway, Maharashtra, River and Coastal Engineering, Water Science and Technology Library 117; pp. 237-247, 2022.

123-22   M.Z. Qamar, M.K. Verma, A.P. Meshram, Neena Isaac, Numerical simulation of desilting chamber using Flow 3D, River and Coastal Engineering, Water Science and Technology Library 117; pp. 177-186, 2022.

122-22   Abbas Parsaie, Saleh Jaafer Suleiman Shareef, Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi, Raad Hoobi Irzooki, Rasul M. Khalaf, Numerical simulation of flow on circular crested stepped spillway, Applied Water Science, 12; 215, 2022.

121-22   Kazuki Kikuchi, Hajime Naruse, Morphological function of trace fossil Paleodictyon: An approach from fluid simulation, Paleontological Research, 26.4; pp. 378-389, 2022.

120-22   Najam us Saqib, Muhammad Akbar, Huali Pan, Guoqiang Ou, Numerical investigation of pressure profiles and energy dissipation across the stepped spillway having curved treads using FLOW 3D, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 15; 1363, 2022.

116-22   Ayşegül Özgenç Aksoy, Mustafa Doğan, Semire Oğuzhan Güven, Görkem Tanır, Mehmet Şükrü Güney, Experimental and numerical investigation of the flood waves due to partial dam break, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology: Transactions of Civil Engineering, 2022.

115-22   Abdol Mahdi Behroozi, Mohammad Vaghefi, Experimental and numerical study of the effect of zigzag crests with various geometries on the performance of A-type piano key weirs, Water Resources Management, 2022.

114-22   Xun Huang, Zhijian Zhang, Guoping Xiang, Sensitivity analysis of a built environment exposed to debris flow impacts with 3-D numerical simulations, Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, 2022.

113-22   Ahmad Ferdowsi, Mahdi Valikhan-Anaraki, Saeed Farzin, Sayed-Farhad Mousavi, A new combination approach for optimal design of sedimentation tanks based on hydrodynamic simulation model and machine learning algorithms, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 103201, 2022.

103-22   Wangshu Wei, Optimization of the mixing in produced water (PW) retention tank with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, Produced Water Society Permian Basin, 2022.

100-22   Michael Rasmussen, Using computational fluid dynamics to predict flow through the West Crack Breach of the Great Salt Lake railroad causeway, Thesis, Utah State University, 2022.

99-22   Emad Khanahmadi, Amir Ahmad Dehghani, Mehdi Meftah Halaghi, Esmaeil Kordi, Farhad Bahmanpouri, Investigating the characteristic of hydraulic T-jump on rough bed based on experimental and numerical modeling, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2022.

97-22   Andrea Franco, A multidisciplinary approach for landslide-generated impulse wave assessment in natural mountain basins from a cascade analysis perspective, Thesis, University of Innsbruck, 2022.

96-22   Geng Li, Binbin Wang, Simulation of the flow field and scour evolution by turbulent wall jets under a sluice gate, Journal of Hydro-environment Research, 43; pp. 22-32, 2022.

95-22   Philippe April LeQuéré, Ioan Nistor, Abdolmajid Mohammadian, Stefan Schimmels, Hydrodynamics and associated scour around a free-standing structure due to turbulent bores, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 148.5; 2022.

94-22   Ramtin Sobhkhiz Foumani, Alireza Mardookhpour, Numerical simulation of geotechnical effects on local scour in inclined pier group with Flow-3D software, Water Resources Engineering Journal, 15.52; 2022.

92-22   Geng Li, Binbin Wang, Caroline M. Elliott, Bruce C.Call, Duane C. Chapman, Robert B. Jacobson, A three-dimensional Lagrangian particle tracking model for predicting transport of eggs of rheophilic-spawning carps in turbulent rivers, Ecological Modelling, 470; 110035, 2022.

91-22   Ebrahim Hamid Hussein Al-Qadami, Zahiraniza Mustaffa, Mohamed Ezzat Al-Atroush, Eduardo Martinez-Gomariz, Fang Yenn Teo, Yasser El-Husseini, A numerical approach to understand the responses of passenger vehicles moving through floodwaters, Journal of Flood Risk Management, 2022.

90-22   Jafar Chabokpour, Hazi Md Azamathulla, Numerical simulation of pollution transport and hydrodynamic characteristics through the river confluence using FLOW 3D, Water Supply, 2022.

88-22   Michael Rasmussen, Som Dutta, Bethany T. Neilson, Brian Mark Crookston, CFD model of the density-driven bidirectional flows through the West Crack Breach in the Great Salt Lake causeway, Water, 13.17; 2423, 2022.

84-22   M. Sobhi Alasta, Ahmed Shakir Ali Ali, Saman Ebrahimi, Muhammad Masood Ashiq, Abubaker Sami Dheyab, Adnan AlMasri, Anass Alqatanani, Mahdis Khorram, Modeling of local scour depth around bridge pier using FLOW 3D, CPRASE: Transactions of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 8.2; 2781, 2022.

83-22   Mostafa Taherian, Seyed Ahmad Reza Saeidi Hosseini, Abdolmajid Mohammadian, Overview of outfall discharge modeling with a focus on turbulence modeling approaches, Advances in Fluid Mechanics: Modelling and Simulations, Eds. Dia Zeidan, Eric Goncalves Da Silva, Jochen Merker, Lucy T. Zhang, 2022.

80-22   Soraya Naderi, Mehdi Daryaee, Seyed Mahmood Kashefipour, Mohammadreza Zayeri, Numerical and experimental study of flow pattern due to a plate installed upstream of orifice in pressurized flushing of dam reservoirs, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology: Transactions of Civil Engineering, 2022.

79-22   Mahmood Nemati Qalee Maskan, Khosrow Hosseini, Effects of the simultaneous presence of bridge pier and abutment on the change of erodible bed using FLOW-3D, Journal of Iranian Water Engineering Research, 1.1; pp. 57-69, 2022.

75-22   Steven Matthew Klawitter, L-shaped spillway crest leg interface geometry impacts, Thesis, University of Colorado at Denver, 2022.

72-22   Md. Mukdiul Islam, Md. Samiun Basir, Badal Mahalder, Local scour analysis around single pier and group of piers in tandem arrangement using FLOW 3D, 6th International Conference on Civil Engineering for Sustainable Development (ICCESD 2022), Khulna, Bangladesh, February 10-12, 2022.

69-22   Kuo-Wei Liao, Zhen-Zhi Wang, Investigation of air-bubble screen on reducing scour in river facility, EGU General Assembly, EGU22-1137, 2022.

68-22   Cüneyt Yavuz, Energy dissipation scale for dam prototypes, ADYU Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (Adıyaman University Journal of Engineering Sciences), 16; pp. 105-116, 2022.

66-22   Ji-jian Lian, Shu-guang Zhang, Jun-ling He, An improved numerical model of ski-jump flood discharge atomization, Journal of Mountain Science, 19; pp. 1263-1273, 2022.

62-22   Ali Montazeri, Amirabbas Abedini, Milad Aminzadeh, Numerical investigation of pollution transport around a single non-submerged spur dike, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 248; 104018, 2022.

61-22   Junhao Zhang, Yining Sun, Zhixian Cao, Ji Li, Flow structure at reservoir-tributary confluence with high sediment load, EGU General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, May 23-27, 2022.

60-22   S. Modalavalasa, V. Chembolu, V. Kulkarni, S. Dutta, Numerical and experimental investigation of effect of green river corridor on main channel hydraulics, Recent Trends in River Corridor Management, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering 229, pp. 165-176, 2022.

59-22   Philippe April LeQuéré, Scouring around multiple structures in extreme flow conditions, Thesis, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2022.

51-22   Xianzheng Zhang, Chenxiao Tang, Yajie Yu, Chuan Tang, Ning Li, Jiang Xiong, Ming Chen, Some considerations for using numerical methods to simulate possible debris flows: The case of the 2013 and 2020 Wayao debris flows (Sichuan, China), Water, 14.7; 1050, 2022.

50-22   Daniel Valero, Daniel B. Bung, Sebastien Erpicum, Yann Peltier, Benjamin Dewals, Unsteady shallow meandering flows in rectangular reservoirs: A modal analysis of URANS modelling, Journal of Hydro-environment Research, 42; pp. 12-20, 2022.

49-22   Behzad Noroozi, Jalal Bazargan, Comparing the behavior of ogee and piano key weirs under unsteady flows, Journal of Irrigation and Water Engineering, 12.3; pp. 97-120.

47-22   Chen Xiaoting, Huang Bolin, Li Bin, Jiang Xiannian, Risk assessment study on landslide-generated impulse waves: case study from Zhongliang Reservoir in Chongqing, China, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 81; 158, 2022.

45-22   Mehmet Cihan Aydin, Havva Seda Aytemur, Ali Emre Ulu, Experimental and numerical investigation on hydraulic performance of slit-check dams in subcritical flow condition, Water Resources Management, 36; pp. 1693-1710, 2022.

43-22   Suresh Modalavalasa, Vinay Chembolu, Subashisa Dutta, Vinayak Kulkarni, Combined effect of bridge piers and floodplain vegetation on main channel hydraulics, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 136; 110669, 2022.

40-22   Mohammad Bagherzadeh, Farhad Mousavi, Mohammad Manafpour, Reza Mirzaee, Khosrow Hoseini, Numerical simulation and application of soft computing in estimating vertical drop energy dissipation with horizontal serrated edge, Water Supply, 127, 2022.

39-22   Masumeh Rostam Abadi, Saeed Kazemi Mohsenabadi, Numerical study of the weir angle on the flow pattern and scour around the submerged weirs, International Journal of Modern Physics C, 2022.

38-22   Vahid Hassanzadeh Vayghan, Mirali Mohammadi, Behzad Shakouri, Experimental and numerical examination of flow resistance in plane bed streams, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 15; 483, 2022.

36-22   Kyong Oh Baek, Byong Jo Min, Investigation for flow characteristics of ice-harbor type fishway installed at mid-sized streams in Korea, Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, 55.1; pp. 33-42, 2022. 

34-22   Kyong Oh Baek, Jeong-Min Lee, Eun-Jin Han, Young-Do Kim, Evaluating attraction and passage efficiencies of pool-weir type fishways based on hydraulic analysis, Applied Sciences, 12.4; 1880, 2022.

33-22   Christopher Paschmann, David F. Vetsch, Robert M. Boes, Design of desanding facilities for hydropower schemes based on trapping efficiency, Water, 14.4; 520, 2022.

29-22   Mehdi Heyrani, Abdolmajid Mohammadian, Ioan Nistor, Omerul Faruk Dursun, Application of numerical and experimental modeling to improve the efficiency of Parshall flumes: A review of the state-of-the-art, Hydrology, 9.2; 26 2022.

28-22   Kiyoumars Roushangar, Samira Akhgar, Saman Shanazi, The effect of triangular prismatic elements on the hydraulic performance of stepped spillways in the skimming flow regime: An experimental study and numerical modeling, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 2022.

26-22   Jorge Augusto Toapaxi Alvarez, Roberto Silva, Cristina Torres, Modelación numérica tridimensional del medidor de caudal Palmer-Bowlus aplicando el programa FLOW-3D (Three-dimensional numerical modeling of the Palmer-Bowlus measuring flume applying the FLOW-3D program), Revista Politécnica, 49.1; 2022. 

25-22   Shubing Dai, Sheng Jin, Numerical investigations of unsteady critical flow conditions over an obstacle using three models, Physics of Fluids, 34.2; 2022.

23-22   Negar Ghahramani, H. Joanna Chen, Daley Clohan, Shielan Liu, Marcelo Llano-Serna, Nahyan M. Rana, Scott McDougall, Stephen G. Evans, W. Andy Take, A benchmarking study of four numerical runout models for the simulation of tailings flows, Science of the Total Environment, 827; 154245, 2022.

22-22   Bahador Fatehi-Nobarian, Razieh Panahi, Vahid Nourani, Investigation of the Effect of Velocity on Secondary Currents in Semicircular Channels on Hydraulic Jump Parameters, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology: Transactions of Civil Engineering, 2022.

21-22   G. Viccione, C. Izzo, Three-dimensional CFD modelling of urban flood forces on buildings: A case study, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2162; 012020, 2022.

20-22   Tohid Jamali Rovesht, Mohammad Manafpour, Mehdi Lotfi, Effects of flow condition and chute geometry on the shockwaves formed on chute spillway, Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua, 71.2; pp. 312-329, 2022.

17-22   Yansong Zhang, Jianping Chen, Fujun Zhou, Yiding Bao, Jianhua Yan, Yiwei Zhang, Yongchao Li, Feifan Gu, Qing Wang, Combined numerical investigation of the Gangda paleolandslide runout and associated dam breach flood propagation in the upper Jinsha River, SE Tibetan Plateau, Landslides, 2022.

16-22   I.A. Hernández-Rodríguez, J. López-Ortega, G. González-Blanco, R. Beristain-Cardoso, Performance of the UASB reactor during wastewater treatment and the effect of the biogas bubbles on its hydrodynamics, Environmental Technology, pp. 1-21, 2022.

15-22   Xu Deng, Sizhong He, Zhouhong Cao, Numerical investigation of the local scour around a coconut tree root foundation under wave-current joint actions, Ocean Engineering, 245; 110563, 2022.

14-22   Rasool Kosaj, Rafid S. Alboresha, Sadeq O. Sulaiman, Comparison between numerical Flow3d software and laboratory data, for sediment incipient motion, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 961; 012031, 2022.

13-22   Joseph M. Sinclair, S. Karan Venayagamoorthy, Timothy K. Gates, Some insights on flow over sharp-crested weirs using computational fluid dynamics: Implications for enhanced flow measurement, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 148.6; 2022.

12-22   Mete Koken, Ismail Aydin, Serhan Ademoglu, An iterative hydraulic design methodology based on numerical modeling for piano key weirs, Journal of Hydro-environment Research, 40; pp. 131-141, 2022.

11-22   Najam us Saqib, Muhammad Akbar, Huali Pan, Guoqiang Ou, Muhammad Mohsin, Assad Ali, Azka Amin, Numerical analysis of pressure profiles and energy dissipation across stepped spillways having curved risers, Applied Sciences, 12.1; 448, 2022.

9-22   Amir Bordbar, Soroosh Sharifi, Hassan Hemida, Investigation of scour around two side-by-side piles with different spacing ratios in live-bed, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 208; pp. 302-309, 2022.

8-22    Jian-cheng Li, Wei Wang, Yan-ming Zheng, Xiao-hao Wen, Jing Feng, Li Sheng, Chen Wang, Ming-kun Qiu, Using computational fluid dynamic simulation with Flow-3D to reveal the origin of the mushroom stone in the Xiqiao Mountain of Guangdong, China, Journal of Mountain Science, 19; pp. 1-15, 2022.

4-22   Ankur Kapoor, Aniruddha D. Ghare, Avinash M. Badar, CFD simulations of conical central baffle flumes, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 148.2, 2022.

2-22   Ramtin Sabeti, Mohammad Heidarzadeh, Numerical simulations of tsunami wave generation by submarine landslides: Validation and sensitivity analysis to landslide parameters, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 148.2; 05021016, 2022.

1-22   Juan Francisco Fuentes-Pérez, Ana L. Quaresma, Antonio Pinheiro, Francisco Javier Sanz-Ronda, OpenFOAM vs FLOW-3D: A comparative study of vertical slot fishway modelling, Ecological Engineering, 174, 2022.

145-21   Ebrahim Hamid Hussein Al-Qadami, Zahiraniza Mustaffa, Eduardo Martínez-Gomariz, Khamaruzaman Wan Yusof, Abdurrasheed S. Abdurrasheed, Syed Muzzamil Hussain Shah, Numerical simulation to assess floating instability of small passenger vehicle under sub-critical flow, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 132; pp. 258-265, 2021.

140-21   J. Zulfan, B.M.Ginting, Investigation of spillway rating curve via theoretical formula, laboratory experiment, and 3D numerical modeling: A case study of the Riam Kiwa Dam, Indonesia, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 930; 012030, 2021.

130-21   A.S.N. Amirah, F.Y. Boon, K.A. Nihla, Z.M. Salwa, A.W. Mahyun, N. Yaacof, Numerical simulation of flow within a storage area of HDPE modular pavement, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 920; 012044, 2021.

129-21   Z.M. Yusof, Z.A.L. Shirling, A.K.A. Wahab, Z. Ismail, S. Amerudin, A hydrodynamic model of an embankment breaching due to overtopping flow using FLOW-3D, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 920; 012036, 2021.

125-21   Ketaki H. Kulkarni, Ganesh A. Hinge, Comparative study of experimental and CFD analysis for predicting discharge coefficient of compound broad crested weir, Water Supply, 2021.

119-21   Yan Liang, Yiqun Hou, Wangbin Hu, David Johnson, Junxing Wang, Flow velocity preference of Schizothorax oconnori Lloyd swimming upstream, Global Ecology and Conservation, 32; e01902, 2021.

116-21   Atabak Feizi, Aysan Ezati, Shadi Alizadeh Marallo, Investigation of hydrodynamic characteristics of flow caused by dam break around a downstream obstacle considering different reservoir shapes, Numerical Methods in Civil Engineering, 6.2; pp. 36-48, 2021.

114-21   Jackson Tellez-Alvarez, Manuel Gómez, Beniamino Russo, Marko Amezaga-Kutija, Numerical and experimental approaches toestimate discharge coefficients and energy loss coefficients in pressurized grated inlets, Hydrology, 8.4; 162, 2021.

113-21   Alireza Khoshkonesh, Blaise Nsom, Fariba Ahmadi Dehrashid, Payam Heidarian, Khuram Riaz, Comparison of the SWE and 3D models in simulation of the dam-break flow over the mobile bed, 5th Scientific Conference of Applied Research in Science and Technology of Iran, 2021.

103-21   Farshid Mosaddeghi, Numerical modeling of dam breach in concrete gravity dams, Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, 2021.

102-21   Xu Deng, Sizhong He, Zhouhong Cao, Tao Wu, Numerical investigation of the hydrodynamic response of an impermeable sea-wall subjected to artificial submarine landslide-induced tsunamis, Landslides, 2021.

100-21   Jinmeng Yang, Zhenzhong Shen, Jing Zhang, Xiaomin Teng, Wenbing Zhang, Jie Dai, Experimental and numerical investigation of flow over a spillway bend with different combinations of permeable spur dikes, Water Supply, ws2021335, 2021.

99-21   Nigel A. Temple, Josh Adams, Evan Blythe, Zidane Twersky, Steve Blair, Rick Harter, Investigating the performance of novel oyster reef materials in Apalachicola Bay, Florida, ASBPA National Coastal Conference, New Orleans, LA, USA, September 28-October 1, 2021.

94-21   Xiaoyang Shen, Mario Oertel, Comparitive study of nonsymmetrical trapezoidal and rectangular piano key weirs with varying key width ratios, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 147.11, 2021.

93-21   Aysar Tuama Al-Awadi, Mahmoud Saleh Al-Khafaji, CFD-based model for estimating the river bed morphological characteristics near cylindrical bridge piers due to debris accumulation, Water Resources, 48; pp. 763-773, 2021.

92-21   Juan Francisco Macián-Pérez, Francisco José Vallés-Morán, Rafael García-Bartual, Assessment of the performance of a modified USBR Type II stilling basin by a validated CFD model, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering , 147.11, 2021.

91-21   Ali Yıldız, Ali İhsan Martı, Mustafa Göğüş, Numerical and experimental modelling of flow at Tyrolean weirs, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 81; 102040, 2021.

90-21   Yasamin Aghaei, Fouad Kilanehei, Shervin Faghihirad, Mohammad Nazari-Sharabian, Dynamic pressure at flip buckets of chute spillways: A numerical study, International Journal of Civil Engineering, 2021.

88-21   Shang-tuo Qian, Yan Zhang, Hui Xu, Xiao-sheng Wang, Jian-gang Feng, Zhi-xiang Li, Effects of surface roughness on overflow discharge of embankment weirs, Journal of Hydrodynamics, 33; pp. 773-781, 2021.

86-21   Alkistis Stergiopoulou, Vassilios Stergiopoulos, CFD simulations of tubular Archimedean screw turbines harnessing the small hydropotential of Greek watercourses, International Journal of Energy and Environment, 12.1; pp. 19-30, 2021.

85-21   Jun-tao Ren, Xue-fei Wu, Ting Zhang, A 3-D numerical simulation of the characteristics of open channel flows with submerged rigid vegetation, Journal of Hydrodynamics, 33; pp. 833-843, 2021.

84-21   Rasoul Daneshfaraz, Amir Ghaderi, Maryam Sattariyan, Babak Alinejad, Mahdi Majedi Asl, Silvia Di Francesco, Investigation of local scouring around hydrodynamic and circular pile groups under the influence of river material harvesting pits, Water, 13.6; 2192, 2021.

83-21   Mahdi Feizbahr, Navid Tonekaboni, Guang-Jun Jiang, Hong-Xia Chen, Optimized vegetation density to dissipate energy of flood flow in open canals, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2021; 9048808, 2021.

80-21   Wenjun Liu, Bo Wang, Yakun Guo, Numerical study of the dam-break waves and Favre waves down sloped wet rigid-bed at laboratory scale, Journal of Hydrology, 602; 126752, 2021.

79-21   Zhen-Dong Shen, Yang Zhang, The three-dimensional simulation of granular mixtures weir, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 820; 012024, 2021.

75-21   Mehrdad Ghorbani Mooselu, Mohammad Reza Nikoo, Parnian Hashempour Bakhtiari, Nooshin Bakhtiari Rayani, Azizallah Izady, Conflict resolution in the multi-stakeholder stepped spillway design under uncertainty by machine learning techniques, Applied Soft Computing, 110; 107721, 2021.

73-21   Romain Van Mol, Plunge pool rehabilitation with prismatic concrete elements – Case study and physical model of Ilarion dam in Greece, Infoscience (EPFL Scientific Publications), 2021.

70-21   Khosro Morovati, Christopher Homer, Fuqiang Tian, Hongchang Hu, Opening configuration design effects on pooled stepped chutes, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 147.9, 2021.

68-21   R. Daneshfaraz, E. Aminvash, S. Di Francesco, A. Najibi, J. Abraham, Three-dimensional study of the effect of block roughness geometry on inclined drop, Numerical Methods in Civil Engineering, 6.1; pp. 1-9, 2021. 

66-21   Benjamin Hohermuth, Lukas Schmoker, Robert M. Boes, David Vetsch, Numerical simulation of air entrainment in uniform chute flow, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 59.3; pp. 378-391, 2021.

65-21   Junjun Tan, Honglin Tan, Elsa Goerig, Senfan Ke, Haizhen Huang, Zhixiong Liu, Xiaotao Shi, Optimization of fishway attraction flow based on endemic fish swimming performance and hydraulics, Ecological Engineering, 170; 106332, 2021.

63-21   Erdinc Ikinciogullari, Muhammet Emin Emiroglu, Mehmet Cihan Aydin, Comparison of scour properties of classical and trapezoidal labyrinth weirs, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 2021.

59-21   Elias Wehrmeister, José J. Ota, Separation in overflow spillways: A computational analysis, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 59, 2021.

53-21   Zongxian Liang, John Ditter, Riadh Atta, Brian Fox, Karthik Ramaswamy, Numerical modeling of tailings dam break using a Herschel-Bulkley rheological model, USSD Annual Conference, online, May 11-21, 2021. 

51-21   Yansong Zhang, Jianping Chen, Chun Tan, Yiding Bao, Xudong Han, Jianhua Yan, Qaiser Mehmood, A novel approach to simulating debris flow runout via a three-dimensional CFD code: A case study of Xiaojia Gully, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 80.5, 2021.

49-21   Ramtin Sabeti, Mohammad Heidarzadeh, Preliminary results of numerical simulation of submarine landslide-generated waves, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, April 19-30, 2021.

48-21   Anh Tuan Le, Ken Hiramatsu, Tatsuro Nishiyama, Hydraulic comparison between piano key weir and rectangular labyrinth weir, International Journal of GEOMATE, 20.82; pp. 153-160, 2021.

46-21   Maoyi Luo, Faxing Zhang, Zhaoming Song, Liyuan Zhang, Characteristics of flow movement in complex canal system and its influence on sudden pollution accidents, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 6617385, 2021.

42-21   Jakub Major, Martin Orfánus, Zbyněk Zachoval, Flow over broad-crested weir with inflow by approach shaft – Numerical model, Civil Engineering Journal, 30.1; 19, 2021. 

41-21   Amir Ghaderi, Saeed Abbasi, Experimental and numerical study of the effects of geometric appendance elements on energy dissipation over stepped spillway, Water, 13.7; 957, 2021.

38-21   Ana L. Quaresma, António N. Pinheiro, Modelling of pool-type fishways flows: Efficiency and scale effects assessment, Water, 13.6; 851, 2021.

37-21   Alireza Khoshkonesh, Blaise Nsom, Farhad Bahmanpouri, Fariba Ahmadi Dehrashid, Atefah Adeli, Numerical study of the dynamics and structure of a partial dam-break flow using the VOF Method, Water Resources Management, 35; pp. 1513-1528, 2021.

36-21   Amir Ghaderi, Mehdi Dasineh, Francesco Aristodemo, Constanza Aricò, Numerical simulations of the flow field of a submerged hydraulic jump over triangular macroroughnesses, Water, 13.5; 674, 2021.

35-21   Hongliang Qi, Junxing Zheng, Chenguang Zhang, Modeling excess shear stress around tandem piers of the longitudinal bridge by computational fluid dynamics, Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research, 2021.

31-21   Seth Siefken, Robert Ettema, Ari Posner, Drew Baird, Optimal configuration of rock vanes and bendway weirs for river bends: Numerical-model insights, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 147.5, 2021.

29-21   Débora Magalhães Chácara, Waldyr Lopes Oliveira Filho, Rheology of mine tailings deposits for dam break analyses, REM – International Engineering Journal, 74.2; pp. 235-243, 2021.

27-21   Ling Peng, Ting Zhang, Youtong Rong, Chunqi Hu, Ping Feng, Numerical investigation of the impact of a dam-break induced flood on a structure, Ocean Engineering, 223; 108669, 2021.

26-21   Qi-dong Hou, Hai-bo Li, Yu-Xiang Hu, Shun-chao Qi, Jian-wen Zhou, Overtopping process and structural safety analyses of the earth-rock fill dam with a concrete core wall by using numerical simulations, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 14; 234, 2021.

25-21   Filipe Romão, Ana L. Quaresma, José M. Santos, Susana D. Amaral, Paulo Branco, António N. Pinheiro, Performance and fish transit time over vertical slots, Water, 13.3; 275, 2021.

23-21   Jiahou Hu, Chengwei Na, Yi Wang, Study on discharge velocity of tailings mortar in dam break based on FLOW-3D, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 6th International Conference on Hydraulic and Civil Engineering, Xi’an, China, December 11-13, 2020, 643; 012052, 2021.

21-21   Asad H. Aldefae, Rusul A. Alkhafaji, Experimental and numerical modeling to investigate the riverbank’s stability, SN Applied Sciences, 3; 164, 2021.

20-21   Yangliang Lu, Jinbu Yin, Zhou Yang, Kebang Wei, Zhiming Liu, Numerical study of fluctuating pressure on stilling basin slabwith sudden lateral enlargement and bottom drop, Water, 13.2; 238, 2021.

18-21   Prashant Prakash Huddar, Vishwanath Govind Bhave, Hydraulic structure design with 3D CFD model, Proceedings, 25th International Conference on Hydraulics, Water Resources and Coastal Engineering (HYDRO 2020), Odisha, India, March 26-28, 2021.

17-21   Morteza Sadat Helbar, Atefah Parvaresh Rizi, Javad Farhoudi, Amir Mohammadi, 3D flow simulation to improve the design and operation of the dam bottom outlets, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 14; 90, 2021.

15-21   Charles R. Ortloff, Roman hydraulic engineering: The Pont du Gard Aqueduct and Nemausus (Nîmes) Castellum, Water, 13.1; 54, 2021.

12-21   Mehdi Karami Moghadam, Ata Amini, Ehsan Karami Moghadam, Numerical study of energy dissipation and block barriers in stepped spillways, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 23.2; pp. 284-297, 2021.

08-21   Prajakta P. Gadge, M. R. Bhajantri, V. V. Bhosekar, Numerical simulations of air entraining characteristics over high head chute spillway aerator, Proceedings, ICOLD Symposium on Sustainable Development of Dams and River Basins, New Dehli, India, February 24 – 27, 2021.

07-21   Pankaj Lawande, Computational fluid dynamics simulation methodologies for stilling basins, Proceedings, ICOLD Symposium on Sustainable Development of Dams and River Basins, New Dehli, India, February 24 – 27, 2021.

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Water & Environmental Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate applications for the Water & Environmental Industry.

02-21   Aytaç Güven, Ahmed Hussein Mahmood, Numerical investigation of flow characteristics over stepped spillways, Water Supply, in press, 2021.

01-21   Le Thi Thu Hien, Nguyen Van Chien, Investigate impact force of dam-break flow against structures by both 2D and 3D numerical simulations, Water, 13.3; 344, 2021.

125-20   Farhad Bahmanpouri, Mohammad Daliri, Alireza Khoshkonesh, Masoud Montazeri Namin, Mariano Buccino, Bed compaction effect on dam break flow over erodible bed; experimental and numerical modeling, Journal of Hydrology, in press, 2020.

124-20   John Petrie, Yan Qi, Mark Cornwell, Md Al Adib Sarker, Pranesh Biswas, Sen Du, Xianming Shi, Design of living barriers to reduce the impacts of snowdrifts on Illinois freeways, Illinois Center for Transportation Series No. 20-019, Research Report No. FHWA-ICT-20-012, 2020.

123-20   Mohammad Reza Namaee, Jueyi Sui, Yongsheng Wu, Natalie Linklater, Three-dimensional numerical simulation of local scour in the vicinity of circular side-by-side bridge piers with ice cover, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 2020.

119-20   Tuğçe Yıldırım, Experimental and numerical investigation of vortex formation at multiple horizontal intakes, Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, , 2020.

118-20   Amir Ghaderi, Mehdi Dasineh, Francesco Aristodemo, Ali Ghahramanzadeh, Characteristics of free and submerged hydraulic jumps over different macroroughnesses, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 22.6; pp. 1554-1572, 2020.

117-20   Rasoul Daneshfaraz, Amir Ghaderi, Aliakbar Akhtari, Silvia Di Francesco, On the effect of block roughness in ogee spillways with flip buckets, Fluids, 5.4; 182, 2020.

115-20   Chi Yao, Ligong Wu, Jianhua Yang, Influences of tailings particle size on overtopping tailings dam failures, Mine Water and the Environment, 2020.

114-20  Rizgar Ahmed Karim, Jowhar Rasheed Mohammed, A comparison study between CFD analysis and PIV technique for velocity distribution over the Standard Ogee crested spillways, Heliyon, 6.10; e05165, 2020.

113-20   Théo St. Pierre Ostrander, Analyzing hydraulics of broad crested lateral weirs, Thesis, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria, 2020.

111-20   Mahla Tajari, Amir Ahmad Dehghani, Mehdi Meftah Halaghi, Hazi Azamathulla, Use of bottom slots and submerged vanes for controlling sediment upstream of duckbill weirs, Water Supply, 20.8; pp. 3393-3403, 2020.

110-20   Jian Zhou, Subhas K. Venayagamoorthy, How does three-dimensional canopy geometry affect the front propagation of a gravity current?, Physics of Fluids, 32.9; 096605, 2020.

106-20   Juan Francisco Macián-Pérez, Arnau Bayón, Rafael García-Bartual, P. Amparo López-Jiménez, Characterization of structural properties in high reynolds hydraulic jump based on CFD and physical modeling approaches, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 146.12, 2020.

105-20   Bin Deng, He Tao, Changbo Jian, Ke Qu, Numerical investigation on hydrodynamic characteristics of landslide-induced impulse waves in narrow river-valley reservoirs, IEEE Access, 8; pp. 165285-165297, 2020.

102-20   Mojtaba Mehraein, Mohammadamin Torabi, Yousef Sangsefidi, Bruce MacVicar, Numerical simulation of free flow through side orifice in a circular open-channel using response surface method, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 76; 101825, 2020.

101-20   Juan Francisco Macián Pérez, Numerical and physical modelling approaches to the study of the hydraulic jump and its application in large-dam stilling basins, Thesis, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain, 2020.

99-20   Chen-Shan Kung, Pin-Tzu Su, Chin-Pin Ko, Pei-Yu Lee, Application of multiple intake heads in engineering field, Proceedings, 30th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Online, October 11-17,  ISOPE-I-20-3116, 2020.

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Water & Environmental Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate applications for the Water & Environmental Industry.

91-20      Selahattin Kocaman, Stefania Evangelista, Giacomo Viccione, Hasan Güzel, Experimental and numerical analysis of 3D dam-break waves in an enclosed domain with a single oriented obstacle, Environmental Science Proceedings, 2; 35, 2020.

89-20      Andrea Franco, Jasper Moernaut, Barbara Schneider-Muntau, Michael Strasser, Bernhard Gems, The 1958 Lituya Bay tsunami – pre-event bathymetry reconstruction and 3D numerical modelling utilising the computational fluid dynamics software Flow-3D, Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, 20; pp. 2255–2279, 2020.

88-20      Cesar Simon, Eddy J. Langendoen, Jorge D. Abad, Alejandro Mendoza, On the governing equations for horizontal and vertical coupling of one- and two-dimensional open channel flow models, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 58.5; pp. 709-724, 2020.

87-20       Mohammad Nazari-Sharabian, Moses Karakouzian, Donald Hayes, Flow topology in the confluence of an open channel with lateral drainage pipe, Hydrology, 7.3; 57, 2020.

84-20       Naohiro Takeichi, Takeshi Katagiri, Harumi Yoneda, Shusaku Inoue, Yusuke Shintani, Virtual Reality approaches for evacuation simulation of various disasters, Collective Dynamics (originally presented in Proceedings from the 9th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics (PED2018), Lund, Sweden, August 21-23, 2018), 5, 2020.

83-20       Eric Lemont, Jonathan Hill, Ryan Edison, A problematic installation: CFD modelling of waste stabilisation pond mixing alternatives, Ozwater’20, Australian Water Association, Online, June 2, 2020, 2020.

77-20       Peng Yu, Ruigeng Hu, Jinmu Yang, Hongjun Liu, Numerical investigation of local scour around USAF with different hydraulic conditions under currents and waves, Ocean Engineering, 213; 107696, 2020.

76-20       Alireza Mojtahedi, Nasim Soori, Majid Mohammadian, Energy dissipation evaluation for stepped spillway using a fuzzy inference system, SN Applied Sciences, 2; 1466, 2020.

74-20       Jackson D., Tellez Alvarez E., Manuel Gómez, Beniamino Russo, Modelling of surcharge flow through grated inlet, Advances in Hydroinformatics: SimHydro 2019 – Models for Extreme Situations and Crisis Management, Nice, France, June 12-14, 2019, pp. 839-847, 2020.

73-20       Saurav Dulal, Bhola NS Ghimire, Santosh Bhattarai, Ram Krishna Regmi, Numerical simulation of flow through settling basin: A case study of Budhi-Ganga Hydropower Project (BHP), International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 9.7; pp. 992-998, 2020.

70-20       B. Nandi, S. Das, A. Mazumdar, Experimental analysis and numerical simulation of hydraulic jump, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2020 6th International Conference on Environment and Renewable Energy, Hanoi, Vietnam, February 24-26, 505; 012024, 2020.

69-20       Amir Ghaderi, Rasoul Daneshfaraz, Mehdi Dasineh, Silvia Di Francesco, Energy dissipation and hydraulics of flow over trapezoidal–triangular labyrinth weirs, Water (Special Issue: Combined Numerical and Experimental Methodology for Fluid–Structure Interactions in Free Surface Flows), 12.7; 1992, 2020.

68-20       Jia Ni, Linwei Wang, Xixian Chen, Luan Luan Xue, Isam Shahrour, Effect of the fish-bone dam angle on the flow mechanisms of a fish-bone type dividing dyke, Marine Technology Society Journal, 54.3; pp. 58-67, 2020.

67-20       Yu Zhuang, Yueping Yin, Aiguo Xing, Kaiping Jin, Combined numerical investigation of the Yigong rock slide-debris avalanche and subsequent dam-break flood propagation in Tibet, China, Landslides, 17; pp. 2217-2229, 2020.

66-20       A. Ghaderi, R. Daneshfaraz, S. Abbasi, J. Abraham, Numerical analysis of the hydraulic characteristics of modified labyrinth weirs, International Journal of Energy and Water Resources, 4.2, 2020.

65-20      D.P. Zielinski, S. Miehls, G. Burns, C. Coutant, Adult sea lamprey espond to induced turbulence in a low current system, Journal of Ecohydraulics, 5, 2020.

63-20       Raffaella Pellegrino, Miguel Ángel Toledo, Víctor Aragoncillo, Discharge flow rate for the initiation of jet flow in sky-jump spillways, Water, Special Issue: Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure, 12.6; 1814, 2020.

59-20       Nesreen Taha, Maged M. El-Feky, Atef A. El-Saiad, Ismail Fathy, Numerical investigation of scour characteristics downstream of blocked culverts, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 59.5; pp. 3503-3513, 2020.

57-20       Charles Ortloff, The Hydraulic State: Science and Society in the Ancient World, Routledge, London, UK, eBook ISBN: 9781003015192, 2020.

54-20       Navid Aghajani, Hojat Karami, Hamed Sarkardeh, Sayed‐Farhad Mousavi, Experimental and numerical investigation on effect of trash rack on flow properties at power intakes, Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (ZAMM), online pre-issue, 2020.

53-20     Tian Zhou, Theodore Endreny, The straightening of a river meander leads to extensive losses in flow complexity and ecosystem services, Water (Special Issue: A Systems Approach of River and River Basin Restoration), 12.6; 1680, 2020.

50-20       C.C. Battiston, F.A. Bombardelli, E.B.C. Schettini, M.G. Marques, Mean flow and turbulence statistics through a sluice gate in a navigation lock system: A numerical study, European Journal of Mechanics – B/Fluids, 84; pp.155-163, 2020.

47-20       Mohammad Nazari-Sharabian, Aliasghar Nazari-Sharabian, Moses Karakouzian, Mehrdad Karami, Sacrificial piles as scour countermeasures in river bridges: A numerical study using FLOW-3D, Civil Engineering Journal, 6.6; pp. 1091-1103, 2020.

44-20    Leena Jaydeep Shevade, L. James Lo, Franco A. Montalto, Numerical 3D model development and validation of curb-cut inlet for efficiency prediction, Water, 12; 1791, 2020.

43-20       Vitor Hugo Pereira de Morais, Tiago Zenker Gireli, Paulo Vatavuk, Numerical and experimental models applied to an ogee crest spillway and roller bucket stilling basin, Brazilian Journal of Water Resources, 2020.

42-20       Chen Xie, Qin Chen, Gang Fan, Chen Chen, Numerical simulation of the natural erosion and breaching process of the “10.11” Baige Landslide Dam on the Jinsha River, Dam Breach Modelling and Risk Disposal, pp. 376-377, International Conference on Embankment Dams (ICED), Beijing, China, June 5 – 7, 2020.

41-20       Niloofar Aghili Mahabadi, Hamed Reza Zarif Sanayei, Performance evaluation of bilateral side slopes in piano key weirs by numerical simulation, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 6; pp. 1477-1486, 2020.

40-20       P. April Le Quéré, I. Nistor, A. Mohammadian, Numerical modeling of tsunami-induced scouring around a square column: Performance assessment of FLOW-3D and Delft3D, Journal of Coastal Research (preprint), 2020.

39-20       Jian Zhou, Subhas K. Venayagamoorthy, Impact of ambient stable stratification on gravity currents propagating over a submerged canopy, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 898; A15, 2020.

37-20     Aliasghar Azma, Yongxiang Zhang, The effect of variations of flow from tributary channel on the flow behavior in a T-shape confluence, Processes, 8; 614, 2020.

35-20     Selahattin Kocaman, Hasan Güzel, Stefania Evangelista, Hatice Ozmen-Cagatay, Giacomo Viccione, Experimental and numerical analysis of a dam-break flow through different contraction geometries of the channel, Water, 12; 1124, 2020.

32-20       Adriano Henrique Tognato, Modelagem CFD da interação entre hidrodinâmica costeira e quebra-mar submerso: estudo de caso da Ponta da Praia em Santos, SP (CFD modeling of interaction between sea waves and submerged breakwater at Ponta de Praia – Santos, SP: a case study, Thesis, Universidad Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil, 2020.

31-20   Hamidreza Samma, Amir Khosrojerdi, Masoumeh Rostam-Abadi, Mojtaba Mehraein and Yovanni Cataño-Lopera, Numerical simulation of scour and flow field over movable bed induced by a submerged wall jet, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 22.2, pp. 385-401, 2020.

28-20   Halah Kais Jalal and Waqed H. Hassan, Three-dimensional numerical simulation of local scour around circular bridge pier using FLOW-3D software, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, art. no. 012150, 3rd International Conference on Engineering Sciences, Kerbala, Iraq, November 4-6, 2019745.

25-20   Faizal Yusuf and Zoran Micovic, Prototype-scale investigation of spillway cavitation damage and numerical modeling of mitigation options, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 146.2, 2020.

24-20   Huan Zhang, Zegao Yin, Yipei Miao, Minghui Xia and Yingnan Feng, Hydrodynamic performance investigation on an upper and lower water exchange device, Aquacultural Engineering, 90, art. no. 102072, 2020.

22-20   Yu-xiang Hu, Zhi-you Yu and Jian-wen Zhou, Numerical simulation of landslide-generated waves during the 11 October 2018 Baige landslide at the Jinsha River, Landslides, 2020.

19-20   Amir Ghaderi, Mehdi Dasineh, Saeed Abbasi and John Abraham, Investigation of trapezoidal sharp-crested side weir discharge coefficients under subcritical flow regimes using CFD, Applied Water Science, 10, art. no. 31, 2020.

18-20   Amir Ghaderi, Saeed Abbasi, John Abraham and Hazi Mohammad Azamathulla, Efficiency of trapezoidal labyrinth shaped stepped spillways, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 72, art. no. 101711, 2020.

16-20   Majid Omidi Arjenaki and Hamed Reza Zarif Sanayei, Numerical investigation of energy dissipation rate in stepped spillways with lateral slopes using experimental model development approach, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2020.

15-20   Bo Wang, Wenjun Liu, Wei Wang, Jianmin Zhang, Yunliang Chen, Yong Peng, Xin Liu and Sha Yang, Experimental and numerical investigations of similarity for dam-break flows on wet bed, Journal of Hydrology, 583, art. no. 124598, 2020.

14-20   Halah Kais Jalal and Waqed H. Hassan, Effect of bridge pier shape on depth of scour, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, art. no. 012001, 3rd International Conference on Engineering Sciences, Kerbala, Iraq, November 4-6, 2019671.

13-20   Shahad R. Mohammed, Basim K. Nile and Waqed H. Hassan, Modelling stilling basins for sewage networks, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, art. no. 012111, 3rd International Conference on Engineering Sciences, Kerbala, Iraq, November 4-6, 2019671.

11-20   Xin Li, Liping Jin, Bernie A. Engel, Zeng Wang, Wene Wang, Wuquan He and Yubao Wang, Influence of the structure of cylindrical mobile flumes on hydraulic performance characteristics in U-shaped channels, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 72, art. no. 101708, 2020.

10-20   Nima Aein, Mohsen Najarchi, Seyyed Mohammad Mirhosseini Hezaveh, Mohammad Mehdi Najafizadeh and Ehsanollah Zeigham, Simulation and prediction of discharge coefficient of combined weir–gate structure, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Water Management (ahead of print), 2020.

03-20   Agostino Lauria, Francesco Calomino, Giancarlo Alfonsi, and Antonino D’Ippolito, Discharge coefficients for sluice gates set in weirs at different upstream wall inclinations, Water, 12, art. no. 245, 2020.

113-19   Ruidong An, Jia Li, Typical biological behavior of migration and flow pattern creating for fish schooling, E-Proceedings, 38th IAHR World Congress, Panama City, Panama, September 1-6, 2019.

112-19   Wenjun Liu, Bo Wang, Hang Wang, Jianmin Zhang, Yunliang Chen, Yong Peng, Xin Liu, Sha Yang, Experimental and numerical modeling of dam-break flows in wet downstream conditions, E-Proceedings, 38th IAHR World Congress, Panama City, Panama, September 1-6, 2019.

111-19   Zhang Chendi, Liu Yingjun, Xu Mengzhen, Wang Zhaoyin, The 3D numerical study on flow properties of individual step-pool, Proceedings: 14th International Symposium on River Sedimentation, Chengdu, China, September 16-19, 2019.

110-19   Mason Garfield, The effects of scour on the flow field at a bendway weir, Thesis: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

109-19   Seth Siefken, Computational fluid dynamics models of Rio Grande bends fitted with rock vanes or bendway weirs, Thesis: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

108-19   Benjamin Israel Devadason and Paul Schweiger, Decoding the drowning machines: Using CFD modeling to predict and design solutions to remediate the dangerous hydraulic roller at low head dams, The Journal of Dam Safety, 17.1, pp. 20-31, 2019.

106-19   Amir Ghaderi and Saeed Abbasi, CFD simulations of local scouring around airfoil-shaped bridge piers with and without collar, Sādhanā, art. no. 216, 2019.

105-19   Jacob van Alwon, Numerical and physical modelling of aerated skimming flows over stepped spillways, Thesis, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom, 2019.

100-19   E.H. Hussein Al-Qadami, A.S. Abdurrasheed, Z. Mustaffa, K.W. Yusof, M.A. Malek and A. Ab Ghani, Numerical modelling of flow characteristics over sharp crested triangular hump, Results in Engineering, 4, art. no. 100052, 2019.

99-19   Agostino Lauria, Francesco Calomino, Giancarlo Alfonsi, and Antonino D’Ippolito, Discharge coefficients for sluice gates set in weirs at different upstream wall inclinations, Water, 12.1, art. no. 245, 2019.

98-19   Redvan Ghasemlounia and M. Sedat Kabdasli, Surface suspended sediment distribution pattern for an unexpected flood event at Lake Koycegiz, Turkey, Proceedings, 14th National Conference on Watershed Management Sciences and Engineering, Urmia, Iran, July 16-17, 2019.

97-19   Brian Fox, Best practices for simulating hydraulic structures with CFD, Proceedings, Dam Safety 2019, Orlando, Florida, USA, September 8-12, 2019.

96-19   John Wendelbo, Verification of CFD predictions of self-aeration onset on stepped chute spillways, Proceedings, Dam Safety 2019, Orlando, Florida, USA, September 8-12, 2019.

95-19   Pankaj Lawande, Anurag Chandorkar and Adhirath Mane, Predicting discharge rating curves for tainter gate controlled spillway using CFD simulations, Proceedings, 24th HYDRO 2019, International Conference, Hyderabad, India, December 18-20, 2019.

91-19   Gyeong-Bo Kim, Wei Cheng, Richards C. Sunny, Juan J. Horrillo, Brian C. McFall, Fahad Mohammed, Hermann M. Fritz, James Beget, and Zygmunt Kowalik , Three Dimensional Landslide Generated Tsunamis: Numerical and Physical Model Comparisons, Landslides, 2019.

85-19   Susana D. Amaral, Ana L. Quaresma, Paulo Branco, Filipe Romão, Christos Katopodis, Maria T. Ferreira, António N. Pinheiro, and José M. Santos, Assessment of retrofitted ramped weirs to improve passage of potamodromous fish, Water, 11, art. no. 2441, 2019.

82-19   Shubing Dai, Yong He, Jijian Yang, Yulei ma, Sheng Jin, and Chao Liang, Numerical study of cascading dam-break characteristics using SWEs and RANS, Water Supply, 2019.

81-19   Kyong Oh Baek, Evaluation technique for efficiency of fishway based on hydraulic analysis, Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, 52.spc2, pp. 855-863, 2019.

80-19   Yongye Li, Yuan Gao, Xiaomeng Jia, Xihuan Sun, and Xuelan Zhang, Numerical simulations of hydraulic characteristics of a flow discharge measurement process with a plate flowmeter in a U-channel, Water, art. no. 2392, 2019.

76-19   Youtong Rong, Ting Zhang, Yanchen Zheng, Chunqi Hu, Ling Peng, and Ping Feng, Three-dimensional urban flood inundation simulation based on digital aerial photogrammetry, Journal of Hydrology, in press, 2019.

74-19   Youtong Rong, Ting Zhang, Ling Peng, and Ping Feng, Three-dimensional numerical simulation of dam discharge and flood routing in Wudu Reservoir, Water, 11, art. no. 2157, 2019.

70-19   Le Thi Thu Hien, Study the flow over chute spillway by both numerical and physical models, Proceedings, pp. 845-851, 10th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2019), Hanoi, Vietnam, September 25-28, 2019.

69-19   T. Vinh Cuong, N. Thanh Hung, V. Thanh Te, P. Anh Tuan, Analysis of spur dikes spatial layout to river bed degradation under reversing tidal flow, Proceedings, pp. 737-744, 10th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2019), Hanoi, Vietnam, September 25-28, 2019.

67-19   Zongshi Dong, Junxing Wang, David Florian Vetsch, Robert Michael Boes, and Guangming Tan, Numerical simulation of air–water two-phase flow on stepped spillways behind X-shaped flaring gate piers under very high unit discharge, Water, 11, art. no. 1956, 2019.

66-19   Tony L. Wahl, Effect of boundary layer conditions on uplift pressures at open offset spillway joints, Sustainable and Safe Dams Around the World: Proceedings, 2019.

65-19   John Petrie, Kun Zhang, and Mahmoud Shehata, Numerical simulation of snow deposition around living snow fences, Community Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates (CESTiCC), Project Report, 2019.

64-19   Andrea Franco, Jasper Moernaut, Barbara Schneider-Muntau, Markus Aufleger, Michael Strasser, and Bernhard Gems, Lituya Bay 1958 Tsunami – detailed pre-event bathymetry reconstruction and 3D-numerical modelling utilizing the CFD software FLOW-3D, Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, under review, 2019.

63-19   J. Patarroyo, D. Damov, D. Shepherd, G. Snyder, M. Tremblay, and M. Villeneuve, Hydraulic design of stepped spillway using CFD supported by physical modelling: Muskrat Falls hydroelectric generating facility, Sustainable and Safe Dams Around the World: Proceedings, , pp. 205-219, 2019.

61-19   A.S. Abdurrasheed, K.W. Yusof, E.H. Hussein Alqadami, H. Takaijudin, A.A. Ghani, M.M. Muhammad, A.T. Sholagberu, M.K. Zainalfikry, M. Osman, and M.S. Patel, Modelling of flow parameters through subsurface drainage modules for application in BIOECODS, Water, 11, art. no. 1823, 2019.

59-19     Brian Fox and Robert Feurich, CFD analysis of local scour at bridge piers, Proceedings of the Federal Interagency Sedimentation and Hydraulic Modeling Conference (SEDHYD), Reno, Nevada, June 24-28, 2019.

56-19     Pankaj Lawande, Brian Fox, and Anurag Chandorkar, Three dimensional CFD modeling of flow over a tainter gate spillway, International Dam Safety Conference, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India, February 13-14, 2019.

49-19     Yousef Sangsefidi, Bruce MacVicar, Masoud Ghodsian, Mojtaba Mehraein, Mohammadamin Torabi, and Bruce M. Savage, Evaluation of flow characteristics in labyrinth weirs using response surface methodology, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 69, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2019.101617

43-19     Gongyun Liao, Zancheng Tang, and Fei Zhu, Self-cleaning performance of double-layer porous asphalt pavements with different granular diameters and layer combinations, 19th COTA International Conference of Transportation, Nanjing, China, July 6-8, 2019.

42-19     Tsung-Chun Ho, Gwo-Jang Hwang, Kao-Shu Hwang, Kuo-Cheng Hsieh, and Lung-Wei Chen, Experimental and numerical study on desilting efficiency of the bypassing tunnel for Nan-Hua reservoir, 3rd International Workshop on Sediment Bypass Tunnels, Taipei, Taiwan, April 9-12, 2019.

41-19     Chang-Ting Hsieh, Sheng-Yung Hsu, and Chin-Pin Ko, Planning of sluicing tunnel in front of the Wushe dam – retrofit the existing water diversion tunnel as an example, 3rd International Workshop on Sediment Bypass Tunnels, Taipei, Taiwan, April 9-12, 2019.

40-19     Chi-Lin Yang, Pang-ku Yang, Fu-June Wang, and Kuo-Cheng Hsieh, Study on the transportation of high-concentration sediment flow and the operation of sediment de-silting in Deji Reservoir, 3rd International Workshop on Sediment Bypass Tunnels, Taipei, Taiwan, April 9-12, 2019.

39-19   Sam Glovik and John Wendelbo, Advanced CFD air entrainment capabilities for baffle drop structure design, NYWEA 91st Annual Meeting, New York, NY, February 3-6, 2019.

36-19     Ahmed M. Helmi, Heba T. Essawy, and Ahmed Wagdy, Three-dimensional numerical study of stacked drop manholes, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Vol. 145, No. 9, 2019. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0001414

33-19     M. Cihan Aydin, A. Emre Ulu, and Çimen Karaduman, Investigation of aeration performance of Ilısu Dam outlet using two-phase flow model, Applied Water Science, Vol. 9, No. 111, 2019. doi: 10.1007/s13201-019-0982-0

16-19     Bernard Twaróg, The analysis of the reactive work of the Alden Turbine, Technical Transactions I, Environmental Engineering, 2019. doi: 10.4467/2353737XCT.19.010.10050

14-19     Guodong Li, Xingnan Li, Jian Ning, and Yabing Deng, Numerical simulation and engineering application of a dovetail-shaped bucket, Water, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2019. doi: 10.3390/w11020242

13-19     Ilaria Rendina, Giacomo Viccione, and Leonardo Cascini, Kinematics of flow mass movements on inclined surfaces, Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 107-123, 2019. doi: 10.1007/s00162-019-00486-y

10-19     O.K. Saleh, E.A. Elnikhely, and Fathy Ismail, Minimizing the hydraulic side effects of weirs construction by using labyrinth weirs, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 66, pp. 1-11, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2019.01.016

05-19   Hakan Ersoy, Murat Karahan, Kenan Gelişli, Aykut Akgün, Tuğçe Anılan, M. Oğuz Sünnetci, Bilgehan Kul Yahşi, Modelling of the landslide-induced impulse waves in the Artvin Dam reservoir by empirical approach and 3D numerical simulation, Engineering Geology, Vol. 249, pp. 112-128, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2018.12.025

96-18     Kyung-Seop Sin, Robert Ettema, Christopher I. Thornton, Numerical modeling to assess the influence of bendway weirs on flow distribution in river beds, Task 4 of Study: Native Channel Topography and Rock-Weir Structure Channel-Maintenance Techniques, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. CSU-HYD Report No. 2018-1, 2018.

95-18   Thulfikar Razzak Al-Husseini, Hayder A. Al-Yousify and Munaf A. Al-Ramahee, Experimental and numerical study of the effect of the downstream spillway face’s angle on the stilling basin’s energy dissipation, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9.8, pp. 1327-1337, 2018.

94-18   J. Michalski and J. Wendelbo, Utilizing CFD methods as a forensic tool in pipeline systems to assess air/water transient issues, Proceedings, 7, pp. 5519-5527, 91st Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition & Conference (WEFTEC), New Orleans, LA, United States, September 29 – October 3, 2018.

79-18 Harold Alvarez and John Wendelbo, Estudio de 3 modelos matemáticos para similar olas producidas por derrumbes en embalses y esfuerzos en compuertas, XXVIII Congreso Latinoamericano de Hidráulica, Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 2018. (In Spanish)

70-18   Michael Pfister, Gaetano Crispino, Thierry Fuchsmann, Jean-Marc Ribi and Corrado Gisonni, Multiple inflow branches at supercritical-type vortex drop shaft, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 144, No. 11, 2018.

67-18   F. Nunes, J. Matos and I. Meireles, Numerical modelling of skimming flow over small converging spillways, 3rd International Conference on Protection against Overtopping, June 6-8, 2018, Grange-over-Sands, UK, 2018.

66-18   Maria João Costa, Maria Teresa Ferreira, António N. Pinheiro and Isabel Boavida, The potential of lateral refuges for Iberian barbel under simulated hydropeaking conditions, Ecological Engineering, Vol. 124, 2018.

63-18   Michael J. Seluga, Frederick Vincent, Samuel Glovick and Brad Murray, A new approach to hydraulics in baffle drop shafts to address dry and wet weather flow in combined sewer tunnels, North American Tunneling Conference Proceedings, June 24-27, 2018, Washington, D.C. pp. 448-461, 2018. © Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration

62-18   Ana Quaresma, Filipe Romão, Paulo Branco, Maria Teresa Ferreira and António N. Pinheiro, Multi slot versus single slot pool-type fishways: A modelling approach to compare hydrodynamics, Ecological Engineering, Vol. 122, pp. 197-206, 2018.

57-18   Amir Isfahani, CFD modeling of piano key weirs using FLOW-3D, International Dam Safety Conference, January 23-24, 2018, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India; Technical Session 1A, Uncertainties and Risk Management in Dams, 2018.

49-18   Jessica M. Thompson, Jon M. Hathaway and John S. Schwartz, Three-dimensional modeling of the hydraulic function and channel stability of regenerative stormwater conveyances, Journal of Sustainable Water in the Built Environment, vol. 4, no.3, 2018.

46-18   A.B. Veksler and S.Z. Safin, Hydraulic regimes and downstream scour at the Kama Hydropower Plant, Power Technology and Engineering, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 2-13, 2018.

45-18   H. Omara and A. Tawfik, Numerical study of local scour around bridge piers, 9th Annual Conference on Environmental Science and Development, Paris, France, Feb. 7-9, 2018; IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Sciences, vol. 151, 2018.

40-18   Vincent Libaud, Christophe Daux and Yanis Oukid, Practical Capacities and Challenges of 3D CFD Modelling: Feedback Experience in Engineering Projects, Advances in Hydroinformatics, pp. 767-780, 2018.

39-18   Khosro Morovati and Afshin Eghbalzadeh, Study of inception point, void fraction and pressure over pooled stepped spillways using FLOW-3D, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 28, no. 4, pp.982-998, 2018.

34-18   Tomasz Siuta, The impact of deepening the stilling basin on the characteristics of hydraulic jump, Technical Transactions, vol. 3, pp. 173-186, 2018.

32-18   Azin Movahedi, M.R. Kavianpour, M. R and Omid Aminoroayaie Yamini, Evaluation and modeling scouring and sedimentation around downstream of large dams, Environmental Earth Sciences, vol. 77, no. 8, pp. 320, 2018.

31-18   Yang Song, Ling-Lei Zhang, Jia Li, Min Chen and Yao-Wen Zhang, Mechanism of the influence of hydrodynamics on Microcystis aeruginosa, a dominant bloom species in reservoirs, Science of The Total Environment, vol. 636, pp. 230-239, 2018.

30-18   Shaolin Yang, Wanli Yang, Shunquan Qin, Qiao Li and Bing Yang, Numerical study on characteristics of dam-break wave, Ocean Engineering, vol. 159, pp.358-371, 2018.

27-18   Rachel E. Chisolm and Daene C. McKinney, Dynamics of avalanche-generated impulse waves: three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations and sensitivity analysis, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, vol. 18, pp. 1373-1393, 2018.

24-18   Han Hu, Zhongdong Qian, Wei Yang, Dongmei Hou and Lan Du, Numerical study of characteristics and discharge capacity of piano key weirs, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, vol. 62, pp. 27-32, 2018.

23-18   Manoochehr Fathi-Moghaddam, Mohammad Tavakol Sadrabadi and Mostafa Rahmanshahi, Numerical simulation of the hydraulic performance of triangular and trapezoidal gabion weirs in free flow condition, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, vol. 62, pp. 93-104, 2018.

22-18   Anastasios I.Stamou, Georgios Mitsopoulos, Peter Rutschmann and Minh Duc Bui, Verification of a 3D CFD model for vertical slot fish-passes, Environmental Fluid Mechanics, June 2018.

17-18   Nikou Jalayeri, John Wendelbo, Joe Groeneveld, Andrew John Bearlin, and John Gulliver, Boundary dam total dissolved gas analysis using a CFD model, Proceedings from the U.S. Society on Dams Annual Conference, April 30 – May 4, 2018, © 2018 U.S. Society on Dams.

12-18   Bernard Twaróg, Interaction between hydraulic conditions and structures – fluid structure interaction problem solving. A case study of a hydraulic structure, Technical Transactions 2/2018, Environmental Engineering, DOI: 10.4467/2353737XCT.18.029.8002

06-18   Oscar Herrera-Granados, Turbulence Flow Modeling of One-Sharp-Groyne Field, © Springer International Publishing AG 2018, M. B. Kalinowska et al. (eds.), Free Surface Flows and Transport Processes, GeoPlanet: Earth and Planetary Sciences,

05-18  Shangtuo Qian, Jianhua Wu, Yu Zhou and Fei Ma, Discussion of “Hydraulic Performance of an Embankment Weir with Rough Crest” by Stefan Felder and Nushan Islam, J. Hydraul. Eng., 2018, 144(4): 07018003, © ASCE.

04-18   Faezeh Tajabadi, Ehsan Jabbari and Hamed Sarkardeh, Effect of the end sill angle on the hydrodynamic parameters of a stilling basin, DOI 10.1140/epjp/i2018-11837-y, Eur. Phys. J. Plus (2018) 133: 10

03-18   Dhemi Harlan, Dantje K. Natakusumah, Mohammad Bagus Adityawan, Hernawan Mahfudz and Fitra Adinata, 3D Numerical Modeling of Flow in Sedimentation Basin, MATEC Web of Conferences 147, 03012 (2018), SIBE 2017

02-18   ARKAN IBRAHIM, AZHEEN KARIM and Mustafa GÜNAL, Simulation of local scour development downstream of broad-crested weir with inclined apron, European Journal of Science and Technology Special Issue, pp. 57-61, January 2018, Copyright © 2017 EJOSAT.

62-17   Abbas Mansoori, Shadi Erfanian and Farhad Khamchin Moghadam, A study of the conditions of energy dissipation in stepped spillways with A-shaped step using FLOW-3D, Civil Engineering Journal, 3.10, 2017.

57-17   Ben Modra, Brett Miller, Nigel Moon and Andrew Berghuis, Physical model testing of a bespoke articulated concrete block (ACB) fishway, 13th Hydraulics in Water Engineering Conference, Sydney, Nov. 13-18, 2017; Engineers Australia, pp. 301-309, 2017.

53-17   C. Gonzalez, U. Baeumer and C. Russell, Natural disaster relief and recovery arrangements Fitzroy project, bridge scour remediation, 13th Hydraulics in Water Engineering Conference, Sydney. Nov. 13-18, 2017; Engineers Australia, pp. 274-281, 2017.

52-17   Nigel Moon, Russell Merz, Sarah Luu and Daley Clohan, Utilising CFD modelling to conceptualise a novel rock ramp fishway design, 13th Hydraulics in Water Engineering Conference, Sydney, Nov. 13-18, 2017; Engineers Australia, pp. 382-389, 2017.

50-17   B.M. Crookston, R.M. Anderson and B.P. Tullis, Free-flow discharge estimation method for Piano Key weir geometries, Journal of Hydro-environment Research (2017),

48-17   Jian Zhou, Physics of Environmental Flows Interacting with Obstacles, PhD Thesis: Colorado State University, Copyright by Jian Zhou 2017, All Rights Reserved.

46-17   Michael Sturn, Bernhard Gems, Markus Aufleger, Bruno Mazzorana, Maria Papathoma-Köhle and Sven Fuchs, Scale Model Measurements of Impact Forces on Obstacles Induced by Bed-load Transport Processes, Proceedings of the 37th IAHR World Congress August 13 – 18, 2017, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

43-17   Paula Beceiro, Maria do Céu Almeida and Jorge Matos, Numerical modelling of air-water flows in sewer drops, Available Online 28 April 2017, wst2017246; DOI: 10.2166/wst.2017.246

42-17   Arnau Bayon, Juan Pablo Toro,  Fabián A.Bombardelli, Jorge Matose and Petra Amparo López-Jiménez, Influence of VOF technique, turbulence model and discretization scheme on the numerical simulation of the non-aerated, skimming flow in stepped spillwaysJournal of Hydro-environment Research, Available online 26 October 2017

40-17   Sturm M, Gems B, Mazzorana B, Gabl R and Aufleger M, Validation of physical and 3D numerical modelling of hydrodynamic flow impacts on objects (Validierung experimenteller und 3-D-numerischer Untersuchungen zur Einwirkung hydrodynamischer Fließprozesse auf Objekte), Bozen-Bolzano Institutional Archive (BIA), ISSN: 0043-0978,, 2017

38-17   Tsung-Hsien Huang, Chyan-Deng Jan, and Yu-Chao Hsu, Numerical Simulations of Water Surface Profiles and Vortex Structure in a Vortex Settling Basin by using FLOW-3D, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 531-542 (2017) 531, DOI: 10.6119/JMST-017-0509-1

36-17   Jacob van Alwon, Duncan Borman and Andrew Sleigh, Numerical Modelling of Aerated Flows Over Stepped Spillways, 37th IAHR World Congress, 2017.

35-17   Abolfazl Nazari Giglou, John Alex Mccorquodale and Luca Solari, Numerical study on the effect of the spur dikes on sedimentation pattern, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Available online 8 March 2017.

33-17   Giovanni De Cesare, Khalid Essyad, Paloma Furlan, Vu Nam Khuong, Sean Mulligan, Experimental study at prototype scale of a self-priming free surface siphon, Congrès SHF : SIMHYDRO 2017, Nice, 14-16 June

32-17   Kathryn Plymesser and Joel Cahoon, Pressure gradients in a steeppass fishway using a computational fluid dynamics model, Ecological Engineering 108 (2017) 277–283.

31-17   M. Ghasemi, S. Soltani-Gerdefaramarzi, The Scour Bridge Simulation around a Cylindrical Pier Using FLOW-3D, Journal of Hydrosciences and Environment 1(2): 2017 46-54

27-17   John Wendelbo and Brian Fox, CFD modeling of Piano Key weirs: validation and numerical parameter space analysis, 2017 Dam Safety, San Antonio, September 10-14, 2017, Copyright © 2017 Association of State Dam Safety Officials, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

26-17   Brian Fox and John Wendelbo, Numerical modeling of Piano Key Weirs using FLOW-3D, USSD Annual Conference, Anaheim, CA, April 3- 7, 2017

25-17   Rasoul Daneshfaraz, Sina Sadeghfam and Ali Ghahramanzadeh, Three-dimensional Numerical Investigation of Flow through Screens as Energy Dissipators, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering,

23-17   J.M, Duguay, R.W.J. Lacey and J. Gaucher, A case study of a pool and weir fishway modeled with OpenFOAM and FLOW-3D, Ecological Engineering, Volume 103, Part A, June 2017, Pages 31-42

22-17   Hanif Pourshahbaz, Saeed Abbasi and Poorya Taghvaei, Numerical scour modeling around parallel spur dikes in FLOW-3D,, Drinking Water Engineering and Science, © Author(s) 2017

21-17   Hamid Mirzaei, Zohreh Heydari and Majid Fazli, The effect of meshing and comparing different models of turbulence in topographic prediction of bed and amplitude of flow around the groin in 90-degree arc with movable bed, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, pp 1–16, July 2017

13-17   Lan Qi, Hui Chen, Xiao Wang, Wencai Fei and Donghai Liu, Establishment and application of three-dimensional realistic river terrain in the numerical modeling of flow over spillways, Water Science & Technology: Water Supply | in press | 2017.

11-17   Allison, M.A., Yuill, B.T., Meselhe, E.A., Marsh, J.K., Kolker, A.S., Ameen, A.D., Observational and numerical particle tracking to examine sediment dynamics in a Mississippi River delta diversion, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (2017), doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2017.06.004.

09-17   Hamid Mirzaei, Zohreh Heydari and Majid Fazli, The effect of meshing and comparing different turbulence models in predicting the topography of bed and flow field in the 90 degree bend with moving bed, M. Model. Earth Syst. Environ. (2017). doi:10.1007/s40808-017-0336-6

03-17   Luis G. Castillo and José M. Carrillo, Comparison of methods to estimate the scour downstream of a ski jump, Civil Engineering Department, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, UPCT Paseo Alfonso XIII, 52 – 30203 Cartagena, Spain, International Journal of Multiphase Flow 92 (2017) 171–180.

103-16 Daniel Valero and Rafael Garcia-Bartual, Calibration of an Air Entrainment Model for CFD Spillway Applications, Advances in Hydroinformatics, P. Gourbesville et al. (eds), pp. 571-582, 2016.

97-16   M. Taghavi and H. Ghodousi, A Comparison on Discharge Coefficients of Side and Normal Weirs with Suspended Flow Load using FLOW-3D, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 9(3),, January 2016.

96-16   Luis G. Castillo and José M. Carrillo, Scour, Velocities and Pressures Evaluations Produced by Spillway and Outlets of DamWater 2016, 8(3), 68;

95-16   Majid Heydari and Alireza KhoshKonesh, The Comparison of the Performance of Prandtl Mixing Length, Turbulence Kinetic Energy, K-e, RNG and LES Turbulence Models in Simulation of the Positive Wave Motion Caused by Dam Break on the Erodible Bed, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 9(7), 2016.

93-16   Saleh I. Khassaf, Ali N. Attiyah and Hayder A. Al-Yousify, Experimental investigation of compound side weir with modeling using computational fluid dynamic, International Journal of Energy and Environment, Volume 7, Issue 2, 2016 pp.169-178

92-16   Jason Duguay and Jay Lacey, Modeling: OpenFOAM CFD Modeling Case Study of a Pool and Weir Fishway with Implications for Free-Surface Flows, International Conference on Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage 2016

90-16   Giacomo Viccione, Vittorio Bovolin and Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, A numerical investigation of liquid impact on planar surfaces, ECCOMAS Congress 2016 VII European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, Greece, June 2016.

89-16   Giacomo Viccione, A numerical investigation of flow dynamics over a trapezoidal smooth open channel, ECCOMAS Congress 2016 VII European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, Greece, June 2016.

87-16  Jian Zhou and Subhas K. Venayagamoorthy, Numerical simulations of intrusive gravity currents interacting with a bottom-mounted obstacle in a continuously stratified ambient, Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 17; 191–209, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s10652-016-9454-3

86-16   Charles R. Ortloff, Similitude in Archaeology: Examining Agricultural System Science in PreColumbian Civilizations of Ancient Peru and Bolivia, Hydrol Current Res 7:259. doi: 10.4172/2157-7587.1000259, October 2016.

85-16   Charles R. Ortloff, New Discoveries and Perspectives on Water Management at 300 Bc – Ad 1100 Tiwanaku’s Urban Center (Bolivia), MOJ Civil Eng 1(3): 00014. DOI: 10.15406/mojce.2016.01.00014.

82-16   S. Paudel and N. Saenger, Grid refinement study for three dimensional CFD model involving incompressible free surface flow and rotating object, Computers & Fluids, Volume 143,, 17 January 2017, Pages 134–140



75-16   Bernhard Gems, Bruno Mazzorana, Thomas Hofer, Michael Sturm, Roman Gabl and Markus Aufleger, 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1351-1368, 2016,, doi:10.5194/nhess-16-1351-2016 © Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

74-16   Roman Gabl, Jakob Seibl, Manfred Pfeifer, Bernhard Gems and Markus Aufleger, 3D-numerische Modellansätze für die Berechnung von Lawineneinstößen in Speicher (Concepts to simulate avalanche impacts into a reservoir based on 3D-numerics), Österr Wasser- und Abfallw (2016). doi:10.1007/s00506-016-0346-z.

73-16   Sebastian Krzyzagorski, Roman Gabl, Jakob Seibl, Heidi Böttcher and Markus Aufleger, Implementierung eines schräg angeströmten Rechens in die 3D-numerische Berechnung mit FLOW-3D (Implementation of an angled trash rack in the 3D-numerical simulation with FLOW-3D), Österr Wasser- und Abfallw (2016) 68: 146. doi:10.1007/s00506-016-0299-2.

71-16   Khosro Morovati, Afshin Eghbalzadeh and Saba Soori, Numerical Study of Energy Dissipation of Pooled Stepped Spillways, Civil Engineering Journal Vol. 2, No. 5, May, 2016.

66-16   Sooyoung Kim, Seo-hye Choi and Seung Oh Lee, Analysis of Influence for Breach Flow According to Asymmetry of Breach Cross-section, Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, Vol. 17, No. 5 pp. 557-565, 2016,, ISSN 1975-4701 / eISSN 2288-4688.

65-16   Dae-Geun Kim, Analysis of Overflow Characteristics around a Circular-Crested Weir by Using Numerical Model, Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater Vol. 30, No. 2, April 2016.

63-16   Farzad Ferdos and Bijan Dargahi, A study of turbulent flow in largescale porous media at high Reynolds numbers. Part II: flow physics, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 2016, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2016.1211185.

62-16   Farzad Ferdos and Bijan Dargahi, A study of turbulent flow in largescale porous media at high Reynolds numbers. Part I: numerical validation, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 2016, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2016.1211184.

60-16   Chia-Lin Chiu, Chia-Ming Fan and Shun-Chung Tsung, Numerical modeling for  periodic oscillation of free overfall in a vertical drop pool, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001236. © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.

54-16   Serife Yurdagul Kumcu, Investigation of Flow Over Spillway Modeling and Comparison between Experimental Data and CFD Analysis, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, (0000) 00(0):1-10, Copyright 2016 Korean Society of Civil Engineers, DOI 10.1007/s12205-016-1257-z.

52-16   Gharehbaghi, A., Kaya, B. and Saadatnejadgharahassanlou, Two-Dimensional Bed Variation Models Under Non-equilibrium Conditions in Turbulent Streams, H. Arab J Sci Eng (2016). doi:10.1007/s13369-016-2258-4

48-16   M. Mohsin Munir, Taimoor Ahmed, Javed Munir and Usman Rasheed, Application of Computational Flow Dynamics Analysis for Surge Inception and Propagation for Low Head Hydropower Projects, Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: Pakistan Academy of Sciences, A. Physical and Computational Sciences 53 (2): 177–185 (2016), Copyright © Pakistan Academy of Sciences

46-16   Manuel Gómez, Joan Recasens, Beniamino Russo and Eduardo Martínez-Gomariz, Assessment of inlet efficiency through a 3D simulation: numerical and experimental comparison, wst2016326; DOI: 10.2166/wst.2016.326, August 2016

45-16   Chia-Ying Chang, Frederick N.-F. Chou, Yang-Yih Chen, Yi-Chern Hsieh, Chia-Tzu Chang, Analytical and experimental investigation of hydrodynamic performance and chamber optimization of oscillating water column system, Energy 113 (2016) 597-614

42-16   Bung, D. and Valero, D., Application of the Optical Flow Method to Velocity Determination, In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management, 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June 2016, doi:10.15142/T3150628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

41-16   Valero, D., Bung, D., Crookston, B. and Matos, J., Numerical investigation of USBR type III stilling basin performance downstream of smooth and stepped spillways, In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management. 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June 2016, doi:10.15142/T340628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

40-16   Bruce M. Savage, Brian M. Crookston and Greg S. Paxson, Physical and Numerical Modeling of Large Headwater Ratios for a 15° Labyrinth Spillway, J. Hydraul. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001186, 04016046.

36-16   Kai-Wen Hsiao, Yu-Chao Hsu, Chyan-Deng Jan, and Yu-Wen Su, Characteristics of Hydraulic Shock Waves in an Inclined Chute Contraction by Using Three Dimensional Numerical Model, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 18, EGU 2016-11505, 2016, EGU General Assembly 2016, © Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

34-16   Dunlop, S., Willig, I., Paul, G., Cabinet Gorge Dam Spillway Modifications for TDG Abatement – Design Evolution and Field Performance, In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management. 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June, 2016, doi:10.15142/T3650628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

33-16   Crispino, G., Dorthe, D., Fuchsmann, T., Gisonni, C., Pfister, M., Junction chamber at vortex drop shaft: case study of Cossonay, In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management, 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June 2016, doi:10.15142/T350628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

32-16  Brown, K., Crookston, B., Investigating Supercritical Flows in Curved Open Channels with Three Dimensional Numerical Modeling, In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management, 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June, 2016, doi:10.15142/T3580628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

31-16  Cicero, G, Influence of some geometrical parameters on Piano Key Weir discharge efficiency,In B. Crookston & B. Tullis (Eds.), Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management, 6th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Portland, OR, 27-30 June, 2016, doi:10.15142/T3320628160853 (ISBN 978-1-884575-75-4).

28-16   Anthoula Gkesouli, Maria Nitsa, Anastasios I. Stamou, Peter Rutschmann and Minh Duc Bui, Modeling the effect of wind in rectangular settling tanks for water supply, DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2016.1195290, Desalination and Water Treatment, June 22, 2016.

27-16   Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, Giacomo Viccione and Vittorio Bovolin, Free surface flow impact on a vertical wall: a numerical assessment, Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn., DOI 10.1007/s00162-016-0386-9, February 2016.

25-16   Daniel Valero and Daniel B. Bung, Sensitivity of turbulent Schmidt number and turbulence model to simulations of jets in crossflow, Environmental Modelling & Software 82 (2016) 218e228.

24-16   Il Won Seo, Young Do Kim, Yong Sung Park and Chang Geun Song, Spillway discharges by modification of weir shapes and overflow surroundings, Environmental Earth Sciences, March 2016, 75:496, 14 March 2016

23-16   Du Han Lee, Myounghwan Kim and Dong Sop Rhee, Evacuation Safety Evaluation of Inundated Stairs Using 3D Numerical Simulation, International Journal of Smart Home Vol. 10, No. 3, (2016), pp.149-158

22-16   Arnau Bayon, Daniel Valero, Rafael García-Bartual, Francisco Jose Valles-Moran and Amparo Lopez-Jimenez, Performance assessment of OpenFOAM and FLOW-3D in the numerical modeling of a low Reynolds number hydraulic jump, Environmental Modelling & Software 80 (2016) 322e335.

21-16   Shima Bahadori and Mehdi Behdarvandi Askar, Investigating the Effect of Relative Width on Momentum Transfer between Main Channel and Floodplain in Rough Rectangular Compound Channel Sunder Varius Relative Depth Condition, Open Journal of Geology, 2016, 6, 225-231, Published Online April 2016 in SciRes.

18-16   Ali Ahrari,  Hong Lei, Montassar Aidi Sharif, Kalyanmoy Deb and  Xiaobo Tan, Optimum Design of Artificial Lateral Line Systems for Object Tracking under Uncertain Conditions, COIN Report Number: 2016006

16-16   Elena Battisacco, Giovanni De Cesare and Anton J. Schleiss, Re-establishment of a uniform discharge on the Olympic fountain in Lausanne, Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research, (2016) DOI: 10.1080/23249676.2016.1163648.

14-16   Shima Bahadori, Mehdi and Behdarvandi Askar, Investigating the Simultaneous Effect of Relative Width and Relative Roughness on Apparent Shear Stress in Symmetric Compound Rectangular Channels, JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH IN SCIENCE, ISSN 2322-5009 CODEN (USA): JCRSDJ, S (1), 2016: 654-660

12-16   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering Innovations at 100 BC- AD 300 Nabataean Petra (Jordan), In conference proceedings: De Aquaeductu atque Aqua Urbium Lyciae Pamphyliae Pisidiae. The Legacy of Sextus Julius Frontinus, Antalya, Turkey, G. Wiplinger, ed.  ISBN: 978-90-429-3361-3, 2016 Peeters Publisher, Leuven, Belgium.

11-16 G. Robblee, S. Kees and B.M. Crookston, Schnabel Engineering; and K. Keel, Town of Hillsborough, Ensuring Water Supply Reliability with Innovative PK Weir Spillway Design, 36th USSD Annual Meeting and Conference, Denver, CO, April 11-15, 2016

10-16 Tina Stanard and Victor Vasquez, Freese and Nichols, Inc.; Ruth Haberman, Upper Brushy Creek Water Control and Improvement District; Blake Tullis, Utah State University; and Bruce Savage, Idaho State University, Importance of Site Considerations for Labyrinth Spillway Hydraulic Design — Upper Brushy Creek Dam 7 Modernization, 36th USSD Annual Meeting and Conference, Denver, CO, April 11-15, 2016

09-16 James R. Crowder, Brian M. Crookston, Bradley T. Boyer and J. Tyler Coats, Schnabel Engineering, Cultivating Ingenuity and Safety in Alabama: The Taming of Lake Ogletree Reservoir, 36th USSD Annual Meeting and Conference, Denver, CO, April 11-15, 2016

08-16 Frank Lan, Robert Waddell and Michael Zusi, AECOM; and Brian Grant, Montana DNRC, Replacing Ruby Dam Outlet Uses Computational Fluid Dynamics to Model Energy Dissipation, 36th USSD Annual Meeting and Conference, Denver, CO, April 11-15, 2016

07-16 Elise N. Dombeck, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Applications of FLOW-3D for Stability Analyses of Concrete Spillways at FERC Projects, 36th USSD Annual Meeting and Conference, Denver, CO, April 11-15, 2016

06-16   Farhad Ghazizadeh and M. Azhdary Moghaddam, An Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Flow Hydraulic Parameters in Circular Crested Weir Using FLOW-3D, Civil Engineering Journal Vol. 2, No. 1, January, 2016

05-16   Sadegh Dehdar-behbahani and Abbas Parsaie, Numerical modeling of flow pattern in dam spillway’s guide wall. Case study: Balaroud dam, Iran, doi:10.1016/j.aej.2016.01.006, February 2016.

04-16   Oscar Herrera-Granados and Stanisław W. Kostecki, Numerical and physical modeling of water flow over the ogee weir of the new Niedów barrage, DOI: 10.1515/johh-2016-0013, J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 64, 2016, 1, 67–74

03-16   B. Gems, B. Mazzorana, T. Hofer, M. Sturm, R. Gabl, M. Aufleger, 3D-hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/nhess-2015-326, 2016, Manuscript under review for journal Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., Published: 19 January 2016 © Author(s) 2016. CC-BY 3.0 License.

124-15 Yousef Sangsefidi, Mojtaba Mehraein, and Masoud Ghodsian, Numerical simulation of flow over labyrinth spillways, Scientia Iranica, Transaction A, 22(5), 1779–1787, 2015.

120-15   Du Han Lee, Myounghwan Kim and Dong Sop Rhee, Analysis of Critical Evacuation Condition on Inundated Stairs Using Numerical Simulation, Advanced Science and Technology Letters Vol.120 (GST 2015), pp.522-525

119-15  Shiqiang Ye and Paul Toth, Bank Erosion Control at Frederickhouse Dam, Ontario, CDA 2015 Annual Conference, Congrès annuel 2015 de l’ACB, Mississauga, ON, Canada, 2015 Oct 5-8

118-15  D.M. Robb and J.A. Vasquez, Numerical simulation of dam-break flows using depth-averaged hydrodynamic and three-dimensional CFD models, 22nd Canadian Hydrotechnical Conference, Montreal, Quebec, April 29 – May 2, 2015

117-15 Ashkan. Reisi, Parastoo. Salah, and Mohamad Reza. Kavianpour, Impact of Chute Walls Convergence Angle on Flow Characteristics of Spillways using Numerical Modeling, International Journal of Chemical, Environmental & Biological Sciences (IJCEBS), Volume 3, Issue 3 (2015) ISSN 2320–4087 (Online)

115-15  Ivana Vouk, Field and Numerical Investigation of Mixing and Transport of Ammonia in the Ottawa River, Master’s Thesis: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, August 2015, © Ivana Vouk, Canada 2016.

113-15   J. Amblard, C. Pams Capoccioni, D. Nivon, L. Mellal, G. De Cesare, T. Ghilardi, M. Jafarnejad and E. Battisacco, Analysis of Ballast Transport in the Event of Overflowing of the Drainage System on High Speed Lines, International Journal of Railway Technology, Volume 4, 2015. doi:10.4203/ijr, t.4.xx.xx , ©Saxe-Coburg Publications, 2015

111-15   Y. Oukid, V. Libaud and C. Daux, 3D CFD modelling of spillways -Practical feedback on capabilities and challenges, Hydropower & Dams Issue Six, 2015

110-15  Zhiyong Zhang and Yuanping Yang, Numerical Study on Onset Condition of Scour Below Offshore Pipeline Under Reversing Tidal Flow, © EJGE, Vol. 20 [2015], Bund. 25

109-15  He Baohua, Numerical Simulation Analysis of Karst Tunnel Water Bursting Movement, © EJGE, Vol. 20 [2015], Bund. 25

105-15   Ali Yıldız and A. İhsan Martı, Comparison of Experimental Study and CFD Analysis of the Flow Under a Sluice Gate, Proceedings of International Conference on Structural Architectural and Civil Engineering Held on 21-22, Nov, 2015, in Dubai, ISBN:9788193137321

104-15  Yehui Zhu and Liquan Xie, Numerical Analysis of Flow Effects on Water Interface over a Submarine Pipeline, Resources, Environment and Engineering II: Proceedings of the 2nd Technical Congress on Resources, Environment and Engineering (CREE 2015, Hong Kong, 25-26 September 2015), Edited by Liquan Xie, CRC Press 2015, Pages 99–104, DOI: 10.1201/b19136-16.

100-15  Yizhou Xiao, Wene Wang, Xiaotao Hu, and Yan Zhou, Experimental and numerical research on portable short-throat flume in the field, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, doi:10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2015.11.003, Available online December 8, 2015

99-15   Mehdi Taghavi and Hesam Ghodousi, Simulation of Flow Suspended Load in Weirs by Using FLOW-3D Model, Civil Engineering Journal Vol. 1, No. 1, November 2015

98-15   Azin Movahedi, Ali Delavari and Massoud Farahi, Designing Manhole in Water Transmission Lines Using FLOW-3D Numerical Model, Civil Engineering Journal Vol. 1, No. 1, November 2015

97-15   R. Gabl, J. Seibl, B. Gems, and M. Aufleger, 3-D numerical approach to simulate the overtopping volume caused by an impulse wave comparable to avalanche impact in a reservoir, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2617-2630, doi:10.5194/nhess-15-2617-2015, 2015.

94-15   Jason Matthew Duguay and Jay Lacey, Numerical Study of an Innovative Fish Ladder Design for Perched Culverts, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 10.1139/cjce-2014-0436, November 2015

92-15   H. A. Hussein, R. Abdulla and  M. A. Md Said, Computational Investigation of Inlet Baffle Height on the Flow in a Rectangular Oil/Water Separator Tanks, Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 802, pp. 587-592, Oct. 2015

91-15   Mahmoud Mohammad Rezapour Tabari and Shiva Tavakoli, Effects of Stepped Spillway Geometry on Flow Pattern and Energy DissipationArabian Journal for Science and Engineering, October 2015

87-15   Erin R. Ryan, Effects of Hydraulic Structures on Fish Passage – An Evaluation of 2D vs 3D Hydraulic Analysis Methods, Master’s Thesis: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado State University, Summer 2015, Copyright by Erin Rose Ryan 2015

79-15   Ana L. Quaresma, Is CFD an efficient tool to develop pool type fishways? International Conference on Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage. Paper 20, June 24, 2015

78-15   Amir Alavi, Don Murray, Claude Chartrand and Derek McCoy, CFD Modeling Provides Value Engineering, Hydro Review, October 2015

75-15   Rebekka Czerny, Classification of flow patterns in a nature-oriented fishway based on 3D hydraulic simulation results, International Conference on Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage. Paper 39, June 22, 2015

73-15   Frank Seidel, Hybrid model approach for designing fish ways – example fish lift system at Baldeney/Ruhr and fishway at Geesthacht /Elbet, International Conference on Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage 2015

72-15   G. Guyot, B. Huber, and A. Pittion-Rossillon, Assessment of a numerical method to forecast vortices with a scaled model, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

71-15   Abbas Parsaie, Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi and Amir Moradinejad, CFD modeling of flow pattern in spillway’s approach channel, Sustainable Water Resources Management, September 2015, Volume 1, Issue 3, pp 245-251

70-15   T. Liepert, A. Kuhlmann, G. Haimer, M.D. Bui and P. Rutschmann, Optimization of Fish Pass Entrance Location at a Hydropower Plant Considering Site-Specific Constraints, Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, Rhodes, Greece, 3-5 September 2015

67-15   Alkistis Stergiopoulou and Efrossini Kalkani, Towards a first CFD study of modern horizontal axis Archimedean water current turbines, Volume: 02 Issue: 04, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal © 2015, IRJET, July 2015

66-15   Won Choi, Jeongbae Jeon, Jinseon Park, Jeong Jae Lee and Seongsoo Yoon, System reliability analysis of downstream spillways based on collapse of upstream spillways, Int J Agric & Biol Eng, 2015; 8(4): 140-150.

64-15   Szu-Hsien Peng and Chuan Tang, Development and Application of Two-Dimensional Numerical Model on Shallow Water Flows Using Finite Volume Method, Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 2015, 3, 989-996, Published Online August 2015 in SciRes.,

62-15   Cuneyt Yavuz, Ali Ersin Dincer, Kutay Yilmaz and Samet Dursun, Head Loss Estimation of Water Jets from Flip Bucket of Cakmak-1 Diversion Weir and HEPP, RESEARCH GATE, August 2015 DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3650.5440

54-15   Guo-bin Xu, Li-na Zhao, and Chih Ted Yang, Derivation and verification of minimum energy dissipation rate principle of fluid based on minimum entropy production rate principle, International Journal of Sediment Research, August 2015

50-15   Vafa Khoolosi, Sedat Kabdaşli, and Sevda Farrokhpour, Modeling and Comparison of Water Waves Caused by Landslides into Reservoirs, Watershed Management 2015 © ASCE 2015.

48-15   Mohammad Rostami and Maaroof Siosemarde, Human Life Saving by Simulation of Dam Break using FLOW-3D (A Case Study: Upper Gotvand Dam),, Volume- 4 Issue- 3 (2015) ISSN: 2319–4731 (p); 2319–5037 (e) © 2015 DAMA International. All rights reserved.

47-15   E. Kolden, B. D. Fox, B. P. Bledsoe and M. C. Kondratieff, Modelling Whitewater Park Hydraulics and Fish Habitat in Colorado, River Res. Applic., doi: 10.1002/rra.2931, 2015

43-15   Firouz Ghasemzadeh, Behzad Parsa, and Mojtaba Noury, Numerical Study of Overflow Capacity of Spillways, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

42-15   Mario Oertel, Numerical Modeling of Free-Surface Flows in Practical Applications, Chapter 8 in Rivers – Physical, Fluvial and Environmental Processes (GeoPlanet: Earth and Planetary Sciences), by Pawel Rowiński and Artur Radecki-Pawlik, July 2, 2015

39-15   R. Gabl, J. Seibl, B. Gems, and M. Aufleger, 3-D-numerical approach to simulate an avalanche impact into a reservoir, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 3, 4121–4157, 2015,, doi:10.5194/nhessd-3-4121-2015, © Author(s) 2015. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

37-15   Mario Oertel, Discharge Coefficients of Piano Key Weirs from Experimental and Numerical Models, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

36-15   Jessica Klein and Mario Oertel, Comparison between Crossbar Block Ramp and Vertical Slot Fish Pass via Numerical 3D CFD Simulation, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

35-15   Mario Oertel, Jan P. Balmes and Daniel B. Bung, Numerical Simulation of Erosion Processes on Crossbar Block Ramps, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

33-15   Daniel Valero and Daniel B. Bung, Hybrid Investigation of Air Transport Processes in Moderately Sloped Stepped Spillway Flows, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

32-15   Deniz Velioglu, Nuray Denli Tokyay, and Ali Ersin Dincer, A Numerical and Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Hydraulic Jumps on Rough Beds, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

31-15   J.C.C. Amorim, R.C.R. Amante, and V.D. Barbosa, Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Flow in a Stilling Basin, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

30-15   Luna B.J. César, Salas V. Christian, Gracia S. Jesús, and Ortiz M. Victor, Comparative Analysis of the Modification of Turbulence and Its Effects on a Trapezoidal Section Stilling Basin, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

27-15   L. Castillo, J. Carrillo, and M. Álvarez, Complementary Methods for Determining the Sedimentation and Flushing in a Reservoir, J. Hydraul. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001050 , 05015004, 2015.

22-15   Mohammad Vaghefi, Mohammad Shakerdargah and Maryam Akbari, Numerical investigation of the effect of Froude number on flow pattern around a submerged T-shaped spur dike in a 90º bend, © Turkish Journal of Engineering & Environmental Sciences, 03.04.2015, doi:10.3906/muh-1405-2

18-15   S. Michael Scurlock, Amanda L. Cox, Drew C. Baird, Christopher I. Thornton and Steven R. Abt, Hybrid Modeling of River Training Structures in Sinuous Channels, SEDHYD 2015, Joint 10th Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, 5th Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference, April 19-23, 2015, Reno, Nevada

13-15   Selahattin Kocaman and Hatice Ozmen-Cagatay, Investigation of dam-break induced shock waves impact on a vertical wall, Journal of Hydrology (2015), doi:

12-15   Nguyen Cong Thanh and Wang Ling-Ling, Physical and Numerical Model of Flow through the Spillways with a Breast Wall, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering (0000) 00(0):1-8, Copyright 2015 Korean Society of Civil Engineers, DOI 10.1007/s12205-015-0742-0, April 10, 2015.

10-15   Yueping Yin, Bolin Huang, Guangning Liu and Shichang Wang, Potential risk analysis on a Jianchuandong dangerous rockmass-generated impulse wave in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China, Environ Earth Sci, DOI 10.1007/s12665-015-4278-x, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

08-15   Yue-ping Yin, Bolin Huang, Xiaoting Chen, Guangning Liu and Shichang Wang, Numerical analysis on wave generated by the Qianjiangping landslide in Three Gorges Reservoir, China, 10.1007/s10346-015-0564-7, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

07-15   M. Vaghefi, A. Ahmadi and B. Faraji, The Effect of Support Structure on Flow Patterns Around T-Shape Spur Dike in 90° Bend Channel, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, February 2015,

06-15   Sajjad Mohammadpour Zalaki, Hosein Fathian, Ebrahim Zalaghi and Farhad Kalantar Hormozi, Investigation of hydraulic parameters and cavitation in Kheir Abad flood release structure, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, February 2015

04-15  Der-Chang Lo, Jin-Shuen Liou, and Shyy Woei Chang, Hydrodynamic Performances of Air-Water Flows in Gullies with and without Swirl Generation Vanes for Drainage Systems of Buildings, Water 2015, 7(2), 679-696; doi:10.3390/w7020679

01-15   William Daley Clohan, Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Subaerial Landslide Generated Waves, Master’s Thesis: Civil Engineering, The University of British Columbia (Vancouver), January 2015 © William Daley Clohan, 2015. Available upon request.

136-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in 300 BCE- CE 300 Petra (Jordan), Encyclopedia of Ancient Science, Technology and Medicine in Nonwestern Cultures, Springer Publishing, Berlin Germany, 2014.

135-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Land, Labor, Water and Technology in Precolumbian South America, Encyclopedia of Ancient Science, Technology and Medicine in Nonwestern Cultures, Springer Publishing, Berlin Germany, 2014.

134-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydrologic Engineering of the 300 BCE- CE 1100 Precolumbian Tiwanaku State (Bolivia), Encyclopedia of Ancient Science, Technology and Medicine in Nonwestern Cultures, Springer Publishing, Berlin Germany, 2014.

133-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Water engineering at Petra (Jordan): Recreating the decision process underlying hydraulic engineering of the Wadi Mataha pipeline system, Journal of Archaeological Science, April 2014. 44. 91–97. 10.1016/j.jas.2014.01.015.

132-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in Ancient Peru and Bolivia, Encyclopedia of Ancient Science, Technology and Medicine in Nonwestern Cultures, Springer Publishing, Berlin Germany, 2014.

131-14    Charles R. Ortloff, Water Management in Ancient Peru, Living Reference Work Entry, Encyclopedia of Ancient Science, Technology and Medicine in Nonwestern Cultures, Springer Publishing, Berlin Germany, 2014.

130-14  Kordula Schwarzwälder and Peter Rutschmann, Sampling bacteria with a laser, Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-15144, 2014 EGU General Assembly 2014 © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

129-14   Kordula Schwarzwälder, Eve Walters and Peter Rutschmann, Bacteria fate and transport in a river, Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-14022, 2014 EGU General Assembly 2014 © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

127-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in Petra, Living Reference Work Entry, Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, pp 1-13, 03 July 2014

124-14  G. Wei. M. Grünzner and F. Semler, Combination of 2D shallow water and full 3D numerical modeling for sediment transport in reservoirs and basins, Reservoir Sedimentation – Schleiss et al. (Eds) © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-02675-9.

121-14    A. Bayón-Barrachina, D. Valero, F. Vallès-Morán, and P.A. López-Jiménez, Comparison of CFD Models for Multiphase Flow Evolution in Bridge Scour Processes, 5th International Junior Researcher and Engineer Workshop on Hydraulic Structures, Spa, Belgium, 28-30 August 2014

120-14  D. Valero, R. García-Bartual and J. Marco, Optimisation of Stilling Basin Chute Blocks Using a Calibrated Multiphase RANS Model, 5th International Junior Researcher and Engineer Workshop on Hydraulic Structures, Spa, Belgium, 28-30 August 2014

119-14   R. Gabl, B. Gems, M. Plörer, R. Klar, T. Gschnitzer, S. Achleitner, and M. Aufleger, Numerical Simulations in Hydraulic Engineering, Computational Engineering, 2014, pp 195-224, April 2014

118-14  Kerilyn Ambrosini, Analysis of Flap Gate Design and Implementations for Water Delivery Systems in California and Nevada, BioResource and Agricultural Engineering, BioResource and Agricultural Engineering Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, 2014

117-14  Amir Moradinejad, Abas Parssai, Mohamad Noriemamzade, Numerical Modeling of Flow Pattern In Kamal Saleh Dam Spillway Approach Channel, App. Sci. Report.10 (2), 2014: 82-89, © PSCI Publications

116-14  Luis G. Castillo and José M. Carrillo, Characterization of the Dynamic Actions and Scour Estimation Downstream of a Dam, 1st International Seminar on Dam Protection against Overtopping and Accidental Leakage, M.Á. Toledo, R. Morán, E. Oñate (Eds), Madrid, 24-25 November 2014

115-14  Luis G. Castillo, José M. Carrillo, Juan T. García, Antonio Vigueras-Rodríguez, Numerical Simulations and Laboratory Measurements in Hydraulic Jumps, 11th International Conference on Hydroinformatics, HIC 2014, New York City, USA

114-14  Du Han Lee, Young Joo Kim, and Samhee Lee, Numerical modeling of bed form induced hyporheic exchangePaddy and Water Environment, August 2014, Volume 12, Issue 1 Supplement, pp 89-97

112-14  Ed Zapel, Hank Nelson, Brian Hughes, Steve Fry, Options for Reducing Total Dissolved Gas at the Long Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Hydrovision International, July 22-24, 2014, Nashville, TN

111-14  Jason Duguay, Jay Lace, Dave Penny and Ken Hannaford, Evolution of an Innovative Fish Ladder Design to Address Issues of Perched Culverts, 2014 Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec

106-14   Manuel Gomez and Eduardo Martinez, 1D, 2D and 3D Modeling of a PAC-UPC Laboratory Canal Bend, SimHydro 2014: Modelling of rapid transitory flows, 11-13 June 2014, Sophia Antipolis

105-14 Jason Duguay and Jay Lacey, Numerical Validation of an Innovative Fish Baffle Design in Response to Fish Passage Issues at Perched Culverts, CSPI Technical Bulletin, January 14, 2014

104-14  Di Ning, Di,  A Computational Study on Hydraulic Jumps, including Air Entrainment, Master’s Thesis: Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, 2014, 1569799, Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2014

103-14  S. M. Sayah, S. Bonanni, Ph. Heller, and M. Volpato, Physical and Numerical Modelling of Cerro del Águila Dam -Hydraulic and Sedimentation, DOI: 10.13140/2.1.5042.1122 Conference: Hydro 2014

102-14   Khosrow Hosseini, Shahab Rikhtegar, Hojat Karami, Keivan Bina, Application of Numerical Modeling to Assess Geometry Effect of Racks on Performance of Bottom Intakes, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, December 2014

98-14  Aysel Duru, Numerical Modelling of Contracted Sharp Crested Weirs, Master’s Thesis: The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University, November 2014

97-14  M Angulo, S Liscia, A Lopez and C Lucino, Experimental validation of a low-head turbine intake designed by CFD following Fisher and Franke guidelines, 27th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2014), IOP Publishing, IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 22 (2013) 042014 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/22/4/042014

94-14   Hamidreza Babaali, Abolfazl Shamsai, and Hamidreza Vosoughifar, Computational Modeling of the Hydraulic Jump in the Stilling Basin with ConvergenceWalls Using CFD Codes, Arab J Sci Eng, DOI 10.1007/s13369-014-1466-z, October 2014

93-14   A.J. Vellinga, M.J.B. Cartigny, J.T. Eggenhuisen, E.W.M. Hansen, and R. Rouzairol, Morphodynamics of supercritical-flow bedforms using depth-resolved computational fluid dynamics model, International Association of Sedimentologists, Geneva, 2014.

88-14   Marcelo A. Somos-Valenzuela, Rachel E. Chisolm, Daene C. McKinney, and Denny Rivas, Inundation Modeling of a Potential Glacial Lake Outburst Flood in Huaraz, Peru, CRWR Online Report 14-01, March 2014

84-14   Hossein Shahheydari, Ehsan Jafari Nodoshan, Reza Barati, and Mehdi Azhdary Moghadam, Discharge coefficient and energy dissipation over stepped spillway under skimming flow regimeKSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 10.1007/s12205-013-0749-3, November 2014

81-14   Gaël Epely-Chauvin, Giovanni De Cesare and Sebastian Schwindt, Numerical Modelling of Plunge Pool Scour Evolution in Non-Cohesive Sediments, Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 477–487 (2014).

79-14   Liquan Xie, Yanhui Xu, and Wenrui Huang, Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Mechanism of Sediment Trapping by Geotextile Mattress with Sloping Curtain (GMSC), Proceedings of the Eleventh (2014) Pacific/Asia Offshore Mechanics Symposium Shanghai, China, October 12-16, 2014 Copyright © 2014 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, ISBN 978–1 880653 90-6: ISSN 1946-004X.

78-14  D. N. Powell and A. A. Khan, Flow Field Upstream of an Orifice under Fixed Bed and Equilibrium Scour ConditionsJ. Hydraul. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000960, 04014076, 2014.

76-14   Berk Sezenöz, Numerical Modelling of Continuous Transverse Grates for Hydraulic Efficiency, Master’s Thesis: The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University, October 2014

75-14   Francesco Calomino and Agostino Lauria, 3-D Underflow of a Sluice Gate at a Channel Inlet; Experimental Results and CFD Simulations, Journal of Civil Engineering and Urbanism, Volume 4, Issue 5: 501-508 (2014)

73-14   Som Dutta, Talia E. Tokyay, Yovanni A. Cataño-Lopera, Sergio Serafinod and Marcelo H. Garcia, Application of computational fluid dynamic modeling to improve flow and grit transport in Terence J. O’Brien Water Reclamation Plant, Chicago, Illinois, Journal of Hydraulic Research, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2014.949883, October 2014

72-14   Ali Heidari, Poria Ghassemi, Evaluation of step’s slope on energy dissipation in stepped spillway, International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 3 (4) (2014) 501-505, ©Science Publishing Corporation,, doi: 10.14419/ijet.v3i4.3561

70-14   M. Tabatabai, M. Heidarnejad, A. Bordbar, Numerical Study of Flow Patterns in Stilling Basin with Sinusoidal Bed using FLOW-3D Model, Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(13) August 2014, Pages: 787-792

66-14   John S. Schwartz, Keil J. Neff, Frank E. Dworak, Robert R. Woockman, Restoring riffle-pool structure in an incised, straightened urban stream channel using an ecohydraulic modeling approach, Ecol. Eng. (2014),

65-14  Laura Rozumalski and Michael Fullarton, CFD Modeling to Design a Fish Lift Entrance, Hydro Review, July 2014

64-14   Pam Waterman, Scaled for Success: Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis Prompts Swift Stormwater System Improvements in Indianapolis, WaterWorld, August 2014.

63-14   Markus Grünzner and Peter Rutschmann, Large Eddy Simulation  – Ein Beitrag zur Auflösung turbulenter Strömungsstrukturen in technischen Fischaufstiegshilfen; (LES – resolving turbulent flow in technical fish bypasses), Tagungsband Internationales Symposium in Zurich, Wasser- und Flussbau im Alpenraum, Versuchsanstalt fur Wasserbau, Hydrologie und Glaziologie, ETH Zurich. In German.

62-14   Jason Duguay, Jay Lace, Dave Penny, and Ken Hannaford, Evolution of an Innovative Fish Ladder Design to Address Issues of Perched Culverts, 2014 Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec

60-14   Kordula Schwarzwälder, Minh Duc Bui, and Peter Rutschmann, Simulation of bacteria transport processes in a river with FLOW-3D, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 16, EGU2014-12993, 2014, EGU General Assembly 2014, © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

58-14   Eray Usta, Numercial Investigation of Hydraulic Characteristics of Laleili Dam Spillway and Comparison with Physical Model Study, Master’s Thesis: The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University, May 2014

57-14   Selahattin Kocaman, Prediction of Backwater Profiles due to Bridges in a Compound Channel Using CFD, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Volume 2014, Article ID 905217, 9 pages,

54-14   Ines C. Meireles, Fabian A. Bombardelli, and Jorge Matos, Air entrainment onset in skimming flows on steep stepped spillways: an analysis, (2014) Journal of Hydraulic Research, 52:3, 375-385, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2013.878401

53-14   Charles R Ortloff, Groundwater Management in the 300 bce-1100ce Pre-Columbian City of Tiwanaku (Bolivia), Hydrol Current Res 5: 168. doi:10.4172/2157-7587.1000168, 2014

50-14   Mohanad A. Kholdier, Weir-Baffled Culvert Hydrodynamics Evaluation for Fish Passage using Particle Image Velocimetry and Computational Fluid Dynamic Techniques, Ph.D. Thesis: Utah State University (2014). All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Paper 3078.

48-14   Yu-Heng Lin, Study on raceway pond for microalgae culturing system, Master Thesis: Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, August 2014. In Chinese

38-14   David Ingram, Robin Wallacey, Adam Robinsonz and Ian Bryden, The design and commissioning of the first, circular, combined current and wave test basin, Proceedings of Oceans 2014 MTS/IEEE, Taipei, Taiwan, IEEE, April 2014

36-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in Precolumbian Peru and Bolivia, The Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, Springer-Verlag, Volumes II and III, Heidelberg, Germany, 2014.

35-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in BC 100- AD 300 Petra (Jordan), The Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, Springer-Verlag, Volumes II and III, Heidelberg, Germany, 2014.

34-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Engineering in Precolumbian Peru and Bolivia, The Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, Springer-Verlag, Volumes II and III, Heidelberg, Germany, 2014.

33-14   Roman Gabl, Bernhard Gems, Giovanni De Cesare, and Markus Aufleger, Contribution to Quality Standards for 3D-Numerical Simulations with FLOW-3D, Wasserwirtschaft (ISSN: 0043-0978), vol. 104, num. 3, p. 15-20, Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg-Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden Gmbh, 2014. Available for download at the University of InnsbruckIn German.

31-14   E. Fadaei-Kermani and G.A. Barani, Numerical simulation of flow over spillway based on the CFD method, Scientia Iranica A, 21(1), 91-97, 2014

30-14   Luis G. Castillo  and José M. Carrillo, Scour Analysis Downstream of Paute-Cardenillo Dam, © 3rd IAHR Europe Congress, Book of Proceedings, 2014, Porto, Portugal.

29-14    L. G. Castillo, M. A. Álvarez, and J. M. Carrillo, Numerical modeling of sedimentation and flushing at the Paute-Cardenillo Reservoir, ASCE-EWRI. International Perspective on Water Resources and Environment Quito, January 8-10, 2014

28-14   L. G. Castillo and J. M. CarrilloScour estimation of the Paute-Cardenillo Dam, ASCE-EWRI. International Perspective on Water Resources and Environment Quito, January 8-10, 2014.

27-14   Luis G. Castillo, Manual A. Álvarez and José M. Carrillo, Analysis of Sedimentation and Flushing into the Reservoir Paute-Cardenillo© 3rd IAHR Europe Congress, Book of Proceedings, 2014, Porto, Portugal.

24-14   Carter R. Newell and John Richardson, The Effects of Ambient and Aquaculture Structure Hydrodynamics on the Food Supply and Demand of Mussel Rafts, Journal of Shellfish Research, 33(1):257-272, DOI:, 0125, 2014.

16-14   Han Hu, Jiesheng Huang, Zhongdong Qian, Wenxin Huai, and Genjian Yu, Hydraulic Analysis of Parabolic Flume for Flow Measurement, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation,, 2014.

14-14   Seung Oh Lee, Sooyoung Kim, Moonil Kim, Kyoung Jae Lim and Younghun Jung, The Effect of Hydraulic Characteristics on Algal Bloom in an Artificial Seawater Canal: A Case Study in Songdo City, South Korea, Water 2014, 6, 399-413; doi:10.3390/w6020399, ISSN 2073-4441,

13-14   Kathryn Elizabeth Plymesser, Modeling Fish Passage and Energy Expenditure for American Shad in a Steeppass Fishway using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Ph.D. Thesis: Montana State University, January 2014, © Kathryn Elizabeth Plymesser, 2014, All Rights Reserved.

12-14   Sangdo An and Pierre Y. Julien, Three-Dimensional Modeling of Turbid Density Currents in Imha Reservoir, J. Hydraul. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000851, 05014004, 2014.

09-14   B. Gems, M. Wörndl, R. Gabl, C. Weber, and M. Aufleger, Experimental and numerical study on the design of a deposition basin outlet structure at a mountain debris cone, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 175–187, 2014,, doi:10.5194/nhess-14-175-2014, © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

07-14   Charles R. Ortloff, Water Engineering at Petra (Jordan): Recreating the Decision Process underlying Hydraulic Engineering of the Wadi Mataha Pipeline System, Journal of Archaeological Science, Available online January 2014.

06-14   Hatice Ozmen-Cagatay, Selahattin Kocaman, Hasan Guzel, Investigation of dam-break flood waves in a dry channel with a hump, Journal of Hydro-environment Research, Available online January 2014.

05-14   Shawn P. Clark, Jonathan Scott Toews, and Rob Tkach, Beyond average velocity: Modeling velocity distributions in partially-filled culverts to support fish passage guidelines, International Journal of River Basin Management, DOI10.1080/15715124.2013.879591, January 2014.

04-14   Giovanni De Cesare, Martin Bieri, Stéphane Terrier, Sylvain Candolfi, Martin Wickenhäuser and Gaël Micoulet, Optimization of a Shared Tailrace Channel of Two Pumped-Storage Plants by Physical and Numerical Modeling, Advances in Hydroinformatics Springer Hydrogeology 2014, pp 291-305.

03-14   Grégory Guyot, Hela Maaloul and Antoine Archer, A Vortex Modeling with 3D CFD, Advances in Hydroinformatics Springer Hydrogeology 2014, pp 433-444.

02-14   Géraldine Milési and Stéphane Causse, 3D Numerical Modeling of a Side-Channel Spillway, Advances in Hydroinformatics Springer Hydrogeology 2014, pp 487-498.

01-14   Mohammad R. Namaee, Mohammad Rostami, S. Jalaledini and Mahdi Habibi, A 3-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Flow Over a Broad-Crested Side Weir, Advances in Hydroinformatics, Springer Hydrogeology 2014, pp 511-523.

104-13   Alireza Nowroozpour, H. Musavi Jahromi and A. Dastgheib, Studying different cases of wedge shape deflectors on energy dissipation in flip bucket using CFD model, Proceedings, 6th International Perspective on Water Resources & the Environment Conference (IPWE), Izmir, Turkey, January 7-9, 2013.

102-13   Shari Dunlop, Isaac Willig and Roger L. Kay, Emergency Response to Erosion at Fort Peck Spillway: Hydraulic Analysis and Design, ICOLD 2013 International Symposium, Seattle, WA.

101-13   Taeho Kang and Heebeom Shin, Dam Emergency Action Plans in Korea, ICOLD 2013 International Symposium, Seattle, WA.

100-13   John Hess, Jeffrey Wisniewski, David Neff and Mike Forrest, A New Auxiliary Spillway for Folsom Dam, ICOLD 2013 International Symposium, Seattle, WA.

98-13   Neda Sharif and Amin Rostami Ravori, Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effect of Flow Separation on Dissipating Energy in Compound Bucket, 2013 5th International Conference on Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering (ICBEE 2013); 2013 2nd International Conference on Civil Engineering (ICCEN 2013)

97-13  A. Stergiopoulou, V. Stergiopoulos, and E. Kalkani, Contributions to the Study of Hydrodynamic Behaviour of Innovative Archimedean Screw Turbines Recovering the Hydropotential of Watercourses and of Coastal Currents, Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology Athens, Greece, 5-7 September 2013

96-13   Shokry Abdelaziz, Minh Duc Bui, Namihira Atsushi, and Peter Rutschmann, Numerical Simulation of Flow and Upstream Fish Movement inside a Pool-and-Weir Fishway, Proceedings of 2013 IAHR World Congress, Chengdu, China

95-13  Guodong Li, Lan Lang, and Jian Ning, 3D Numerical Simulation of Flow and Local Scour around a Spur Dike, Proceedings of 2013 IAHR World Congress, Chengdu, China

93-13   Matthew C. Kondratieff and Eric E. Richer, Stream Habitat Investigations and Assistance, Federal Aid Project F-161-R19, Federal Aid in Fish and Wildlife Restoration, Job Progress Report, Colorado Parks & Wildlife, Aquatic Wildlife Research Section, Fort Collins, Colorado, August 2013. Available upon request

92-13   Matteo Tirindelli, Scott Fenical and Vladimir Shepsis, State-of-the-Art Methods for Extreme Wave Loading on Bridges and Coastal Highways, Seventh National Seismic Conference on Bridges and Highways (7NSC), May 20-22, 2013, Oakland, CA

91-13   Cecia Millán Barrera, Víctor Manuel Arroyo Correa, Jorge Armando Laurel Castillo, Modeling contaminant transport with aerobic biodegradation in a shallow water body, Proceedings of 2013 IAHR Congress © 2013 Tsinghua University Press, Beijing

80-13  Brian Fox, Matthew Kondratieff, Brian Bledsoe, Christopher Myrick, Eco-Hydraulic Evaluation of Whitewater Parks as Fish Passage Barriers, International Conference on Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage, June 25-27, 2013, Oregon State University. Presentation available for download on the Scholarworks site.

79-13  Changsung Kim, Jongtae Kim, Joongu Kang, Analysis of the Cause for the Collapse of a Temporary Bridge Using Numerical Simulation, Engineering, 2013, 5, 997-1005, (, Copyright © 2013 Changsung Kim et al. Published Online December 2013

76-13   Riley J. Olsen, Michael C. Johnson, and Steven L. Barfuss, Low-Head Dam Reverse Roller Remediation Options, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, November 2013; doi:10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000848.

72-13  M. Pfister, E. Battisacco, G. De Cesare, and A.J. Schleiss, Scale effects related to the rating curve of cylindrically crested Piano Key weirs, Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II – PKW 2013 – Erpicum et al. (eds), © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-00085-8.

71-13  F. Laugier, J. Vermeulen, and V. Lefebvre, Overview of Piano KeyWeirs experience developed at EDF during the past few years, Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II – PKW 2013 – Erpicum et al. (eds), © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-00085-8.

70-13   G.M. Cicero, J.R. Delisle, V. Lefebvre, and J. Vermeulen, Experimental and numerical study of the hydraulic performance of a trapezoidal Piano Key weir, Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II – PKW 2013 – Erpicum et al. (eds, © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-00085-8.

69-13   V. Lefebvre, J. Vermeulen, and B. Blancher, Influence of geometrical parameters on PK-Weirs discharge with 3D numerical analysis, Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II – PKW 2013 – Erpicum et al. (eds), © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-00085-8.

65-13 Alkistis Stergiopoulou and Efrossini Kalkani, Towards a First CFD Study of Innovative Archimedean Inclined Axis Hydropower Turbines, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), ISSN: 2278-0181, Vol. 2 Issue 9, September 2013.

58-13  Timothy Sassaman, Andrew Johansson, Ryan Jones, and Marianne Walter, Hydraulic Analysis of a Pumped Storage Pond Using Complementary Methods, Hydrovision 2013 Conference Proceedings, Denver, CO, July 2013.

57-13  Jose Vasquez, Kara Hurtig, and Brian Hughes, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling of Run-of-River Intakes, Hydrovision 2013 Conference Proceedings, Denver, CO July 2013.

56-13  David Souders, Jayesh Kariya, and Jeff Burnham, Validation of a Hybrid 3-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional Flow Modeling Technique for an Instanenous Dam-Break, Hydrovision 2013 Conference Proceedings, Denver, CO July 2013.

55-13  Keith Moen, Dan Kirschbaum, Joe Groeneveld, Steve Smith and Kimberly Pate, Sluiceway Deflector Design as part of the Boundary TDG Abatement Program, Hydrovision 2013 Conference Proceedings, Denver, CO, July 2013.

54-13  S. Temeepattanapongsa, G. P. Merkley, S. L. Barfuss and B. Smith, Generic unified rating for Cutthroat flumes, Irrig Sci, DOI 10.1007/s00271-013-0411-3, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013, August 2013.

53-13 Hossein Afshar and Seyed Hooman Hoseini, Experimental and 3-D Numerical Simulation of Flow over a Rectangular Broad-Crested Weir, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), ISSN: 2249-8958, Volume 2, Issue 6, August 2013

52-13  Abdulmajid Matinfard (Kabi), Mohammad Heidarnejad, Javad Ahadian, Effect of Changes in the Hydraulic Conditions on the Velocity Distribution around a L-Shaped Spur Dike at the River Bend, Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences Available online at ©2013 TJEAS Journal-2013-3-16/1862-1868 ISSN 2051-0853 ©2013 TJEAS

51-13  Elham Radaei, Sahar Nikbin, and Mahdi Shahrokhi, Numerical Investigation of Angled Baffle on the Flow Pattern in a Rectangular Primary Sedimentation Tank, RCEE, Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering 1 (2013) 79-91.

48-13   Mohammad Kayser, Mohammed A. Gabr, Assessment of Scour on Bridge Foundations by Means of In Situ Erosion Evaluation Probe, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 0361-1981 (Print), Volume 2335 / 2013, pp 72-78. 10.3141/2335-08, August 2013.

47-13  Wei Ping Yin et al., 2013, Three-Dimensional Water Temperature and Hydrodynamic Simulation of Xiangxi River Estuary, Advanced Materials Research, 726-731, 3212, August, 2013.

41-13   N. Nekoue, R. Mahajan, J. Hamrick, and H. Rodriguez, Selective Withdrawal Hydraulic Study Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2013: pp. 1808-1813. doi: 10.1061/9780784412947.177.

40-13  Eleanor Kolden, Modeling in a three-dimensional world: whitewater park hydraulics and their impact on aquatic habitat in Colorado, Thesis: Master of Science, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado State University. Full thesis available online at Colorado State University.

38-13  Prashant Huddar P.E. and Yashodhan Dhopavkar, CFD Use in Water – Insight, Foresight, and Efficiency, CFD Application in Water Engineering, Bangalore, India, June 2013.

37-13 B. Gems, M. Wörndl, R. Gabl, C. Weber, and M. Aufleger, Experimental and numerical study on the design of a deposition basin outlet structure at a mountain debris cone, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 1, 3169–3200, 2013,, doi:10.5194/nhessd-1-3169-2013, © Author(s) 2013. Full paper online at: Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences.

33-13   Tian Zhou and Theodore A. Endreny, Reshaping of the hyporheic zone beneath river restoration structures: Flume and hydrodynamic experiments, Water Resources Research, DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20384, ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

31-13  Francesco Calomino and Agostino Lauria, MOTO ALL’IMBOCCO DI UN CANALE RETTANGOLARE CONTROLLATO DA PARATOIA PIANA. Analisi sperimentale e modellazione numerica 3DFLOW AT THE INTAKE OF THE RECTANGULAR CHANNEL ;CONTROLLED BY A FLAT SLUICE GATE. Experimental and Numerical 3D ModelL’acqua, pp. 29-36, © Idrotecnica Italiana, 2013. In Italian and English.

30-13  Vinod V. Nair and S.K. Bhattacharyya, Numerical Study of Water Impact of Rigid Sphere under the Action of Gravity CFD Application in Water Engineering, Bangalore, India, June 2013. Abstract only.

29-13   Amar Pal Singh, Faisal Bhat, Ekta Gupta, 3-D Spillway Simulations of Ratle HEP (J&K) for the Assessment of Design Alternatives to be Tested in Model Studies, CFD Application in Water Engineering, Bangalore, India, June 2013.

28-13  Shun-Chung Tsung, Jihn-Sung Lai, and Der-Liang Young, Velocity distribution and discharge calculation at a sharp-crested weir, Paddy Water Environ, DOI 10.1007/s10333-013-0378-y, © Springer Japan 2013, May 2013.

27-13  Karen Riddette and David Ho, Assessment of Spillway Modeling Using Computational Fluid DynamicsANCOLD Proceedings of Technical Groups, 2013.

21-13  Tsung-Hsien Huang and Chyan-Deng Jan, Simulation of Velocity Distribution for Water Flow in a Vortex-Chamber-Type Sediment Extractor, EGU General Assembly 2013, held 7-12 April, 2013 in Vienna, Austria, id. EGU2013-7061. Online at:

19-13  Riley J. Olsen, Hazard Classification and Hydraulic Remediation Options for Flat-Topped and Ogee-Crested Low- Head Dams, Thesis: Master of Science in Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University, All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Paper 1538., 2013.

17-13  Mohammad-Hossein Erfanain-Azmoudeh and Amir Abbas Kamanbedast, Determine the Appropriate Location of Aerator System on Gotvandolia Dam’s Spillway Using FLOW-3D, American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 13 (3): 378-383, 2013, ISSN 1818-6769, © IDOSI Publications, 2013.

13-13   Chia-Cheng Tsai, Yueh-Ting Lin, and Tai-Wen Hsu, On the weak viscous effect of the reflection and transmission over an arbitrary topography, Phys. Fluids 25, 043103 (2013); (21 pages).

07-13  M. Kayser and M. A. Gabr, Scour Assessment of Bridge Foundations Using an In Situ Erosion Evaluation Probe (ISEEP), 92nd Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, January 13-17, 2013, Washington, D.C.

06-13   Yovanni A. Cataño-Lopera, Blake J. Landry, Jorge D. Abad, and Marcelo H. García, Experimental and Numerical Study of the Flow Structure around Two Partially Buried Objects on a Deformed Bed, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering © ASCE /March 2013, 269-283.

04-13  Safinaz El-Solh, SPH Modeling of Solitary Waves and Resulting Hydrodynamic Forces on Vertical and Sloping Walls, Thesis: Master of Applied Science in Civil Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, October 2012, © Safinaz El-Solh, Ottawa, Canada, 2013. Full paper available online at uOttawa.

108-12  Hatice Ozmen-Cagatay and Selahattin Kocaman, Investigation of Dam-Break Flow Over Abruptly Contracting Channel With Trapezoidal-Shaped Lateral Obstacles, Journal of Fluids Engineering © 2012 by ASME August 2012, Vol. 134 / 081204-1

102-12 B.M. Crookston, G.S. Paxson, and B.M. Savage, Hydraulic Performance of Labryinth Weirs for High Headwater Ratios, 4th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, 9-11 February 2012, Porto, Portugal, ISBN: 978-989-8509-01-7.

101-12 Jungseok Ho and Wonil Kim, Discrete Phase Modeling Study for Particle Motion in Storm Water Retention, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering (2012) 16(6):1071-1078, DOI 10.1007/s12205-012-1304-3.

99-12  Charles R. Ortloff and Michael E. Mosely, Environmental change at a Late Archaic period site in north central coast Perú, Ñawpa Pacha, Journal of Andean Archaeology, Volume 32, Number 2 / December 2012, ISSN: 0077-6297 (Print); 2051-6207 (Online), Left Coast Press, Inc.

98-12  Tao Wang and Vincent H. Chu, Manning Friction in Steep Open-channel Flow, Seventh International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ICCFD7), Big Island, Hawaii, July 9-13, 2012.

96-12  Zhi Yong Dong, Qi Qi Chen, Yong Gang, and Bin Shi, Experimental and Numerical Study of Hydrodynamic Cavitation of Orifice Plates with Multiple Triangular Holes, Applied Mechanics and Materials, Volumes 256-259, Advances in Civil Engineering, December 2012.

95-12  Arjmandi H., Ghomeshi M.,  Ahadiayn J., and Goleij G., Prediction of Plunge Point in the Density Current using RNG Turbulence Modeling, Water and Soil Science (Agricultural Science) Spring 2012; 22(1):171-185. Abstract available online at the Scientific Online Database.

84-12  Li Ping Zhao, Jian Qiu Zhang, Lei Chen, Xuan Xie, Jun Qiang Cheng, Study of Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the Sloping Breakwater of Circular Protective Facing, Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 588 – 589), Advances in Mechanics Engineering, 1781-1785, 10.4028/

83-12 Parviz Ghadimi, Abbas Dashtimanesh, and Seyed Reza Djeddi, Study of water entry of circular cylinder by using analytical and numerical solutions, J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. & Eng. 2012, vol.34, n.3, pp. 225-232 . ISSN 1678-5878.

81-12  R. Gabl, S. Achleitner, A. Sendlhofer, T. Höckner, M. Schmitter and M. Aufleger, Side-channel spillway – Hybrid modeling, Hydraulic Measurements and Experimental Methods 2012, EWRI/ASCE, August 12-15, 2012, Snowbird, Utah.

80-12  Akin Aybar, Computational Modelling of Free Surface Flow in Intake Structures using FLOW-3D Software, Thesis: MS in Civil Engineering, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University, June 2012.

74-12  Mahdi Shahrokhi, Fatemeh Rostami, Md Azlin Md Said, Saeed Reza Sabbagh Yazdi, and Syafalni Syafalni, Computational investigations of baffle configuration effects on the performance of primary sedimentation tanks, Water and Environment Journal, 22 October 2012, © 2012 CIWEM.

68-12  Jalal Attari and Mohammad Sarfaraz, Transitional Steps Zone in Steeply Stepped Spillways, 9th International Congress on Civil Engineering, May 8-10, 2012, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan, Iran

67-12  Mohammad Sarfaraz, Jalal Attari and Michael Pfister, Numerical Computation of Inception Point Location for Steeply Sloping Stepped Spillways, 9th International Congress on Civil Engineering, May 8-10, 2012, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan, Iran

64-12  Anders Wedel Nielsen, Xiaofeng Liu, B. Mutlu Sumer, Jørgen Fredsøe, Flow and bed shear stresses in scour protections around a pile in a current, Coastal Engineering, Volume 72, February 2013, Pages 20–38.

62-12  Ehab A. Meselhe, Ioannis Georgiou, Mead A. Allison, John A McCorquodale, Numerical Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport in Lower Mississippi at a Proposed Delta Building Diversion, Journal of Hydrology, October 2012.

60-12  Markus Grünzner and Gerhard Haimerl, Numerical Simulation Downstream Attraction Flow at Danube Weir Donauwörth, 9th ISE 2012, Vienna, Austria.

59-12 M. Grünzner, A 3 Dimensional Numerical (LES) and Physical ‘Golf Ball’ Model in Comparison to 1 Dimensional Approach, Hydraulic Measurements and Experimental Methods 2012, EWRI/ASCE, August 12-15, 2012, Snowbird, Utah

58-12  Shawn P. Clark, Jonathan S. Toews, Martin Hunt and Rob Tkach, Physical and Numerical Modeling in Support of Fish Passage Regulations, 9th ISE 2012, Vienna, Austria.

57-12  Mahdi Shahrokhi, Fatemeh Rostami, Md Azlin Md Said, Syafalni, Numerical Modeling of Baffle Location Effects on the Flow Pattern of Primary Sedimentation Tanks, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Available online October 2012,

50-12  Gricelda Ramirez, A Virtual Flow Meter to Develop Velocity-Index Ratings and Evaluate the Effect of Flow Disturbances on these Ratings, Master’s Thesis: Department of Civil Engineering in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2012.

43-12  A. A. Girgidov, A. D. Girgidov and M. P. Fedorov, Use of dispersing springboards to reduce near-bottom velocity in a toe basin, Power Technology and Engineering (formerly Hydrotechnical Construction), Volume 46, Number 2 (2012), 113-115, DOI: 10.1007/s10749-012-0316-y.

40-12  Jong Pil Park, Kyung Sik Choi, Ji Hwan Jeong, Gyung Min Choi, Ju Yeop Park, and Man Woong Kim, Experimental and numerical evaluation of debris transport augmentation by turbulence during the recirculation-cooling phase, Nuclear Engineering and Design 250 (2012) 520-537

39-12  Hossein Basser, Abdollah Ardeshir, Hojat Karami, Numerical simulation of flow pattern around spur dikes series in rigid bed, 9th International Congress on Civil Engineering, May 8-10, 2012 Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan, Iran

38-12  Sathaporn Temeepattanapongsa, Unified Equations for Cutthroat Flumes Derived from a Three-Dimensional Hydraulic Model, (2012). Thesis: Utah State University, All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Paper 1308. Available online at:

36-12 Robert Feurich, Jacques Boubée, Nils Reidar B. Olsen, Improvement of fish passage in culverts using CFD, Ecological Engineering, Volume 47, October 2012, Pages 1–8.

35-12 Yovanni A. Cataño-Lopera and Jorge D. Abad, Flow Structure around a Partially Buried Object in a Simulated River Bed, World Environmental And Water Resources Congress 2012, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States, May 20-24, 2012.

33-12  Fatemeh Rostami, Saeed Reza Sabbagh Yazdi, Md Azlin Md Said and Mahdi Shahrokhi, Numerical simulation of undular jumps on graveled bed using volume of fluid method, Water Science & Technology Vol 66 No 5 pp 909–917 © IWA Publishing 2012 doi:10.2166/wst.2012.213.

30-12  Saman Abbasi and Amir Abbas Kamanbedast, Investigation of Effect of Changes in Dimension and Hydraulic of Stepped Spillways for Maximization Energy Dissipation, World Applied Sciences Journal 18 (2): 261-267, 2012, ISSN 1818-4952, © IDOSI Publications, 2012, DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2012.18.02.492

24-12  Mario Oertel, Jan Mönkemöller and Andreas Schlenkhoff, Artificial stationary breaking surf waves in a physical and numerical model, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 50:3, 338-343, 2012.

23-12  Mario Oertel, Cross-bar block ramps:Flow regimes – flow resistance – energy dissipation – stability, thesis, Bericht Nr. 20, 2012, © 2011/12 Dr. Mario Oertel, Hydraulic Engineering Section, Bergische University of Wuppertal. Duplication only with author’s permission.

20-12  M. Oertel and A. Schlenkhoff, Crossbar Block Ramps: Flow Regimes, Energy Dissipation, Friction Factors, and Drag Forces, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering © ASCE, May 2012, pp. 440-448.

19-12  Mohsen Maghrebi, Saeed Alizadeh, and Rahim Lotfi, Numerical Simulation of Flow Over Rectangular Broad Crested Weir, 1st International and 3rd National Conference on Dams and Hydropower in Iran, Tehran, Iran, February 8 – February 9, 2012

18-12  Alireza Daneshkhah and Hamidreza Vosoughifar, Solution of Flow Field Equations to Investigate the Best Turbulent Model of Flow over a Standard Ogee Spillway, 1st International and 3rd National Conference on Dams and Hydropower in Iran, Tehran, Iran, February 8 – February 9, 2012

03-12  Hamed Taghizadeh, Seyed Ali Akbar Salehi Neyshabour and Firouz Ghasemzadeh, Dynamic Pressure Fluctuations in Stepped Three-Side Spillway, Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment 3 (1): 95-104, 2012, ISSN 2079-2115

02-12   Kim, Seojun, Yu, Kwonkyu, Yoon, Byungman, and Lim, Yoonsung, A numerical study on hydraulic characteristics in the ice Harbor-type fishway, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 2012-02-01, Issn: 1226-7988, pp 265- 272, Volume: 16, Issue: 2, Doi: 10.1007/s12205-012-0010-5.

105-11 Hatice Ozmen Cagatay and Selahattin Kocaman, Dam-break Flow in the Presence of Obstacle: Experiment and CFD Simulation, Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechancis, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 541-552, 2011

102-11 Sang Do An, Interflow Dynamics and Three-Dimensional Modeling of Turbid Density Currents in IMHA Reservoir, South Korea, thesis: Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Colorado State University, 2011.

101-11 Tsunami – A Growing Disaster, edited by Mohammad Mokhtari, ISBN 978-953-307-431-3, 232 pages, Publisher: InTech, Chapters published December 16, 2011 under CC BY 3.0 license, DOI: 10.5772/922. Available for download at Intech.

98-11  Selahattin Kocaman and Hasan Guzel, Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Dam-Break Wave on a Single Building Situated Downstream, Epoka Conference Systems, 1st International Balkans Conference on Challenges of Civil Engineering, 19-21 May 2011, EPOKA University, Tirana, Albania.

97-11   T. Endreny, L. Lautz, and D. I. Siegel, Hyporheic flow path response to hydraulic jumps at river steps: Flume and hydrodynamic models, WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, VOL. 47, W02517, doi:10.1029/2009WR008631, 2011.

96-11   Mahdi Shahrokhi, Fatemeh Rostami, Md Azlin Md Said and Syafalni, Numerical Simulation of Influence of Inlet Configuration on Flow Pattern in Primary Rectangular Sedimentation Tanks, World Applied Sciences Journal 15 (7): 1024-1031, 2011, ISSN 1818-4952, © IDOSI Publications, 2011. Full article available online at IODSI.

94-11  Kathleen H. Frizell, Summary of Hydraulic Studies for Ladder and Flume Fishway Design- Nimbus Hatchery Fish Passage Project, Hydraulic Laboratory Report HL-2010-04, U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation Technical Service Center Hydraulic Investigations and Laboratory Services Group, December 2011

88-11   Abdelaziz, S, Bui, MD, Rutschmann, P, Numerical Investigation of Flow and Sediment Transport around a Circular Bridge Pier, Proceedings of the 34th World Congress of the International Association for Hydro- Environment Research and Engineering: 33rd Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium and 10th Conference on Hydraulics in Water Engineering, ACT: Engineers Australia, 2011: 2624-2630.

86-11  M. Heidarnejad, D. Halvai and M. Bina, The Proper Option for Discharge the Turbidity Current and Hydraulic Analysis of Dez Dam Reservoir, World Applied Sciences Journal 13 (9): 2052-2056, 2011, ISSN 1818-4952 © IDOSI Publications, 2011

84-11  Martina Reichstetter and Hubert Chanson, Physical and Numerical Modelling of Negative Surges in Open Channels, School of Civil Engineering at the University of Queensland, Report CH84/11, ISBN No. 9781742720388, © Reichstetter and Chanson, 2011.

83-11  Reda M. Abd El-Hady Rady, 2D-3D Modeling of Flow Over Sharp-Crested Weirs, Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 7(12): 2495-2505, ISSN 1819-544X, 2011.

78-11  S. Abbasi, A. Kamanbedast and J. Ahadian, Numerical Investigation of Angle and Geometric of L-Shape Groin on the Flow and Erosion Regime at River Bends, World Applied Sciences Journal 15 (2): 279-284, 2011, ISSN 1818-4952 © IDOSI Publications, 2011.

75-11  Mario Oertel and Daniel B. Bung, Initial stage of two-dimensional dam-break waves: laboratory versus VOF, Journal of Hydraulic Research, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2011.639981, Available online: 08 Dec 2011.

73-11  T.N. Aziz and A.A. Khan, Simulation of Vertical Plane Turbulent Jet in Shallow Water, Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2011, Article ID 292904, 10 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/292904.

67-11   Chung R. Song, ASCE, Jinwon Kim, Ge Wang, and Alexander H.-D. Cheng, Reducing Erosion of Earthen Levees Using Engineered Flood Wall SurfaceJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 137, No. 10, October 2011, pp. 874-881,

64-11  Mahdi Shahrokhi, Fatemeh Rostami, Md Azlin Md Said, Syafalni, The Effect of Number of Baffles on the Improvement Efficiency of Primary Sedimentation Tanks, Available online 11 November 2011, ISSN 0307-904X, 10.1016/j.apm.2011.11.001.

62-11  Jana Hadler, Klaus Broekel, Low head hydropower – its design and economic potential, World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Sweden, May 8-13, 2011.

60-11 Md. Imtiaj Hassan and Nahidul Khan, Performance of a Quarter-Pitch Twisted Savonius Turbine, The International Conference and Utility Exhibition 2011, Pattaya City, Thailand, 28-30 September 2011.

59-11   Erin K. Gleason, Ashraful Islam, Liaqat Khan, Darrne Brinker and Mike Miller, Spillway Analysis Techniques Using Traditional and 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling, Dam Safety 2011, National Harbor, MD, September 25-29, 2011.

58-11  William Rahmeyer, Steve Barfuss, and Bruce Savage, Composite Modeling of Hydraulic Structures, Dam Safety 2011, National Harbor, MD, September 25-29, 2011.

57-11  B. Dasgupta, K. Das, D. Basu, and R. Green, Computational Methodology to Predict Rock Block Erosion in Plunge Pools, Dam Safety 2011, National Harbor, MD, September 25-29, 2011.

56-11  Jeff Burnham, Modeling Dams with Computational Fluid Dynamics- Past Success and New Directions, Dam Safety 2011, National Harbor, MD, September 25-29, 2011.

52-11  Madhi Shahrokhi, Fatemeh Rostami, Md Azlin Md Said, and Syafalni, The Computational Modeling of Baffle Configuration in the Primary Sedimentation Tanks, 2011 2nd International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology IPCBEE vol 6. (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore.

47-11  Stefan Haun, Nils Reidar B. Olsen and Robert Feurich, Numerical Modeling of Flow over Trapezoidal Broad-Crested Weir, Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol 5., No. 3, pp. 397-405, 2011.

42-11  Anu Acharya, Experimental Study and Numerical Simulation of Flow and Sediment Transport around a Series of Spur Dikes, thesis: The University of Arizona Graduate College, Copyright © Anu Acharya 2011, July 2011.

38-11  Mehdi Shahosseini, Amirabbas Kamanbedast and Roozbeh Aghamajidi, Investigation of Hydraulic Conditions around Bridge Piers and Determination of Shear Stress using Numerical Methods, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011, © ASCE 2011.

35-11  L. Toombes and H. Chanson, Numerical Limitations of Hydraulic Models, 34th IAHR World Congress, 33rd Hydrology & Water Resources Symposium, 10th Hydraulics Conference, Brisbane, Australia, 26 June – 1 July 2011.

34-11  Mohammad Sarfaraz, and Jalal Attari, Numerical Simulation of Uniform Flow Region over a Steeply Sloping Stepped Spillway, 6th National Congress on Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran, April 26-27, 2011.

30-11  John Richardson and Pamela Waterman, Stemming the Flood, Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 133/No.7 July 2011

29-11  G. Möller & R. Boes, D. Theiner & A. Fankhauser, G. De Cesare & A. Schleiss, Hybrid modeling of sediment management during drawdown of Räterichsboden reservoir, Dams and Reservoirs under Changing Challenges – Schleiss & Boes (Eds), © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-68267-1.

24-11  Liaqat A. Khan, Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Emergency Overflows through an Energy Dissipation Structure of a Water Treatment Plant, ASCE Conf. Proc. doi:10.1061/41173(414)155, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011.

23-11  Anu Acharya and Jennifer G. Duan, Three Dimensional Simulation of Flow Field around Series of Spur Dikes, ASCE Conf. Proc. doi:10.1061/41173(414)218, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011.

22-11  Mehdi Shahosseini, Amirabbas Kamanbedast, and Roozbeh Aghamajidi, Investigation of Hydraulic Conditions around Bridge Piers and Determination of Shear Stress Using Numerical Method, ASCE Conf. Proc. doi:10.1061/41173(414)435, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011.

20-11  Jong Pil Park, Ji Hwan Jeong, Won Tae Kim, Man Woong Kim and Ju Yeop Park, Debris transport evaluation during the blow-down phase of a LOCA using computational fluid dynamics, Nuclear Engineering and Design, June 2011, ISSN 0029-5493, DOI: 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2011.05.017.

13-11 Ehab A. Meselhe, Myrtle Grove Delta Building Diversion Project, The Geological Society of America, South-Central Section – 45th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 2011.

12-11  Bryan Heiner and Steven L. Barfuss, Parshall Flume and Discharge Corrections Wall Staff Gauge and Centerline Measurements, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, posted ahead of print February 1, 2011, DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000355, © 2011 by the American Society of Civil Engineers.

06-11  T. Endreny, L. Lautz, and D. Siegel, Hyporheic flow path response to hydraulic jumps at river steps- Hydrostatic model simulations, Water Resources Research, Vol. 47, W02518, doi: 10.1029/2010WR010014, 2011, © 2011 by the American Geophysical Union, 0043-1397/11/2010WR010014

03-11  Jinwon Kim, Chung R. Song, Ge Wang and Alexander H.-D. Cheng Reducing Erosion of Earthen Levees Using Engineered Flood Wall Surface, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, © ASCE, January 2011.

02-11  F. Montagna, G. Bellotti and M. Di Risio, 3D numerical modeling of landslide-generated tsunamis around a conical island, Springer Link, Earth and Environmental Science, Natural Hazards, DOI: 10.1007/s11069-010-9689-0, Online First™, 7 January 2011.

83-10   S. Abdelaziz, M.D. Bui and P. Rutschmann, Numerical simulation of scour development due to submerged horizontal jet, River Flow 2010, eds. Dittrich, Koll, Aberle & Geisenhainer, © 2010 Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau, ISBN 978-3-939230-00-7.

79-10  Daniel J. Howes, Charles M. Burt, and Brett F. Sanders, Subcritical Contraction for Improved Open-Channel Flow Measurement Accuracy with an Upward-Looking ADVM, J. Irrig. Drain Eng. 2010.136:617-626.

78-10  M. Kaheh, S. M. Kashefipour, and A. Dehghani, Comparison of k-ε and RNG k-ε Turbulent Models for Estimation of Velocity Profiles along the Hydraulic Jump, presented at the 6th International Symposium on Environmental Hydraulics, Athens, Greece, June 2010.

75-10  Shahrokh Amiraslani, Jafar Fahimi, Hossein Mehdinezhad, The Numerical Investigation of Free Falling Jet’s Effect on the Scour of Plunge Pool, XVIII International Conference on Water Resources CMWR 2010 J. Carrera (Ed) CIMNE, Barcelona 2010

74-10  M. Ho Ta Khanh, Truong Chi Hien, and Dinh Sy Quat, Study and construction of PK Weirs in Vietnam (2004 to 2011), 78th Annual Meeting of the International Commission on Large Dams,  VNCOLD, Hanoi, Vietnam, May 23-26, 2010.

72-10  DKH Ho and KM Riddette, Application of computational fluid dynamics to evaluate hydraulic performance of spillways in Australia, © Institution of Engineers Australia, 2010, Australian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 6 No 1, 2010.

71-10  Cecilia Lucino, Sergio Liscia y Gonzalo Duro, Vortex Detection in Pump Sumps by Means of CFD, XXIV Latin American Congress on Hydraulics, Punta Del Este, Uruguay, November 2010; Deteccion de Vortices en Darsenas de Bombeo Mediante Modelacion MatematicaAvailable in English and Spanish.

64-10 Jose (Pepe) Vasquez, Assessing Sediment Movement by CFD Particle Tracking, 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, June 27-July 1, 2010.

63-10 Sung-Min Cho, Foundation Design of the Incheon Bridge, Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA Vol 41 No.4, ISSN0046-5828, December 2010.

61-10  I. Meireles, F.A. Bombardelli and J. Matos, Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Non-Aerated Skimming Flow on Stepped Spillways Over Embankment Dams, Presented at the 2010 IAHR European Congress, Edinburgh, UK, May 4-6, 2010.

60-10  Mario Oertel, G. Heinz and A. Schlenkhoff, Physical and Numerical Modelling of Rough Ramps and Slides, Presented at the 2010 IAHR European Congress, Edinburgh, UK, May 4-6, 2010.

59-10  Fatemeh Rostami, Mahdi Shahrokhi, Md Azlin Md Said, Rozi Abdullah and Syafalni, Numerical modeling on inlet aperture effects on flow pattern in primary settling tanks, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc., DOI: 10.1016/j.apm.2010.12.007, December 2010.

56-10  G. B. Sahoo, F Bombardelli, D. Behrens and J.L. Largier, Estimation of Stratification and Mixing of a Closed River System Using FLOW-3D, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #H31G-1091

50-10  Sung-Duk Kim, Ho-Jin Lee and Sang-Do An, Improvement of hydraulic stability for spillway using CFD model, International Journal of the Physical Sciences Vol. 5(6), pp. 774-780, June 2010. Available online at, ISSN 1992

49-10  Md. Imtiaj Hassan, Tariq Iqbal, Nahidul Khan, Michael Hinchey, Vlastimil Masek, CFD Analysis of a Twisted Savonius Turbine, PKP Open Conference Systems, IEEE Newfoundland and Labrador Section, October 2010

46-10  Hatice Ozmen-Cagatay and Selahattin Kocaman, Dam-break flows during initial stage using SWE and RANS approaches, Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol 48, No. 5 (2010), pp. 603-611, doi: 10.108/00221686.2010.507342, © 2010 International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research.

44-10  Marie-Hélène Briand, Catherine Tremblay, Yannick Bossé, Julian Gacek, Carola Alfaro, and Richard Blanchet, Ashlu Creek hydroelectric project- Design and optimization of hydraulic structures under construction, CDA 2010 Annual Conference, Congrès annuel 2010 de l’A CB, Niagra Falls, ON, Canada, 2010 Oct 2-7.

43-10 Gordon McPhail, Justin Lacelle, Bert Smith, and Dave MacMillan, Upgrading of Boundary Dam Spillway, CDA 2010 Annual Conference, Congrès annuel 2010 de l’A CB, Niagra Falls, ON, Canada, 2010 Oct 2-7.

40-10 Selahattin Kocamana; Galip Seckinb; Kutsi S. Erduran, 3D model for prediction of flow profiles around bridges, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2010.507340, Journal of Hydraulic Research, Volume 48, Issue 4 August 2010, pages 521 – 525. Available online at: informaworld

38-10  Kevin M. Sydor and Pamela J. Waterman, Engineering and Design: The Value of CFD Modeling in Designing a Hydro Plant, Hydro Review, Volume 29, Issue 6, September 2010 Available online at

33-10  Fabián A. Bombardelli, Inês Meireles and Jorge Matos, Laboratory measurements and multi-block numerical simulations of the mean flow and turbulence, SpringerLink, Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Online First™, 26 August 2010

30-10 Bijan Dargahi, Flow characteristics of bottom outlets with moving gates, IAHR, Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 48, No. 4 (2010), pp. 476-482, doi: 10.1080/00221686.20101.507001, © 2010 International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research

24-10 Shuang Ming Wang and Kevin Sydor, Power Intake Velocity Modeling Using FLOW-3D at Kelsey Generating Station, Canadian Dam Association Bulletin, Vol. 21. No. 2, Spring 2010, pp: 16-21

20-10 Jungseok Ho, Todd Marti and Julie Coonrod, Flood debris filtering structure for urban storm water treatment, DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2010.481834, Journal of Hydraulic Research, Volume 48, Issue 3, pages 320 – 328, June 2010.

16-10 J. Jacobsen and N. R. B. Olsen, Three-dimensional numerical modeling of the capacity for a complex spillway, Proceedings of the ICE – Water Management, Volume 163, Issue 6, pages 283 –288, ISSN: 1741-7589, E-ISSN: 1751-7729.

13-10 J. Ho, J. Coonrod, L. J. Hanna, B. W. Mefford, Hydrodynamic modelling study of a fish exclusion system for a river diversion, River Research and Applications Volume 9999, mIssue 9999, Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

12-10 Nils Rüther, Jens Jacobsen, Nils Reidar B. Olsen and Geir Vatne, Prediction of the three-dimensional flow field and bed shear stresses in a regulated river in mid-Norway, Hydrology Research Vol 41 No 2 pp 145–152 © IWA Publishing 2010, doi:10.2166/nh.2010.064.

11-10 Xing Fang, Shoudong Jiang, and Shoeb R. Alam, Numerical Simulations of Efficiency of Curb-Opening Inlets, J. Hydr. Engrg. Volume 136, Issue 1, pp. 62-66 (January 2010).

54-09    K.W. Frizell, J.P. Kubitschek, and R.F. Einhellig, Folsom Dam Joint Federal Project Existing Spillway Modeling – Discharge Capacity Studies, American River Division Central Valley Project Mid-Pacific Region, Hydraulic Laboratory Report HL-2009-02, US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colorado, September 2009

50-09  Mark Fabian, Variation in Hyporheic Exchange with Discharge and Slope in a Tropical Mountain Stream, thesis: State University of New York, College of Environmental Science & Forestry, 2009. Available online:

48-09 Junwoo Choi, Kwang Oh Ko, and Sung Bum Yoon, 3D Numerical Simulation for Equivalent Resistance Coefficient for Flooded Built-Up Areas, Asian and Pacific Coasts 2009 (pp 245-251), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on APAC 2009, Singapore, 13 – 16 October 2009

47-09 Young-Il Kim, Chang-Jin Ahn, Chae-Young Lee, Byung-Uk Bae, Computational Fluid Dynamics for Optimal Design of Horizontal-Flow Baffled-Channel Powdered Activated Carbon Contactors, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers, Volume: 26 Issue 1: January 15, 2009.

43-09 Charles R. Ortloff, Water Engineering in the Ancient World: Archaeological and Climate Perspectives on Societies of Ancient South America, Meso-America, the Middle East and South East Asia, Oxford University Press, ISBN13: 978-0-19-923909-2ISBN10: 0-19-923909-6, December 2009 Available at Oxford University Press (clicking on this link will take you to OUP’s website).

40-09 Ge Wang, Chung R. Song, Jinwon Kim and Alexander, H.-D Cheng, Numerical Study of Erosion-proof of Loose Sand in an Overtopped Plunging Scour Process — FLOW-3D, The 2009 Joint ASCE-ASME-SES Conference on Mechanics and Materials, Blacksburg, Virginia, June 24-27, 2009

39-09 Charles R. Ortloff, Water Engineering in the Ancient World: Archaeological and Climate Perspectives on Societies of Ancient South America, the Middle East, and South-East Asia(Hardcover), Oxford University Press, USA (October 15, 2009), ISBN-10: 0199239096; ISBN-13: 978-0199239092 Buy Water Engineering in the Ancient World on

38-09 David S. Brown, Don MacDonell, Kevin Sydor, and Nicolas Barnes, An Integrated Computational Fluid Dynamics and Fish Habitat Suitability Model for the Pointe Du Bois Generating Station, CDA 2009 Annual Conference, Congres annuel 2009 de l’A CB, Whistler, BC, Canada, 2009 Oct 3-8, pdf pages: 53-66

37-09 Warren Gendzelevich, Andrew Baryla, Joe Groenveld, and Doug McNeil, Red River Floodway Expansion Project-Design and Construction of the Outlet Structure, CDA 2009 Annual Conference, Congres annuel 2009 de l’A CB, Whistler, BC, Canada, 2009 Oct 3-8, pdf pages: 13-26

36-09 Jose A. Vasquez and Jose J. Roncal, Testing River2D and FLOW-3D for Sudden Dam-Break Flow Simulations, CDA 2009 Annual Conference, Congres annuel 2009 de l’A CB, Whistler, BC, Canada, 2009 Oct 3-8, pdf pages: 44-55

33-09 Pamela J. Waterman, Modeling Commercial Aquaculture Systems Employing FLOW-3D, (clicking on this link will take you to Desktop Engineering’s website) Desktop Engineering, November 2009

29-09 Bruce M. Savage, Michael C. Johnson, Brett Towler, Hydrodynamic Forces on a Spillway- Can we calculate them?, Dam Safety 2009, Hollywood, FL, USA, October 2009

27-09 Charles “Chick” Sweeney, Keith Moen, and Daniel Kirschbaum, Hydraulic Design of Total Dissolved Gas Mitigation Measures for Boundary Dam, Waterpower XVI, © PennWell Corporation, Spokane, WA, USA, July 2009

23-09 J.A. Vasquez and B.W. Walsh, CFD simulation of local scour in complex piers under tidal flow, 33rd IAHR Congress: Water Engineering for a Sustainable Environment, © 2009 by International Association of Hydraulic Engineering & Research (IAHR), ISBN: 978-94-90365-01-1

15-09 Kaushik Das, Steve Green, Debashis Basu, Ron Janetzke, and John Stamatakos, Effect of Slide Deformation and Geometry on Waves Generated by Submarine Landslides- A Numerical Investigation, Copyright 2009, Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, May 4-7, 2009

5-09 Remi Robbe, Douglas Sparks, Calculation of the Rating Curves for the Matawin Dam’s Bottom Sluice Gates using FLOW-3D, Conference of the Société Hydrotechnique de France (SHF), 20-21 January 2009, Paris, France. (in French)

4-09 Frederic Laugier, Gregory Guyot, Eric Valette, Benoit Blancher, Arnaud Oguic, Lily Lincker, Engineering Use of Hydrodynamic 3D Simulation to Assess Spillway Discharge Capacity, Conference of the Société Hydrotechnique de France (SHF), 20-21 January 2009, Paris, France. (in French)

50-08   H. Avila and R.Pitt, The Calibration and use of CFD Models to Examine Scour from Stormwater Treatment Devices – Hydrodynamic Analysis, 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 2008

47-08    Greg Paxson, Brian Crookston, Bruce Savage, Blake Tullis, and Frederick Lux III, The Hydraulic Design Toolbox- Theory and Modeling for the Lake Townsend Spillway Replacement Project, Assoc. of State Dam Safety Officials (ASDSO), Indian Wells, CA, September 2008.

46-08  Sh. Amirslani, M. Pirestani and A.A.S. Neyshabouri, The 3D numerical simulation of scour by free falling jet and compare geometric parameters of scour hole with DOT, River flow 2008-Altinakar, Kokipar, Gogus, Tayfur, Kumcu & Yildirim (eds) © 2008 Kubaba Congress Department and Travel Services ISBN 978-605-601360201

44-08  Paul Guy Chanel, An Evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Spillway Modeling, thesis: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Manitoba, Copyright © 2008 by Paul Guy Chanel

41-08 Jinwei Qiu, Gravel transport estimation and flow simulation over low-water stream crossings, thesis: Lamar University – Beaumont, 2008, 255 pages; AAT 3415945

37-08 Dae-Geun Kim, Numerical analysis of free flow past a sluice gate, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 11, Number 2 / March, 2007, 127-132.

36-08 Shuang Ming Wang and Kevin Sydor, Power Intake Velocity Modeling using FLOW-3D at Kelsey Generating Station, CDA 2008 Annual Conference, Congres annuel 2008 de l’ACB, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, September 27-October 2, 2008, du 27 septembre au 2 octobre 2008

33-08 Daniel B. Bung, Arndt Hildebrandt, Mario Oertel, Andreas Schlenkhoff and Torsten Schlurmann, Bore Propagation Over a Submerged Horizontal Plate by Physical and Numerical Simulation, ICCE 2008, Hamburg, Germany

32-08 Paul G. Chanel and John C. Doering, Assessment of Spillway Modeling Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 35: 1481-1485 (2008), doi: 10.1139/L08-094 © NRC Canada

31-08 M. Oertel & A. Schlenkhoff, Flood wave propagation and flooding of underground facilities, River Flow 2008, © 2008, International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics, Izmir, Turkey, September, 2008

18-08 Efrem Teklemariam, Bernie Shumilak, Don Murray, and Graham K. Holder, Combining Computational and Physical Modeling to Design the Keeyask Station, Hydro Review, © HCI Publications, July 2008

15-08 Jorge D. Abad; Bruce L. Rhoads; İnci Güneralp; and Marcelo H. García, Flow Structure at Different Stages in a Meander-Bend with Bendway Weirs, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering © ASCE, August 2008

11-08 Sreenivasa C. Chopakatla, Thomas C. Lippmann and John E. Richardson, Field Verification of a Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Wave Transformation and Breaking in the Surf Zone, J. Wtrwy., Port, Coast., and Oc. Engrg., Volume 134, Issue 2, pp. 71-80 (March/April 2008) Abstract Only

51-07   Richmond MC, TJ Carlson, JA Serkowski, CB Cook, JP Duncan, and WA Perkins, Characterizing the Fish Passage Environment at The Dalles Dam Spillway: 2001-2004, PNNL-16521, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 2007. Available upon request

46-07 Uplift and Crack Flow Resulting from High Velocity Discharges Over Open Offset Joints, Reclamation, Managing Water in the West, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Report DSO-07-07, December 2007

45-07 Selahattin Kocaman, thesis: Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Çukurova, Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Dam Break Problem, 2007. In Turkish. Available on request.

44-07   Saeed-reza Sabbagh-yazdi, Fatemeh Rostami, Habib Rezaei-manizani, and Nikos E. Mastorakis, Comparison of the Results of 2D and 3D Numerical Modeling of Flow over Spillway chutes with Vertical Curvatures, International Journal of Computers, Issue 4, Volume 1, 2007.

43-07    Staša Vošnjak and Jure Mlacnik, Verification of a FLOW-3D mathematical model by a physical hydraulic model of a turbine intake structure, International Conference and exhibition Hydro 2007, 15- 17 October 2007, Granada, Spain. New approaches for a new era: proceedings. [S.l.]: Aqua-Media International Ltd., 2007, 7 str. [COBISS.SI-ID 4991329]

42-07   Merlynn D. Bender, Joseph P. Kubitschek, Tracy B. Vermeyen, Temperature Modeling of Folsom Lake, Lake Natoma, and the Lower American River, Special Report, Sacramento County, California, April 2007

37-07 Heather D. Smith, Flow and Sediment Dynamics Around Three-Dimensional Structures in Coastal Environments, thesis: The Ohio State Unviersity, 2007 (available upon request)

34-07   P.G. Chanel and J.C. Doering, An Evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Spillway Modeling, 16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Gold Coast, Australia, December 2007

29-07   J. Groeneveld, C. Sweeney, C. Mannheim, C. Simonsen, S. Fry, K. Moen, Comparison of Intake Pressures in Physical and Numerical Models of the Cabinet Gorge Dam Tunnel, Waterpower XV, Copyright HCI Publications, July 2007

25-07   Jungseok Ho, Hong Koo Yeo, Julie Coonrod, Won-Sik Ahn, Numerical Modeling Study for Flow Pattern Changes Induced by Single Groyne, IAHR Conference Proc., Harmonizing the Demands of Art and Nature in Hydraulics, IAHR, July 2007, Venice, Italy.

24-07   Jungseok Ho, Julie Coonrod, Todd Marti, Storm Water Best Management Practice- Development of Debris Filtering Structure for Supercritical Flow, EWRI Conference Proc. of World Water and Environmental Resources Congress, ASCE, May 2007, Tampa, Florida.

21-07 David S. Mueller, and Chad R. Wagner, Correcting Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Discharge Measurements Biased by Sediment Transport, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Volume 133, Issue 12, pp. 1329-1336 (December 2007), Copyright © 2007, ASCE. All rights reserved.

19-07   A. Richard Griffith, James H. Rutherford, A. Alavi, David D. Moore, J. Groeneveld, Stability Review of the Wanapum Spillway Using CFD Analysis, Canadian Dam Association Bulletin, Fall 2007

06-07   John E. Richardson, CFD Saves the Alewife- Computer simulation helps the Alewife return to its Mt. Desert Island spawning grounds, Desktop Engineering, July 2007; Hatchery International, July/August 2007

39-06    Dae Geun Kim and Hong Yeun Cho, Modeling the buoyant flow of heated water discharged from surface and submerged side outfalls in shallow and deep water with a cross flow, Environ Fluid Mech (2006) 6: 501.

38-06   Cook, C., B. Dibrani, M. Richmond, M. Bleich, P. Titzler, T. Fu, Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River during Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration, 2002-2006 Final Report, Project No. 200202700, 176 electronic pages, (BPA Report DOE/BP-00000652-29)

37-06  Cook CB, MC Richmond, and JA Serkowski, The Dalles Dam, Columbia River: Spillway Improvement CFD Study, PNNL-14768, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 2006. Available upon request

31-06 John P. Raiford and Abdul A. Khan, Numerical Modeling of Internal Flow Structure in Submerged Hydraulic Jumps, ASCE Conf. Proc. 200, 49 (2006), DOI:10.1061/40856(200)49

29-06    Michael C. Johnson and Bruce Savage, Physical and Numerical Comparison of Flow over Ogee Spillway in the Presence of Tailwater, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering © ASCE, December 2006

28-06   Greg Paxson and Bruce Savage, Labyrinth Spillways- Comparison of Two Popular U.S.A. Design Methods and Consideration of Non-standard Approach Conditions and Geometries, International Junior Researcher and Engineer Workshop on Hydraulic Structures, Report CH61/06, Div. of Civil Eng., The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia-ISBN 1864998687

22-06   Brent Mefford and Jim Higgs, Link River Falls Passage Investigation – Flow Velocity Simulation, Water Resources Research Laboratory, February 2006

27-06  Jungseok Ho, Leslie Hanna, Brent Mefford, and Julie Coonrod, Numerical Modeling Study for Fish Screen at River Intake Channel, EWRI Conference Proc. of World Water and Environmental Resources Congress, ASCE, May 2006, Omaha, Nebraska.

17-06  Woolgar, Robert and Eddy, Wilmore, Using Computational Fluid Dynamics to Address Fish Passage Concerns at the Grand Falls-Windsor Hydroelectric Development, Canadian Dam Association meeting, Quebec City, Canada October 2006

14-06  Fuamba, M., Role and behavior of surge chamber in hydropower- Case of the Robert Bourassa hydroelectric power plant in Quebec, Canada, Dams and Reservoirs, Societies and Environment in the 21st Century- Berga et al (eds) @ 2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 40423 1

13-06  D.K.H. Ho, B.W. Cooper, K.M. Riddette, S.M. Donohoo, Application of numerical modelling to spillways in Australia, Dams and Reservoirs, Societies and Environment in the 21st Century—Berga et al (eds) © 2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 40423 1

4-06 James Dexter, William Faisst, Mike Duer and Jerry Flanagan, Computer Simulation Helps Prevent Nitrification of Storage Reservoir, Waterworld, March 2006, pp 18-24

36-05   P. Coussot, N. Rousell, Jarny and H. Chanson, (2005), Continuous or Catastrophic Solid-Liquid Transition in Jammed Systems, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 17, No. 1, Article 011703, 4 pages (ISSN 0031-9171).

35-05    Dae Geun Kim and Jae Hyun Park, Analysis of Flow Structure over Ogee-Spillway in Consideration of Scale and Roughness Effects by Using CFD Model,  KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering. Volume 9, Number 2, March 2005, pp 161 – 169.

31-05 Frank James Dworak, Characterizing Turbulence Structure along Woody Vegetated Banks in Incised Channels: Implications for Stream Restoration, thesis: The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, December 2005 (available upon request)

29-05 Gessler, Dan and Rasmussen, Bernie, Before the Flood, Desktop Engineering, October 2005

25-05   Jorge D. Abad and Marcelo H. Garcia, Hydrodynamics in Kinoshita-generated meandering bends- Importance for river-planform evolution, 4th IAHR Symposium on River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics, October 4-7, 2005, Urbana, Illinois

23-05 Kristiansen T., Baarholm R., Stansberg C.T., Rørtveit G.J. and Hansen E.W., Steep Wave Kinematics and Interaction with a Vertical Column, Presented at The Fifth International Symposium on Ocean Wave Measurement and Analysis (Waves 2005), Spain, July, 2005

16-05 Dan Gessler, CFD Modeling of Spillway Performance, Proceedings of the 2005 World Water and Environmental Resources Congress (sponsored by Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers), May 15-19, 2005, Anchorage, Alaska

12-05 Charles Ortloff, The Water Supply and Distribution System of the Nabataean City of Petra (Jordan), 300 BC- AD 300, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 15:1, 93-109

33-04    Jose Carlos C. Amorim, Cavalcanti Renata Rodrigues, and Marcelo G. Marques, A Numerical and Experimental Study of Hydraulic Jump Stilling Basin, Advances in Hydro-Science and Engineering, Volume VI, Presented at the International Conference on Hydro-Science and Engineering, 2004

23-04   Jose F. Rodriguez, Fabian A. Bombardelli, Marcelo H. Garcia, Kelly Frothingham, Bruce L. Rhoads and Jorge D. Abad, High-Resolution Numerical Simulation of Flow Through a Highly Sinuous River Reach, Water Resources Management, 18:177-199, 2004.

18-04   John Richardson and Douglas Dixon, Modeling the Hydraulics Zone of Influence of Connecticut Yankee Nuclear Plants Cooling Water Intake Structure, a chapter in The Connecticut River Ecological Study (1965-1973) Revisited: Ecology of the Lower Connecticut River 1973-2003, Paul M. Jacobson, Douglas A. Dixon, William C. Leggett, Barton C. Marcy, Jr., and Ronald R. Massengill, editors; Published by American Fisheries Society, Publication date: November 2004, ISBN 1-888569-66-2

10-04   Bruce Savage, Kathleen Frizell, and Jimmy Crowder, Brains versus Brawn- The Changing World of Hydraulic Model Studies

7-04   C. B. Cook and M. C. Richmond, Monitoring and Simulating 3-D Density Currents and the Confluence of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers, Proceedings of EWRI World

24-03  David Ho, Karen Boyes, Shane Donohoo, and Brian Cooper, Numerical Flow Analysis for Spillways, 43rd ANCOLD Conference, Hobart, Tasmania, 24-29 October 2003

15-03   Ho, Dr K H, Boyes, S M, Donohoo, S M, Investigation of Spillway Behaviour Under Increased Maximum Flood by Computational Fluid Dynamics Technique, Proc Conf 14th Australian Fluid Mechanics, Adelaide, Australia, December 2001, 577-580

14-03   Ho, Dr K H, Donohoo, S M, Boyes, K M, Lock, C C, Numerical Analysis and the Real World- It Looks Pretty, but is It Right?, Proceedings of the NAFEMS World Congress, May 2003, Orlando, FL

13-03 Brethour, J. M., Sediment Scour, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-03-TN62)

26-02   Sungyul Yoo, Kiwon Hong and Manha Hwang, A 3-dimensional numerical study of flow patterns around a multipurpose dam, 2002 Hydroinformatics Conference, Cardiff, Wales

23-02   Christopher B. Cook, Marshall C. Richmond, John A. Serkowski, and Laurie L. Ebner, Free-Surface Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Spillway and Tailrace- Case Study of The Dalles Project, Hydrovision 2002, 29 July -†2 Aug, 2002 Portland, OR

13-02   Efrem Teklemariam, Brian W. Korbaylo, Joe L. Groeneveld & David M. Fuchs, Computational Fluid Dynamics- Diverse Applications In Hydropower Project’s Design and Analysis, June 11-14, 2002, CWRA 55th Annual Conference, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CA

12-02   Snorre Heimsund, Ernst Hansen, W Nemec, Computational 3-D Fluid Dynamics Model for Sediment Transport, Erosion, and Deposition by Turbidity Currents, 16th International Sedimentological Congress Abstract Volume (2002) XX-XX

9-02   D. T. Souders & C. W. Hirt, Modeling Roughness Effects in Open Channel Flows, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-02-TN60), May 2002

47-01    Fabián A. Bombardelli and Marcelo H. García, Three-dimensional Hydrodynamic Modeling of Density Currents in the Chicago River, Illinois, CIVIL ENGINEERING SERIES, UILU-ENG-01-2001 Hydraulic Engineering Series No. # 68, ISSN: 0442-1744, 2001

44-01   Christopher B. Cook and Marshall C. Richmond, Simulation of Tailrace Hydrodynamics Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Models, Report Number: PNNL-13467, May 2001

40-01 Joe L. Groeneveld, Kevin M. Sydor and David M. Fuchs (Acres Manitoba Ltd., Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada) and Efrem Teklemariam and Brian W. Korbaylo (Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada), Optimization of Hydraulic Design Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Waterpower XII, July 9-11, 2001, Salt Lake City, Utah

39-01   Savage, B.M and Johnson, M.C., Flow over Ogee Spillway- Physical and Numerical Model Case Study, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, August 2001, pp. 640-649

38-01   Newell, Carter, Sustainable Mussel Culture- A Millenial Perspective, Bulletin of the Aquaculture Association of Canada, August 2001, pp 15-21

36-01   Diane L. Foster, Ohio State University, Numerical Simulations of Sediment Transport and Scour Around Mines, paper presented to the Office of Naval Research, Mine Burial Prediction Program, 2001

35-01 Heather D. Smith, Diane L. Foster, Ohio State University, The Modeling of Flow Around a Cylinder and Scour Hole, Poster prepared for the Office of Naval Research, Mine Burial Prediction Program, 2002

28-01   Brethour, J.M., Transient 3D Model for Lifting, Transporting, and Depositing Solid Material, Proc. 3rd Intrn. Environmental Hydraulics, Dec. 5-8, 2001, Tempe, AZ

25-01  Yuichi Kitamura, Takahiro Kato, & Petek Kitamura, Mathematical Modeling for Fish Adaptive Behavior in a Current, Proceedings of the 2001International Symposium of Environmental Hydraulics, Chigaski R&D Center

22-01 C. R. Ortloff, D. P. Crouch, The Urban Water Supply and Distribution System of the Ionian City of Ephesos in the Roman Imperial Period, CTC/United Defense Journal of Archeological Science (2001), pp 843-860

13-01 I. Lavedrine, and Darren Woolf, ARUP Research and Development, Application of CFD Modelling to Hydraulic Structures, CCWI 2001, Leicaster United Kingdom, 3-5 September 2001, De Montfort University

4-01 Rodriguez, Garcia, Bombardelli, Guzman, Rhoads, and Herricks, Naturalization of Urban Streams Using In-Channel Structures, Joint Conference on Water Resources Engineering and Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, July 30-August 2, 2000, Minneapolis, Minnesota

27-00    Tony L. Wahl, John A. Replogle, Brain T. Wahlin, and James A. Higgs, New Developments in Design and Application of Long-Throated Flumes, 2000 Joint Conference on Water Resources Engineering and Water Resources Planning & Management, Minneapolis, Minnesota, July 30-August 2, 2000.

5-00   John E. Richardson and Karel Pryl, Computer Simulation Helps Prague Modernize and Expand Sewer System, Water Engineering and Management, June, 2000, pp. 10-13; and in Municipal World, June, 2000, pp. 19-20,30

3-00 Efrem Teklemariam and John L. Groeneveld, Solving Problems in Design and Dam Safety with Computational Fluid Dynamics, Hydro Review, May, 2000, pp.48-52

1-00 Scott F. Bradford, Numerical Simulation of Surf Zone Dynamics, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, January/February, 2000, pp.1-13

9-99 John E. Richardson and Karel Pryl, Computational Fluid Dynamics, CE News, October, 1999, pp. 74-76

4-99 J. Groeneveld, Computer Simulation Leads to Faster, Cheaper Options, Water Engineering & Management magazine, pp.14-17, June 1999

16-98 C. R. Ortloff, Hydraulic Analysis of a Self-Cleaning Drainage Outlet at the Hellenistic City of Priene, Journal Archaeological Science, 25, 1211-1220, Article No. as980292, 1998

13-98 J. F. Echols, M.A. Pratt, K. A. Williams, Using CFD to Model Flow in Large Circulating Water Systems, Proc. PowerGen International, Orlando, FL, Dec. 9-11, 1998.

12-98 K. A. Williams, I. A. Diaz-Tous, P. Ulovg, Reduction in Pumping Power Requirements of the Circulation Water (CW) System at TU Electric’s Martin Lake Plant Using Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD), ASME Mechanical Engineering Magazine, Jan. 1999

8-98 D. Hrabak, K. Pryl, J. Richardson, Calibration of Flowmeters using FLOW-3D Software, Hydroinform, a.s., Prague, CTU Prague, Flow Science Inc, USA, proceedings from the 3rd International Novatech Conference, Lyon, France, May 4-6, 1998

16-96 E. J. Kent and J.E. Richardson, Three-Dimensional Hydraulic Analysis for Calculation of Scour at Bridge Piers with Fender Systems, Earth Tech, Concord, NK and Flow Science Inc, Los Alamos, NM report, December 1996

12-96 J. E. Richardson, Control of Hydraulic Jump by Abrupt Drop, XXVII IAHR Congress, Water for a Changing Global Community, San Francisco, August 10, 1997

6-96 Y. Miyamoto, A Three-Dimensional Analysis around the Open Area of a Tsunami Breakwater, technical report, SEA Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, to be presented at the HYDROINFORMATICS 96 Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, Sept. 11-13, 1996

4-95 J. E. Richardson, V. G. Panchang and E. Kent, Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Flow Around Bridge Sub-structures, presented at the Hydraulics ’95 ASCE Conference, San Antonio, TX, Aug. 1995

3-95 Y. Miyamoto and K. Ishino, Three Dimensional Flow Analysis in Open Channel, presented at the IAHR Conference, HYDRA 2000, Vol. 1, Thomas Telford, London, Sept. 1995

16-94 M. S. Gosselin and D. M. Sheppard, Time Rate of Local Scour, proceedings of ASCE Conf. on Water Resources Engineering, San Antonio, TX, August 1994

8-94 C. W. Hirt, Weir Discharges and Counter Currents, Flow Science report, FSI-94-00-3, to be presented at the Hydroinformatics Conference, IHE Delft, The Netherlands, Sept. 1994

7-94 C. W. Hirt and K. A.Williams, FLOW-3D Predictions for Free Discharge and Submerged Parshall Flumes, Flow Science Technical Note #40, August 1994 (FSI-94-TN40)

11-93 K. Ishino, H. Otani, R. Okada and Y. Nakagawa, The Flow Structure Around a Cylindrical Pier for the Flow of Transcritical Reynolds Number, Taisei Corp., Honshu Shikoku Bridge Authority, Akashi Kaikyo Ohashi Substructure Construction, Proc. XXV, Congress Intern. Assoc. Hydraulic Res., V, 417-424 (1993) Tokyo, Japan

6-87 J.M. Sicilian, FLOW-3D Model for Flow in a Water Turbine Passage, Flow Science report, July 1987 (FSI-87-36-1)