Mahdi Ebrahimi, Mirali Mohammadi, Sayed Mohammad Hadi Meshkati & Farhad Imanshoar

## Abstract

The overtopping breach is the most probable reason of embankment dam failures. Hence, the investigation of the mentioned phenomenon is one of the vital hydraulic issues. This research paper tries to utilize three numerical models, i.e., BREACH, HEC-RAS, and FLOW-3D for modeling the hydraulic outcomes of overtopping breach phenomenon. Furthermore, the outputs have been compared with experimental model results given by authors. The BREACH model presents a desired prediction for the peak flow. The HEC-RAS model has a more realistic performance in terms of the peak flow prediction, its occurrence time (5-s difference with observed status), and maximum flow depth. The variations diagram in the reservoir water level during the breach process has a descending trend. Whereas it initially ascended; and then, it experienced a descending trend in the observed status. The FLOW-3D model computes the flow depth, flow velocity, and Froude number due to the physical model breach. Moreover, it revealed a peak flow damping equals to 5% and 5-s difference in the peak flow occurrence time at 4-m distance from the physical model downstream. In addition, the current research work demonstrates the mentioned numerical models and provides a possible comprehensive perspective for a dam breach scope. They also help to achieve the various hydraulic parameters computations. Besides, they may calculate unmeasured parameters using the experimental data.

월류 현상은 제방 댐 실패의 가장 유력한 원인입니다. 따라서 언급된 현상에 대한 조사는 중요한 수리학적 문제 중 하나입니다.

본 연구 논문에서는 월류 침해 현상의 수리적 결과를 모델링하기 위해 BREACH, HEC-RAS 및 FLOW-3D의 세 가지 수치 모델을 활용하려고 합니다. 또한 출력은 저자가 제공한 실험 모델 결과와 비교되었습니다. BREACH 모델은 최대 유량에 대해 원하는 예측을 제시합니다.

HEC-RAS 모델은 최고유량 예측, 발생시간(관찰상태와 5초 차이), 최대유량수심 측면에서 보다 현실적인 성능을 가지고 있습니다. 위반 과정 중 저수지 수위의 변동 다이어그램은 감소하는 추세를 보입니다. 처음에는 상승했지만 그런 다음 관찰된 상태가 감소하는 추세를 경험했습니다.

FLOW-3D 모델은 물리적 모델 위반으로 인한 흐름 깊이, 흐름 속도 및 Froude 수를 계산합니다. 또한, 실제 모델 하류로부터 4m 거리에서 최대유량 발생시간이 5%, 5초 차이에 해당하는 최대유량 감쇠를 나타냈습니다.

또한, 현재 연구 작업은 언급된 수치 모델을 보여주고 댐 침해 범위에 대한 가능한 포괄적인 관점을 제공합니다. 또한 다양한 유압 매개변수 계산을 수행하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 게다가 실험 데이터를 사용하여 측정되지 않은 매개변수를 계산할 수도 있습니다.

### Keywords

## DOI

- https://doi.org/10.1007/s40996-024-01387-9

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