Figure 1: Scheme of liquid metal printing process

Effect of Aging Heat Treatment in an Al-4008 Produced byLiquid Metal Printing

C. M. Ladeiro
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto
Frias, 4200-465 PORTO, Portugal (up201806112@fe.up.pt) ORCID 0009-0003-8587-2309
F. L. Nunes
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto
Frias, 4200-465 PORTO, Portugal (up201806193@fe.up.pt) ORCID 0009-0000-0988-4285
M. M. Trindade
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto
Frias, 4200-465 PORTO, Portugal (up201806438@fe.up.pt) ORCID 0009-0008-1397-5321
J. M. Costa
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto and LAETA/INEGI –
Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 PORTO,
Portugal (jose.costa@fe.up.pt) ORCID 0000-0002-1714-4671

Abstract

In today’s world, additive manufacturing (AM) is one of the most popular technologies and has the potential to revolutionize the manufacturing industry. As one of the most recent advances in this industry, liquid metal printing has a growing value in the engineering field. This study aims to evaluate the effect of two heat treatment conditions in an Al-4008 alloy produced by this technique in the microstructure and mechanical properties. It was concluded that the heat treatment (HT) enhances the Si particle coalescence and Fe-rich intermetallic compound precipitation, increasing the sample hardness significantly (50%). Density analysis showed a slight porosity decrease with HT. Tensile tests indicated heat-treated, same-directionally pulled samples exhibited brittleness compared to as-printed ones, while HT increased both yield strength (245 MPa) and ultimate tensile strength (294 MPa).

오늘날 세계에서 적층 제조(AM)는 가장 인기 있는 기술 중 하나이며 제조 산업에 혁명을 일으킬 잠재력을 가지고 있습니다. 이 업계의 가장 최근 발전 중 하나인 액체 금속 인쇄는 엔지니어링 분야에서 그 가치가 커지고 있습니다. 본 연구는 이 기술로 생산된 Al-4008 합금의 두 가지 열처리 조건이 미세 구조 및 기계적 특성에 미치는 영향을 평가하는 것을 목표로 합니다. 열처리(HT)는 Si 입자 유착과 Fe가 풍부한 금속간 화합물 침전을 향상시켜 샘플 경도를 크게(50%) 증가시키는 것으로 결론지었습니다. 밀도 분석에서는 HT를 사용하면 다공성이 약간 감소하는 것으로 나타났습니다. 인장 테스트에서는 동일한 방향으로 당겨진 열처리된 샘플이 인쇄된 샘플에 비해 취성을 보인 반면, HT는 항복 강도(245MPa)와 최대 인장 강도(294MPa)를 모두 증가시켰습니다.

Figure 1: Scheme of liquid metal printing process
Figure 1: Scheme of liquid metal printing process

Schematic diagram of HP-LPBF melting process.

Modeling and numerical studies of high-precision laser powder bed fusion

Yi Wei ;Genyu Chen;Nengru Tao;Wei Zhou
https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0191504

In order to comprehensively reveal the evolutionary dynamics of the molten pool and the state of motion of the fluid during the high-precision laser powder bed fusion (HP-LPBF) process, this study aims to deeply investigate the specific manifestations of the multiphase flow, solidification phenomena, and heat transfer during the process by means of numerical simulation methods. Numerical simulation models of SS316L single-layer HP-LPBF formation with single and double tracks were constructed using the discrete element method and the computational fluid dynamics method. The effects of various factors such as Marangoni convection, surface tension, vapor recoil, gravity, thermal convection, thermal radiation, and evaporative heat dissipation on the heat and mass transfer in the molten pool have been paid attention to during the model construction process. The results show that the molten pool exhibits a “comet” shape, in which the temperature gradient at the front end of the pool is significantly larger than that at the tail end, with the highest temperature gradient up to 1.69 × 108 K/s. It is also found that the depth of the second track is larger than that of the first one, and the process parameter window has been determined preliminarily. In addition, the application of HP-LPBF technology helps to reduce the surface roughness and minimize the forming size.

Topics

Heat transferNonequilibrium thermodynamicsSolidification processComputer simulationDiscrete element methodLasersMass transferFluid mechanicsComputational fluid dynamicsMultiphase flows

I. INTRODUCTION

Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) has become a research hotspot in the field of additive manufacturing of metals due to its advantages of high-dimensional accuracy, good surface quality, high density, and high material utilization.1,2 With the rapid development of electronics, medical, automotive, biotechnology, energy, communication, and optics, the demand for microfabrication technology is increasing day by day.3 High-precision laser powder bed fusion (HP-LPBF) is one of the key manufacturing technologies for tiny parts in the fields of electronics, medical, automotive, biotechnology, energy, communication, and optics because of its process characteristics such as small focal spot diameter, small powder particle size, and thin powder layup layer thickness.4–13 Compared with LPBF, HP-LPBF has the significant advantages of smaller focal spot diameter, smaller powder particle size, and thinner layer thickness. These advantages make HP-LPBF perform better in producing micro-fine parts, high surface quality, and parts with excellent mechanical properties.

HP-LPBF is in the exploratory stage, and researchers have already done some exploratory studies on the focal spot diameter, the amount of defocusing, and the powder particle size. In order to explore the influence of changing the laser focal spot diameter on the LPBF process characteristics of the law, Wildman et al.14 studied five groups of different focal spot diameter LPBF forming 316L stainless steel (SS316L) processing effect, the smallest focal spot diameter of 26 μm, and the results confirm that changing the focal spot diameter can be achieved to achieve the energy control, so as to control the quality of forming. Subsequently, Mclouth et al.15 proposed the laser out-of-focus amount (focal spot diameter) parameter, which characterizes the distance between the forming plane and the laser focal plane. The laser energy density was controlled by varying the defocusing amount while keeping the laser parameters constant. Sample preparation at different focal positions was investigated, and their microstructures were characterized. The results show that the samples at the focal plane have finer microstructure than those away from the focal plane, which is the effect of higher power density and smaller focal spot diameter. In order to explore the influence of changing the powder particle size on the characteristics of the LPBF process, Qian et al.16 carried out single-track scanning simulations on powder beds with average powder particle sizes of 70 and 40 μm, respectively, and the results showed that the melt tracks sizes were close to each other under the same process parameters for the two particle-size distributions and that the molten pool of powder beds with small particles was more elongated and the edges of the melt tracks were relatively flat. In order to explore the superiority of HP-LPBF technology, Xu et al.17 conducted a comparative analysis of HP-LPBF and conventional LPBF of SS316L. The results showed that the average surface roughness of the top surface after forming by HP-LPBF could reach 3.40 μm. Once again, it was verified that HP-LPBF had higher forming quality than conventional LPBF. On this basis, Wei et al.6 comparatively analyzed the effects of different laser focal spot diameters on different powder particle sizes formed by LPBF. The results showed that the smaller the laser focal spot diameter, the fewer the defects on the top and side surfaces. The above research results confirm that reducing the laser focal spot diameter can obtain higher energy density and thus better forming quality.

LPBF involves a variety of complex systems and mechanisms, and the final quality of the part is influenced by a large number of process parameters.18–24 Some research results have shown that there are more than 50 factors affecting the quality of the specimen. The influencing factors are mainly categorized into three main groups: (1) laser parameters, (2) powder parameters, and (3) equipment parameters, which interact with each other to determine the final specimen quality. With the continuous development of technologies such as computational materials science and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the method of studying the influence of different factors on the forming quality of LPBF forming process has been shifted from time-consuming and laborious experimental characterization to the use of numerical simulation methods. As a result, more and more researchers are adopting this approach for their studies. Currently, numerical simulation studies on LPBF are mainly focused on the exploration of molten pool, temperature distribution, and residual stresses.

  1. Finite element simulation based on continuum mechanics and free surface fluid flow modeling based on fluid dynamics are two common approaches to study the behavior of LPBF molten pool.25–28 Finite element simulation focuses on the temperature and thermal stress fields, treats the powder bed as a continuum, and determines the molten pool size by plotting the elemental temperature above the melting point. In contrast, fluid dynamics modeling can simulate the 2D or 3D morphology of the metal powder pile and obtain the powder size and distribution by certain algorithms.29 The flow in the molten pool is mainly affected by recoil pressure and the Marangoni effect. By simulating the molten pool formation, it is possible to predict defects, molten pool shape, and flow characteristics, as well as the effect of process parameters on the molten pool geometry.30–34 In addition, other researchers have been conducted to optimize the laser processing parameters through different simulation methods and experimental data.35–46 Crystal growth during solidification is studied to further understand the effect of laser parameters on dendritic morphology and solute segregation.47–54 A multi-scale system has been developed to describe the fused deposition process during 3D printing, which is combined with the conductive heat transfer model and the dendritic solidification model.55,56
  2. Relevant scholars have adopted various different methods for simulation, such as sequential coupling theory,57 Lagrangian and Eulerian thermal models,58 birth–death element method,25 and finite element method,59 in order to reveal the physical phenomena of the laser melting process and optimize the process parameters. Luo et al.60 compared the LPBF temperature field and molten pool under double ellipsoidal and Gaussian heat sources by ANSYS APDL and found that the diffusion of the laser energy in the powder significantly affects the molten pool size and the temperature field.
  3. The thermal stresses obtained from the simulation correlate with the actual cracks,61 and local preheating can effectively reduce the residual stresses.62 A three-dimensional thermodynamic finite element model investigated the temperature and stress variations during laser-assisted fabrication and found that powder-to-solid conversion increases the temperature gradient, stresses, and warpage.63 Other scholars have predicted residual stresses and part deflection for LPBF specimens and investigated the effects of deposition pattern, heat, laser power, and scanning strategy on residual stresses, noting that high-temperature gradients lead to higher residual stresses.64–67 

In short, the process of LPBF forming SS316L is extremely complex and usually involves drastic multi-scale physicochemical changes that will only take place on a very small scale. Existing literature employs DEM-based mesoscopic-scale numerical simulations to investigate the effects of process parameters on the molten pool dynamics of LPBF-formed SS316L. However, a few studies have been reported on the key mechanisms of heating and solidification, spatter, and convective behavior of the molten pool of HP-LPBF-formed SS316L with small laser focal spot diameters. In this paper, the geometrical properties of coarse and fine powder particles under three-dimensional conditions were first calculated using DEM. Then, numerical simulation models for single-track and double-track cases in the single-layer HP-LPBF forming SS316L process were developed at mesoscopic scale using the CFD method. The flow genesis of the melt in the single-track and double-track molten pools is discussed, and their 3D morphology and dimensional characteristics are discussed. In addition, the effects of laser process parameters, powder particle size, and laser focal spot diameter on the temperature field, characterization information, and defects in the molten pool are discussed.

II. MODELING

A. 3D powder bed modeling

HP-LPBF is an advanced processing technique for preparing target parts layer by layer stacking, the process of which involves repetitive spreading and melting of powders. In this process, both the powder spreading and the morphology of the powder bed are closely related to the results of the subsequent melting process, while the melted surface also affects the uniform distribution of the next layer of powder. For this reason, this chapter focuses on the modeling of the physical action during the powder spreading process and the theory of DEM to establish the numerical model of the powder bed, so as to lay a solid foundation for the accuracy of volume of fluid (VOF) and CFD.

1. DEM

DEM is a numerical technique for calculating the interaction of a large number of particles, which calculates the forces and motions of the spheres by considering each powder sphere as an independent unit. The motion of the powder particles follows the laws of classical Newtonian mechanics, including translational and rotational,38,68–70 which are expressed as follows:����¨=���+∑��ij,

(1)����¨=∑�(�ij×�ij),

(2)

where �� is the mass of unit particle i in kg, ��¨ is the advective acceleration in m/s2, And g is the gravitational acceleration in m/s2. �ij is the force in contact with the neighboring particle � in N. �� is the rotational inertia of the unit particle � in kg · m2. ��¨ is the unit particle � angular acceleration in rad/s2. �ij is the vector pointing from unit particle � to the contact point of neighboring particle �⁠.

Equations (1) and (2) can be used to calculate the velocity and angular velocity variations of powder particles to determine their positions and velocities. A three-dimensional powder bed model of SS316L was developed using DEM. The powder particles are assumed to be perfect spheres, and the substrate and walls are assumed to be rigid. To describe the contact between the powder particles and between the particles and the substrate, a non-slip Hertz–Mindlin nonlinear spring-damping model71 was used with the following expression:�hz=��������+��[(�����ij−�eff����)−(�����+�eff����)],

(3)

where �hz is the force calculated using the Hertzian in M. �� and �� are the radius of unit particles � and � in m, respectively. �� is the overlap size of the two powder particles in m. ��⁠, �� are the elastic constants in the normal and tangential directions, respectively. �ij is the unit vector connecting the centerlines of the two powder particles. �eff is the effective mass of the two powder particles in kg. �� and �� are the viscoelastic damping constants in the normal and tangential directions, respectively. �� and �� are the components of the relative velocities of the two powder particles. ��� is the displacement vector between two spherical particles. The schematic diagram of overlapping powder particles is shown in Fig. 1.

FIG. 1.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Schematic diagram of overlapping powder particles.

Because the particle size of the powder used for HP-LPBF is much smaller than 100 μm, the effect of van der Waals forces must be considered. Therefore, the cohesive force �jkr of the Hertz–Mindlin model was used instead of van der Waals forces,72 with the following expression:�jkr=−4��0�*�1.5+4�*3�*�3,

(4)1�*=(1−��2)��+(1−��2)��,

(5)1�*=1��+1��,

(6)

where �* is the equivalent Young’s modulus in GPa; �* is the equivalent particle radius in m; �0 is the surface energy of the powder particles in J/m2; α is the contact radius in m; �� and �� are the Young’s modulus of the unit particles � and �⁠, respectively, in GPa; and �� and �� are the Poisson’s ratio of the unit particles � and �⁠, respectively.

2. Model building

Figure 2 shows a 3D powder bed model generated using DEM with a coarse powder geometry of 1000 × 400 × 30 μm3. The powder layer thickness is 30 μm, and the powder bed porosity is 40%. The average particle size of this spherical powder is 31.7 μm and is normally distributed in the range of 15–53 μm. The geometry of the fine powder was 1000 × 400 × 20 μm3, with a layer thickness of 20 μm, and the powder bed porosity of 40%. The average particle size of this spherical powder is 11.5 μm and is normally distributed in the range of 5–25 μm. After the 3D powder bed model is generated, it needs to be imported into the CFD simulation software for calculation, and the imported geometric model is shown in Fig. 3. This geometric model is mainly composed of three parts: protective gas, powder bed, and substrate. Under the premise of ensuring the accuracy of the calculation, the mesh size is set to 3 μm, and the total number of coarse powder meshes is 1 704 940. The total number of fine powder meshes is 3 982 250.

FIG. 2.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Three-dimensional powder bed model: (a) coarse powder, (b) fine powder.

FIG. 3.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Geometric modeling of the powder bed computational domain: (a) coarse powder, (b) fine powder.

B. Modeling of fluid mechanics simulation

In order to solve the flow, melting, and solidification problems involved in HP-LPBF molten pool, the study must follow the three governing equations of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of momentum.73 The VOF method, which is the most widely used in fluid dynamics, is used to solve the molten pool dynamics model.

1. VOF

VOF is a method for tracking the free interface between the gas and liquid phases on the molten pool surface. The core idea of the method is to define a volume fraction function F within each grid, indicating the proportion of the grid space occupied by the material, 0 ≤ F ≤ 1 in Fig. 4. Specifically, when F = 0, the grid is empty and belongs to the gas-phase region; when F = 1, the grid is completely filled with material and belongs to the liquid-phase region; and when 0 < F < 1, the grid contains free surfaces and belongs to the mixed region. The direction normal to the free surface is the direction of the fastest change in the volume fraction F (the direction of the gradient of the volume fraction), and the direction of the gradient of the volume fraction can be calculated from the values of the volume fractions in the neighboring grids.74 The equations controlling the VOF are expressed as follows:𝛻����+�⋅(��→)=0,

(7)

where t is the time in s and �→ is the liquid velocity in m/s.

FIG. 4.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Schematic diagram of VOF.

The material parameters of the mixing zone are altered due to the inclusion of both the gas and liquid phases. Therefore, in order to represent the density of the mixing zone, the average density �¯ is used, which is expressed as follows:72�¯=(1−�1)�gas+�1�metal,

(8)

where �1 is the proportion of liquid phase, �gas is the density of protective gas in kg/m3, and �metal is the density of metal in kg/m3.

2. Control equations and boundary conditions

Figure 5 is a schematic diagram of the HP-LPBF melting process. First, the laser light strikes a localized area of the material and rapidly heats up the area. Next, the energy absorbed in the region is diffused through a variety of pathways (heat conduction, heat convection, and surface radiation), and this process triggers complex phase transition phenomena (melting, evaporation, and solidification). In metals undergoing melting, the driving forces include surface tension and the Marangoni effect, recoil due to evaporation, and buoyancy due to gravity and uneven density. The above physical phenomena interact with each other and do not occur independently.

FIG. 5.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Schematic diagram of HP-LPBF melting process.

  1. Laser heat sourceThe Gaussian surface heat source model is used as the laser heat source model with the following expression:�=2�0����2exp(−2�12��2),(9)where � is the heat flow density in W/m2, �0 is the absorption rate of SS316L, �� is the radius of the laser focal spot in m, and �1 is the radial distance from the center of the laser focal spot in m. The laser focal spot can be used for a wide range of applications.
  2. Energy absorptionThe formula for calculating the laser absorption �0 of SS316L is as follows:�0=0.365(�0[1+�0(�−20)]/�)0.5,(10)where �0 is the direct current resistivity of SS316L at 20 °C in Ω m, �0 is the resistance temperature coefficient in ppm/°C, � is the temperature in °C, and � is the laser wavelength in m.
  3. Heat transferThe basic principle of heat transfer is conservation of energy, which is expressed as follows:𝛻𝛻𝛻�(��)��+�·(��→�)=�·(�0����)+��,(11)where � is the density of liquid phase SS316L in kg/m3, �� is the specific heat capacity of SS316L in J/(kg K), 𝛻� is the gradient operator, t is the time in s, T is the temperature in K, 𝛻�� is the temperature gradient, �→ is the velocity vector, �0 is the coefficient of thermal conduction of SS316L in W/(m K), and  �� is the thermal energy dissipation term in the molten pool.
  4. Molten pool flowThe following three conditions need to be satisfied for the molten pool to flow:
    • Conservation of mass with the following expression:𝛻�·(��→)=0.(12)
    • Conservation of momentum (Navier–Stokes equation) with the following expression:𝛻𝛻𝛻𝛻���→��+�(�→·�)�→=�·[−pI+�(��→+(��→)�)]+�,(13)where � is the pressure in Pa exerted on the liquid phase SS316L microelement, � is the unit matrix, � is the fluid viscosity in N s/m2, and � is the volumetric force (gravity, atmospheric pressure, surface tension, vapor recoil, and the Marangoni effect).
    • Conservation of energy, see Eq. (11)
  5. Surface tension and the Marangoni effectThe effect of temperature on the surface tension coefficient is considered and set as a linear relationship with the following expression:�=�0−��dT(�−��),(14)where � is the surface tension of the molten pool at temperature T in N/m, �� is the melting temperature of SS316L in K, �0 is the surface tension of the molten pool at temperature �� in Pa, and σdσ/ dT is the surface tension temperature coefficient in N/(m K).In general, surface tension decreases with increasing temperature. A temperature gradient causes a gradient in surface tension that drives the liquid to flow, known as the Marangoni effect.
  6. Metal vapor recoilAt higher input energy densities, the maximum temperature of the molten pool surface reaches the evaporation temperature of the material, and a gasification recoil pressure occurs vertically downward toward the molten pool surface, which will be the dominant driving force for the molten pool flow.75 The expression is as follows:��=0.54�� exp ���−���0���,(15)where �� is the gasification recoil pressure in Pa, �� is the ambient pressure in kPa, �� is the latent heat of evaporation in J/kg, �0 is the gas constant in J/(mol K), T is the surface temperature of the molten pool in K, and Te is the evaporation temperature in K.
  7. Solid–liquid–gas phase transitionWhen the laser hits the powder layer, the powder goes through three stages: heating, melting, and solidification. During the solidification phase, mutual transformations between solid, liquid, and gaseous states occur. At this point, the latent heat of phase transition absorbed or released during the phase transition needs to be considered.68 The phase transition is represented based on the relationship between energy and temperature with the following expression:�=�����,(�<��),�(��)+�−����−����,(��<�<��)�(��)+(�−��)����,(��<�),,(16)where �� and �� are solid and liquid phase density, respectively, of SS316L in kg/m3. �� and �� unit volume of solid and liquid phase-specific heat capacity, respectively, of SS316L in J/(kg K). �� and ��⁠, respectively, are the solidification temperature and melting temperature of SS316L in K. �� is the latent heat of the phase transition of SS316L melting in J/kg.

3. Assumptions

The CFD model was computed using the commercial software package FLOW-3D.76 In order to simplify the calculation and solution process while ensuring the accuracy of the results, the model makes the following assumptions:

  1. It is assumed that the effects of thermal stress and material solid-phase thermal expansion on the calculation results are negligible.
  2. The molten pool flow is assumed to be a Newtonian incompressible laminar flow, while the effects of liquid thermal expansion and density on the results are neglected.
  3. It is assumed that the surface tension can be simplified to an equivalent pressure acting on the free surface of the molten pool, and the effect of chemical composition on the results is negligible.
  4. Neglecting the effect of the gas flow field on the molten pool.
  5. The mass loss due to evaporation of the liquid metal is not considered.
  6. The influence of the plasma effect of the molten metal on the calculation results is neglected.

It is worth noting that the formulation of assumptions requires a trade-off between accuracy and computational efficiency. In the above models, some physical phenomena that have a small effect or high difficulty on the calculation results are simplified or ignored. Such simplifications make numerical simulations more efficient and computationally tractable, while still yielding accurate results.

4. Initial conditions

The preheating temperature of the substrate was set to 393 K, at which time all materials were in the solid state and the flow rate was zero.

5. Material parameters

The material used is SS316L and the relevant parameters required for numerical simulations are shown in Table I.46,77,78

TABLE I.

SS316L-related parameters.

PropertySymbolValue
Density of solid metal (kg/m3�metal 7980 
Solid phase line temperature (K) �� 1658 
Liquid phase line temperature (K) �� 1723 
Vaporization temperature (K) �� 3090 
Latent heat of melting (⁠ J/kg⁠) �� 2.60×105 
Latent heat of evaporation (⁠ J/kg⁠) �� 7.45×106 
Surface tension of liquid phase (N /m⁠) � 1.60 
Liquid metal viscosity (kg/m s) �� 6×10−3 
Gaseous metal viscosity (kg/m s) �gas 1.85×10−5 
Temperature coefficient of surface tension (N/m K) ��/�T 0.80×10−3 
Molar mass (⁠ kg/mol⁠) 0.05 593 
Emissivity � 0.26 
Laser absorption �0 0.35 
Ambient pressure (kPa) �� 101 325 
Ambient temperature (K) �0 300 
Stefan–Boltzmann constant (W/m2 K4� 5.67×10−8 
Thermal conductivity of metals (⁠ W/m K⁠) � 24.55 
Density of protective gas (kg/m3�gas 1.25 
Coefficient of thermal expansion (/K) �� 16×10−6 
Generalized gas constant (⁠ J/mol K⁠) 8.314 

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

With the objective of studying in depth the evolutionary patterns of single-track and double-track molten pool development, detailed observations were made for certain specific locations in the model, as shown in Fig. 6. In this figure, P1 and P2 represent the longitudinal tangents to the centers of the two melt tracks in the XZ plane, while L1 is the transverse profile in the YZ plane. The scanning direction is positive and negative along the X axis. Points A and B are the locations of the centers of the molten pool of the first and second melt tracks, respectively (x = 1.995 × 10−4, y = 5 × 10−7, and z = −4.85 × 10−5).

FIG. 6.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Schematic diagram of observation position.

A. Single-track simulation

A series of single-track molten pool simulation experiments were carried out in order to investigate the influence law of laser power as well as scanning speed on the HP-LPBF process. Figure 7 demonstrates the evolution of the 3D morphology and temperature field of the single-track molten pool in the time period of 50–500 μs under a laser power of 100 W and a scanning speed of 800 mm/s. The powder bed is in the natural cooling state. When t = 50 μs, the powder is heated by the laser heat and rapidly melts and settles to form the initial molten pool. This process is accompanied by partial melting of the substrate and solidification together with the melted powder. The molten pool rapidly expands with increasing width, depth, length, and temperature, as shown in Fig. 7(a). When t = 150 μs, the molten pool expands more obviously, and the temperature starts to transfer to the surrounding area, forming a heat-affected zone. At this point, the width of the molten pool tends to stabilize, and the temperature in the center of the molten pool has reached its peak and remains largely stable. However, the phenomenon of molten pool spatter was also observed in this process, as shown in Fig. 7(b). As time advances, when t = 300 μs, solidification begins to occur at the tail of the molten pool, and tiny ripples are produced on the solidified surface. This is due to the fact that the melt flows toward the region with large temperature gradient under the influence of Marangoni convection and solidifies together with the melt at the end of the bath. At this point, the temperature gradient at the front of the bath is significantly larger than at the end. While the width of the molten pool was gradually reduced, the shape of the molten pool was gradually changed to a “comet” shape. In addition, a slight depression was observed at the top of the bath because the peak temperature at the surface of the bath reached the evaporation temperature, which resulted in a recoil pressure perpendicular to the surface of the bath downward, creating a depressed region. As the laser focal spot moves and is paired with the Marangoni convection of the melt, these recessed areas will be filled in as shown in Fig. 7(c). It has been shown that the depressed regions are the result of the coupled effect of Marangoni convection, recoil pressure, and surface tension.79 By t = 500 μs, the width and height of the molten pool stabilize and show a “comet” shape in Fig. 7(d).

FIG. 7.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Single-track molten pool process: (a) t = 50  ��⁠, (b) t = 150  ��⁠, (c) t = 300  ��⁠, (d) t = 500  ��⁠.

Figure 8 depicts the velocity vector diagram of the P1 profile in a single-track molten pool, the length of the arrows represents the magnitude of the velocity, and the maximum velocity is about 2.36 m/s. When t = 50 μs, the molten pool takes shape, and the velocities at the two ends of the pool are the largest. The variation of the velocities at the front end is especially more significant in Fig. 8(a). As the time advances to t = 150 μs, the molten pool expands rapidly, in which the velocity at the tail increases and changes more significantly, while the velocity at the front is relatively small. At this stage, the melt moves backward from the center of the molten pool, which in turn expands the molten pool area. The melt at the back end of the molten pool center flows backward along the edge of the molten pool surface and then converges along the edge of the molten pool to the bottom center, rising to form a closed loop. Similarly, a similar closed loop is formed at the front end of the center of the bath, but with a shorter path. However, a large portion of the melt in the center of the closed loop formed at the front end of the bath is in a nearly stationary state. The main cause of this melt flow phenomenon is the effect of temperature gradient and surface tension (the Marangoni effect), as shown in Figs. 8(b) and 8(e). This dynamic behavior of the melt tends to form an “elliptical” pool. At t = 300 μs, the tendency of the above two melt flows to close the loop is more prominent and faster in Fig. 8(c). When t = 500 μs, the velocity vector of the molten pool shows a stable trend, and the closed loop of melt flow also remains stable. With the gradual laser focal spot movement, the melt is gradually solidified at its tail, and finally, a continuous and stable single track is formed in Fig. 8(d).

FIG. 8.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Vector plot of single-track molten pool velocity in XZ longitudinal section: (a) t = 50  ��⁠, (b) t = 150  ��⁠, (c) t = 300  ��⁠, (d) t = 500  ��⁠, (e) molten pool flow.

In order to explore in depth the transient evolution of the molten pool, the evolution of the single-track temperature field and the melt flow was monitored in the YZ cross section. Figure 9(a) shows the state of the powder bed at the initial moment. When t = 250 μs, the laser focal spot acts on the powder bed and the powder starts to melt and gradually collects in the molten pool. At this time, the substrate will also start to melt, and the melt flow mainly moves in the downward and outward directions and the velocity is maximum at the edges in Fig. 9(b). When t = 300 μs, the width and depth of the molten pool increase due to the recoil pressure. At this time, the melt flows more slowly at the center, but the direction of motion is still downward in Fig. 9(c). When t = 350 μs, the width and depth of the molten pool further increase, at which time the intensity of the melt flow reaches its peak and the direction of motion remains the same in Fig. 9(d). When t = 400 μs, the melt starts to move upward, and the surrounding powder or molten material gradually fills up, causing the surface of the molten pool to begin to flatten. At this time, the maximum velocity of the melt is at the center of the bath, while the velocity at the edge is close to zero, and the edge of the melt starts to solidify in Fig. 9(e). When t = 450 μs, the melt continues to move upward, forming a convex surface of the melt track. However, the melt movement slows down, as shown in Fig. 9(f). When t = 500 μs, the melt further moves upward and its speed gradually becomes smaller. At the same time, the melt solidifies further, as shown in Fig. 9(g). When t = 550 μs, the melt track is basically formed into a single track with a similar “mountain” shape. At this stage, the velocity is close to zero only at the center of the molten pool, and the flow behavior of the melt is poor in Fig. 9(h). At t = 600 μs, the melt stops moving and solidification is rapidly completed. Up to this point, a single track is formed in Fig. 9(i). During the laser action on the powder bed, the substrate melts and combines with the molten state powder. The powder-to-powder fusion is like the convergence of water droplets, which are rapidly fused by surface tension. However, the fusion between the molten state powder and the substrate occurs driven by surface tension, and the molten powder around the molten pool is pulled toward the substrate (a wetting effect occurs), which ultimately results in the formation of a monolithic whole.38,80,81

FIG. 9.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Evolution of single-track molten pool temperature and melt flow in the YZ cross section: (a) t = 0  ��⁠, (b) t = 250  ��⁠, (c) t = 300  ��⁠, (d) t = 350  ��⁠, (e) t = 400  ��⁠, (f) t = 450  ��⁠, (g) t = 500  ��⁠, (h) t = 550  ��⁠, (i) t = 600  ��⁠.

The wetting ability between the liquid metal and the solid substrate in the molten pool directly affects the degree of balling of the melt,82,83 and the wetting ability can be measured by the contact angle of a single track in Fig. 10. A smaller value of contact angle represents better wettability. The contact angle α can be calculated by�=�1−�22,

(17)

where �1 and �2 are the contact angles of the left and right regions, respectively.

FIG. 10.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Schematic of contact angle.

Relevant studies have confirmed that the wettability is better at a contact angle α around or below 40°.84 After measurement, a single-track contact angle α of about 33° was obtained under this process parameter, which further confirms the good wettability.

B. Double-track simulation

In order to deeply investigate the influence of hatch spacing on the characteristics of the HP-LPBF process, a series of double-track molten pool simulation experiments were systematically carried out. Figure 11 shows in detail the dynamic changes of the 3D morphology and temperature field of the double-track molten pool in the time period of 2050–2500 μs under the conditions of laser power of 100 W, scanning speed of 800 mm/s, and hatch spacing of 0.06 mm. By comparing the study with Fig. 7, it is observed that the basic characteristics of the 3D morphology and temperature field of the second track are similar to those of the first track. However, there are subtle differences between them. The first track exhibits a basically symmetric shape, but the second track morphology shows a slight deviation influenced by the difference in thermal diffusion rate between the solidified metal and the powder. Otherwise, the other characteristic information is almost the same as that of the first track. Figure 12 shows the velocity vector plot of the P2 profile in the double-track molten pool, with a maximum velocity of about 2.63 m/s. The melt dynamics at both ends of the pool are more stable at t = 2050 μs, where the maximum rate of the second track is only 1/3 of that of the first one. Other than that, the rest of the information is almost no significant difference from the characteristic information of the first track. Figure 13 demonstrates a detailed observation of the double-track temperature field and melts flow in the YZ cross section, and a comparative study with Fig. 9 reveals that the width of the second track is slightly wider. In addition, after the melt direction shifts from bottom to top, the first track undergoes four time periods (50 μs) to reach full solidification, while the second track takes five time periods. This is due to the presence of significant heat buildup in the powder bed after the forming of the first track, resulting in a longer dynamic time of the melt and an increased molten pool lifetime. In conclusion, the level of specimen forming can be significantly optimized by adjusting the laser power and hatch spacing.

FIG. 11.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Double-track molten pool process: (a) t = 2050  ��⁠, (b) t = 2150  ��⁠, (c) t = 2300  ��⁠, (d) t = 2500  ��⁠.

FIG. 12.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Vector plot of double-track molten pool velocity in XZ longitudinal section: (a) t = 2050  ��⁠, (b) t = 2150  ��⁠, (c) t = 2300  ��⁠, (d) t = 2500  ��⁠.

FIG. 13.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Evolution of double-track molten pool temperature and melt flow in the YZ cross section: (a) t = 2250  ��⁠, (b) t = 2300  ��⁠, (c) t = 2350  ��⁠, (d) t = 2400  ��⁠, (e) t = 2450  ��⁠, (f) t = 2500  ��⁠, (g) t = 2550  ��⁠, (h) t = 2600  ��⁠, (i) t = 2650  ��⁠.

In order to quantitatively detect the molten pool dimensions as well as the remolten region dimensions, the molten pool characterization information in Fig. 14 is constructed by drawing the boundary on the YZ cross section based on the isothermal surface of the liquid phase line. It can be observed that the heights of the first track and second track are basically the same, but the depth of the second track increases relative to the first track. The molten pool width is mainly positively correlated with the laser power as well as the scanning speed (the laser line energy density �⁠). However, the remelted zone width is negatively correlated with the hatch spacing (the overlapping ratio). Overall, the forming quality of the specimens can be directly influenced by adjusting the laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing.

FIG. 14.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Double-track molten pool characterization information on YZ cross section.

In order to study the variation rule of the temperature in the center of the molten pool with time, Fig. 15 demonstrates the temperature variation curves with time for two reference points, A and B. Among them, the red dotted line indicates the liquid phase line temperature of SS316L. From the figure, it can be seen that the maximum temperature at the center of the molten pool in the first track is lower than that in the second track, which is mainly due to the heat accumulation generated after passing through the first track. The maximum temperature gradient was calculated to be 1.69 × 108 K/s. When the laser scanned the first track, the temperature in the center of the molten pool of the second track increased slightly. Similarly, when the laser scanned the second track, a similar situation existed in the first track. Since the temperature gradient in the second track is larger than that in the first track, the residence time of the liquid phase in the molten pool of the first track is longer than that of the second track.

FIG. 15.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Temperature profiles as a function of time for two reference points A and B.

C. Simulation analysis of molten pool under different process parameters

In order to deeply investigate the effects of various process parameters on the mesoscopic-scale temperature field, molten pool characteristic information and defects of HP-LPBF, numerical simulation experiments on mesoscopic-scale laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing of double-track molten pools were carried out.

1. Laser power

Figure 16 shows the effects of different laser power on the morphology and temperature field of the double-track molten pool at a scanning speed of 800 mm/s and a hatch spacing of 0.06 mm. When P = 50 W, a smaller molten pool is formed due to the lower heat generated by the Gaussian light source per unit time. This leads to a smaller track width, which results in adjacent track not lapping properly and the presence of a large number of unmelted powder particles, resulting in an increase in the number of defects, such as pores in the specimen. The surface of the track is relatively flat, and the depth is small. In addition, the temperature gradient before and after the molten pool was large, and the depression location appeared at the biased front end in Fig. 16(a). When P = 100 W, the surface of the track is flat and smooth with excellent lap. Due to the Marangoni effect, the velocity field of the molten pool is in the form of “vortex,” and the melt has good fluidity, and the maximum velocity reaches 2.15 m/s in Fig. 16(b). When P = 200 W, the heat generated by the Gaussian light source per unit time is too large, resulting in the melt rapidly reaching the evaporation temperature, generating a huge recoil pressure, forming a large molten pool, and the surface of the track is obviously raised. The melt movement is intense, especially the closed loop at the center end of the molten pool. At this time, the depth and width of the molten pool are large, leading to the expansion of the remolten region and the increased chance of the appearance of porosity defects in Fig. 16(c). The results show that at low laser power, the surface tension in the molten pool is dominant. At high laser power, recoil pressure is its main role.

FIG. 16.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Simulation results of double-track molten pool under different laser powers: (a) P = 50 W, (b) P = 100 W, (c) P = 200 W.

Table II shows the effect of different laser powers on the characteristic information of the double-track molten pool at a scanning speed of 800 mm/s and a hatch spacing of 0.06 mm. The negative overlapping ratio in the table indicates that the melt tracks are not lapped, and 26/29 indicates the melt depth of the first track/second track. It can be seen that with the increase in laser power, the melt depth, melt width, melt height, and remelted zone show a gradual increase. At the same time, the overlapping ratio also increases. Especially in the process of laser power from 50 to 200 W, the melting depth and melting width increased the most, which increased nearly 2 and 1.5 times, respectively. Meanwhile, the overlapping ratio also increases with the increase in laser power, which indicates that the melting and fusion of materials are better at high laser power. On the other hand, the dimensions of the molten pool did not change uniformly with the change of laser power. Specifically, the depth-to-width ratio of the molten pool increased from about 0.30 to 0.39 during the increase from 50 to 120 W, which further indicates that the effective heat transfer in the vertical direction is greater than that in the horizontal direction with the increase in laser power. This dimensional response to laser power is mainly affected by the recoil pressure and also by the difference in the densification degree between the powder layer and the metal substrate. In addition, according to the experimental results, the contact angle shows a tendency to increase and then decrease during the process of laser power increase, and always stays within the range of less than 33°. Therefore, in practical applications, it is necessary to select the appropriate laser power according to the specific needs in order to achieve the best processing results.

TABLE II.

Double-track molten pool characterization information at different laser powers.

Laser power (W)Depth (μm)Width (μm)Height (μm)Remolten region (μm)Overlapping ratio (%)Contact angle (°)
50 16 54 11 −10 23 
100 26/29 74 14 18 23.33 33 
200 37/45 116 21 52 93.33 28 

2. Scanning speed

Figure 17 demonstrates the effect of different scanning speeds on the morphology and temperature field of the double-track molten pool at a laser power of 100 W and a hatch spacing of 0.06 mm. With the gradual increase in scanning speed, the surface morphology of the molten pool evolves from circular to elliptical. When � = 200 mm/s, the slow scanning speed causes the material to absorb too much heat, which is very easy to trigger the overburning phenomenon. At this point, the molten pool is larger and the surface morphology is uneven. This situation is consistent with the previously discussed scenario with high laser power in Fig. 17(a). However, when � = 1600 mm/s, the scanning speed is too fast, resulting in the material not being able to absorb sufficient heat, which triggers the powder particles that fail to melt completely to have a direct effect on the bonding of the melt to the substrate. At this time, the molten pool volume is relatively small and the neighboring melt track cannot lap properly. This result is consistent with the previously discussed case of low laser power in Fig. 17(b). Overall, the ratio of the laser power to the scanning speed (the line energy density �⁠) has a direct effect on the temperature field and surface morphology of the molten pool.

FIG. 17.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Simulation results of double-track molten pool under different scanning speed: (a)  � = 200 mm/s, (b)  � = 1600 mm/s.

Table III shows the effects of different scanning speed on the characteristic information of the double-track molten pool under the condition of laser power of 100 W and hatch spacing of 0.06 mm. It can be seen that the scanning speed has a significant effect on the melt depth, melt width, melt height, remolten region, and overlapping ratio. With the increase in scanning speed, the melt depth, melt width, melt height, remelted zone, and overlapping ratio show a gradual decreasing trend. Among them, the melt depth and melt width decreased faster, while the melt height and remolten region decreased relatively slowly. In addition, when the scanning speed was increased from 200 to 800 mm/s, the decreasing speeds of melt depth and melt width were significantly accelerated, while the decreasing speeds of overlapping ratio were relatively slow. When the scanning speed was further increased to 1600 mm/s, the decreasing speeds of melt depth and melt width were further accelerated, and the un-lapped condition of the melt channel also appeared. In addition, the contact angle increases and then decreases with the scanning speed, and both are lower than 33°. Therefore, when selecting the scanning speed, it is necessary to make reasonable trade-offs according to the specific situation, and take into account the factors of melt depth, melt width, melt height, remolten region, and overlapping ratio, in order to achieve the best processing results.

TABLE III.

Double-track molten pool characterization information at different scanning speeds.

Scanning speed (mm/s)Depth (μm)Width (μm)Height (μm)Remolten region (μm)Overlapping ratio (%)Contact angle (°)
200 55/68 182 19/32 124 203.33 22 
1600 13 50 11 −16.67 31 

3. Hatch spacing

Figure 18 shows the effect of different hatch spacing on the morphology and temperature field of the double-track molten pool under the condition of laser power of 100 W and scanning speed of 800 mm/s. The surface morphology and temperature field of the first track and second track are basically the same, but slightly different. The first track shows a basically symmetric morphology along the scanning direction, while the second track shows a slight offset due to the difference in the heat transfer rate between the solidified material and the powder particles. When the hatch spacing is too small, the overlapping ratio increases and the probability of defects caused by remelting phenomenon grows. When the hatch spacing is too large, the neighboring melt track cannot overlap properly, and the powder particles are not completely melted, leading to an increase in the number of holes. In conclusion, the ratio of the line energy density � to the hatch spacing (the volume energy density E) has a significant effect on the temperature field and surface morphology of the molten pool.

FIG. 18.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Simulation results of double-track molten pool under different hatch spacings: (a) H = 0.03 mm, (b) H = 0.12 mm.

Table IV shows the effects of different hatch spacing on the characteristic information of the double-track molten pool under the condition of laser power of 100 W and scanning speed of 800 mm/s. It can be seen that the hatch spacing has little effect on the melt depth, melt width, and melt height, but has some effect on the remolten region. With the gradual expansion of hatch spacing, the remolten region shows a gradual decrease. At the same time, the overlapping ratio also decreased with the increase in hatch spacing. In addition, it is observed that the contact angle shows a tendency to increase and then remain stable when the hatch spacing increases, which has a more limited effect on it. Therefore, trade-offs and decisions need to be made on a case-by-case basis when selecting the hatch spacing.

TABLE IV.

Double-track molten pool characterization information at different hatch spacings.

Hatch spacing (mm)Depth (μm)Width (μm)Height (μm)Remolten region (μm)Overlapping ratio (%)Contact angle (°)
0.03 25/27 82 14 59 173.33 30 
0.12 26 78 14 −35 33 

In summary, the laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing have a significant effect on the formation of the molten pool, and the correct selection of these three process parameters is crucial to ensure the forming quality. In addition, the melt depth of the second track is slightly larger than that of the first track at higher line energy density � and volume energy density E. This is mainly due to the fact that a large amount of heat accumulation is generated after the first track, forming a larger molten pool volume, which leads to an increase in the melt depth.

D. Simulation analysis of molten pool with powder particle size and laser focal spot diameter

Figure 19 demonstrates the effect of different powder particle sizes and laser focal spot diameters on the morphology and temperature field of the double-track molten pool under a laser power of 100 W, a scanning speed of 800 mm/s, and a hatch spacing of 0.06 mm. In the process of melting coarse powder with small laser focal spot diameter, the laser energy cannot completely melt the larger powder particles, resulting in their partial melting and further generating excessive pore defects. The larger powder particles tend to generate zigzag molten pool edges, which cause an increase in the roughness of the melt track surface. In addition, the molten pool is also prone to generate the present spatter phenomenon, which can directly affect the quality of forming. The volume of the formed molten pool is relatively small, while the melt depth, melt width, and melt height are all smaller relative to the fine powder in Fig. 19(a). In the process of melting fine powders with a large laser focal spot diameter, the laser energy is able to melt the fine powder particles sufficiently, even to the point of overmelting. This results in a large number of fine spatters being generated at the edge of the molten pool, which causes porosity defects in the melt track in Fig. 19(b). In addition, the maximum velocity of the molten pool is larger for large powder particle sizes compared to small powder particle sizes, which indicates that the temperature gradient in the molten pool is larger for large powder particle sizes and the melt motion is more intense. However, the size of the laser focal spot diameter has a relatively small effect on the melt motion. However, a larger focal spot diameter induces a larger melt volume with greater depth, width, and height. In conclusion, a small powder size helps to reduce the surface roughness of the specimen, and a small laser spot diameter reduces the minimum forming size of a single track.

FIG. 19.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Simulation results of double-track molten pool with different powder particle size and laser focal spot diameter: (a) focal spot = 25 μm, coarse powder, (b) focal spot = 80 μm, fine powder.

Table V shows the maximum temperature gradient at the reference point for different powder sizes and laser focal spot diameters. As can be seen from the table, the maximum temperature gradient is lower than that of HP-LPBF for both coarse powders with a small laser spot diameter and fine powders with a large spot diameter, a phenomenon that leads to an increase in the heat transfer rate of HP-LPBF, which in turn leads to a corresponding increase in the cooling rate and, ultimately, to the formation of finer microstructures.

TABLE V.

Maximum temperature gradient at the reference point for different powder particle sizes and laser focal spot diameters.

Laser power (W)Scanning speed (mm/s)Hatch spacing (mm)Average powder size (μm)Laser focal spot diameter (μm)Maximum temperature gradient (×107 K/s)
100 800 0.06 31.7 25 7.89 
11.5 80 7.11 

IV. CONCLUSIONS

In this study, the geometrical characteristics of 3D coarse and fine powder particles were first calculated using DEM and then numerical simulations of single track and double track in the process of forming SS316L from monolayer HP-LPBF at mesoscopic scale were developed using CFD method. The effects of Marangoni convection, surface tension, recoil pressure, gravity, thermal convection, thermal radiation, and evaporative heat dissipation on the heat and mass transfer in the molten pool were considered in this model. The effects of laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing on the dynamics of the single-track and double-track molten pools, as well as on other characteristic information, were investigated. The effects of the powder particle size on the molten pool were investigated comparatively with the laser focal spot diameter. The main conclusions are as follows:

  1. The results show that the temperature gradient at the front of the molten pool is significantly larger than that at the tail, and the molten pool exhibits a “comet” morphology. At the top of the molten pool, there is a slightly concave region, which is the result of the coupling of Marangoni convection, recoil pressure, and surface tension. The melt flow forms two closed loops, which are mainly influenced by temperature gradients and surface tension. This special dynamic behavior of the melt tends to form an “elliptical” molten pool and an almost “mountain” shape in single-track forming.
  2. The basic characteristics of the three-dimensional morphology and temperature field of the second track are similar to those of the first track, but there are subtle differences. The first track exhibits a basically symmetrical shape; however, due to the difference in thermal diffusion rates between the solidified metal and the powder, a slight asymmetry in the molten pool morphology of the second track occurs. After forming through the first track, there is a significant heat buildup in the powder bed, resulting in a longer dynamic time of the melt, which increases the life of the molten pool. The heights of the first track and second track remained essentially the same, but the depth of the second track was greater relative to the first track. In addition, the maximum temperature gradient was 1.69 × 108 K/s during HP-LPBF forming.
  3. At low laser power, the surface tension in the molten pool plays a dominant role. At high laser power, recoil pressure becomes the main influencing factor. With the increase of laser power, the effective heat transfer in the vertical direction is superior to that in the horizontal direction. With the gradual increase of scanning speed, the surface morphology of the molten pool evolves from circular to elliptical. In addition, the scanning speed has a significant effect on the melt depth, melt width, melt height, remolten region, and overlapping ratio. Too large or too small hatch spacing will lead to remelting or non-lap phenomenon, which in turn causes the formation of defects.
  4. When using a small laser focal spot diameter, it is difficult to completely melt large powder particle sizes, resulting in partial melting and excessive porosity generation. At the same time, large powder particles produce curved edges of the molten pool, resulting in increased surface roughness of the melt track. In addition, spatter occurs, which directly affects the forming quality. At small focal spot diameters, the molten pool volume is relatively small, and the melt depth, the melt width, and the melt height are correspondingly small. Taken together, the small powder particle size helps to reduce surface roughness, while the small spot diameter reduces the forming size.

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Numerical simulation on molten pool behavior of narrow gap gas tungsten arc welding

좁은 간격 가스 텅스텐 아크 용접의 용융 풀 거동에 대한 수치 시뮬레이션

Numerical simulation on molten pool behavior of narrow gap gas tungsten arc welding

The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (2023)Cite this article

Abstract

As a highly efficient thick plate welding resolution, narrow gap gas tungsten arc welding (NG-GTAW) is in the face of a series of problems like inter-layer defects like pores, lack of fusion, inclusion of impurity, and the sensitivity to poor sidewall fusion, which is hard to be repaired after the welding process. This study employs numerical simulation to investigate the molten pool behavior in NG-GTAW root welding. A 3D numerical model was established, where a body-fitted coordinate system was applied to simulate the electromagnetic force, and a bridge transition model was developed to investigate the wire–feed root welding. The simulated results were validated experimentally. Results show that the molten pool behavior is dominated by electromagnetic force when the welding current is relatively high, and the dynamic change of the vortex actually determines the molten pool morphology. For self-fusion welding, there are two symmetric inward vortices in the cross-section and one clockwise vortex in the longitudinal section. With the increasing welding current, the vortices in the cross-section gradually move to the arc center with a decreasing range, while the vortex in the longitudinal section moves backward. With the increasing traveling speed, the vortices in the cross-section move toward the surface of the molten pool with a decreasing range, and the horizontal component of liquid metal velocity changes in the longitudinal section. For wire–feed welding, the filling metal strengthens the downward velocity component; as a result, the vortex formation is blocked in the cross-section and is strengthened in the longitudinal section.

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Data availability

The raw/processed data required cannot be shared at this time as the data also forms part of an ongoing study.

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Figure 5 A schematic of the water model of reactor URO 200.

Physical and Numerical Modeling of the Impeller Construction Impact on the Aluminum Degassing Process

알루미늄 탈기 공정에 미치는 임펠러 구성의 물리적 및 수치적 모델링

Kamil Kuglin,1 Michał Szucki,2 Jacek Pieprzyca,3 Simon Genthe,2 Tomasz Merder,3 and Dorota Kalisz1,*

Mikael Ersson, Academic Editor

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer

Associated Data

Data Availability Statement

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Abstract

This paper presents the results of tests on the suitability of designed heads (impellers) for aluminum refining. The research was carried out on a physical model of the URO-200, followed by numerical simulations in the FLOW 3D program. Four design variants of impellers were used in the study. The degree of dispersion of the gas phase in the model liquid was used as a criterion for evaluating the performance of each solution using different process parameters, i.e., gas flow rate and impeller speed. Afterward, numerical simulations in Flow 3D software were conducted for the best solution. These simulations confirmed the results obtained with the water model and verified them.

Keywords: aluminum, impeller construction, degassing process, numerical modeling, physical modeling

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1. Introduction

Constantly increasing requirements concerning metallurgical purity in terms of hydrogen content and nonmetallic inclusions make casting manufacturers use effective refining techniques. The answer to this demand is the implementation of the aluminum refining technique making use of a rotor with an original design guaranteeing efficient refining [1,2,3,4]. The main task of the impeller (rotor) is to reduce the contamination of liquid metal (primary and recycled aluminum) with hydrogen and nonmetallic inclusions. An inert gas, mainly argon or a mixture of gases, is introduced through the rotor into the liquid metal to bring both hydrogen and nonmetallic inclusions to the metal surface through the flotation process. Appropriately and uniformly distributed gas bubbles in the liquid metal guarantee achieving the assumed level of contaminant removal economically. A very important factor in deciding about the obtained degassing effect is the optimal rotor design [5,6,7,8]. Thanks to the appropriate geometry of the rotor, gas bubbles introduced into the liquid metal are split into smaller ones, and the spinning movement of the rotor distributes them throughout the volume of the liquid metal bath. In this solution impurities in the liquid metal are removed both in the volume and from the upper surface of the metal. With a well-designed impeller, the costs of refining aluminum and its alloys can be lowered thanks to the reduced inert gas and energy consumption (optimal selection of rotor rotational speed). Shorter processing time and a high degree of dehydrogenation decrease the formation of dross on the metal surface (waste). A bigger produced dross leads to bigger process losses. Consequently, this means that the choice of rotor geometry has an indirect impact on the degree to which the generated waste is reduced [9,10].

Another equally important factor is the selection of process parameters such as gas flow rate and rotor speed [11,12]. A well-designed gas injection system for liquid metal meets two key requirements; it causes rapid mixing of the liquid metal to maintain a uniform temperature throughout the volume and during the entire process, to produce a chemically homogeneous metal composition. This solution ensures effective degassing of the metal bath. Therefore, the shape of the rotor, the arrangement of the nozzles, and their number are significant design parameters that guarantee the optimum course of the refining process. It is equally important to complete the mixing of the metal bath in a relatively short time, as this considerably shortens the refining process and, consequently, reduces the process costs. Another important criterion conditioning the implementation of the developed rotor is the generation of fine diffused gas bubbles which are distributed throughout the metal volume, and whose residence time will be sufficient for the bubbles to collide and adsorb the contaminants. The process of bubble formation by the spinning rotors differs from that in the nozzles or porous molders. In the case of a spinning rotor, the shear force generated by the rotor motion splits the bubbles into smaller ones. Here, the rotational speed, mixing force, surface tension, and fluid density have a key effect on the bubble size. The velocity of the bubbles, which depends mainly on their size and shape, determines their residence time in the reactor and is, therefore, very important for the refining process, especially since gas bubbles in liquid aluminum may remain steady only below a certain size [13,14,15].

The impeller designs presented in the article were developed to improve the efficiency of the process and reduce its costs. The impellers used so far have a complicated structure and are very pricey. The success of the conducted research will allow small companies to become independent of external supplies through the possibility of making simple and effective impellers on their own. The developed structures were tested on the water model. The results of this study can be considered as pilot.

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2. Materials and Methods

Rotors were realized with the SolidWorks computer design technique and a 3D printer. The developed designs were tested on a water model. Afterward, the solution with the most advantageous refining parameters was selected and subjected to calculations with the Flow3D package. As a result, an impeller was designed for aluminum refining. Its principal lies in an even distribution of gas bubbles in the entire volume of liquid metal, with the largest possible participation of the bubble surface, without disturbing the metal surface. This procedure guarantees the removal of gaseous, as well as metallic and nonmetallic, impurities.

2.1. Rotor Designs

The developed impeller constructions, shown in Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3 and Figure 4, were printed on a 3D printer using the PLA (polylactide) material. The impeller design models differ in their shape and the number of holes through which the inert gas flows. Figure 1Figure 2 and Figure 3 show the same impeller model but with a different number of gas outlets. The arrangement of four, eight, and 12 outlet holes was adopted in the developed design. A triangle-shaped structure equipped with three gas outlet holes is presented in Figure 4.

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Figure 1

A 3D model—impeller with four holes—variant B4.

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Figure 2

A 3D model—impeller with eight holes—variant B8.

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Figure 3

A 3D model—impeller with twelve holes—variant B12.

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Figure 4

A 3D model—‘red triangle’ impeller with three holes—variant RT3.

2.2. Physical Models

Investigations were carried out on a water model of the URO 200 reactor of the barbotage refining process (see Figure 5).

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Figure 5

A schematic of the water model of reactor URO 200.

The URO 200 reactor can be classified as a cyclic reactor. The main element of the device is a rotor, which ends the impeller. The whole system is attached to a shaft via which the refining gas is supplied. Then, the shaft with the rotor is immersed in the liquid metal in the melting pot or the furnace chamber. In URO 200 reactors, the refining process lasts 600 s (10 min), the gas flow rate that can be obtained ranges from 5 to 20 dm3·min−1, and the speed at which the rotor can move is 0 to 400 rpm. The permissible quantity of liquid metal for barbotage refining is 300 kg or 700 kg [8,16,17]. The URO 200 has several design solutions which improve operation and can be adapted to the existing equipment in the foundry. These solutions include the following [8,16]:

  • URO-200XR—used for small crucible furnaces, the capacity of which does not exceed 250 kg, with no control system and no control of the refining process.
  • URO-200SA—used to service several crucible furnaces of capacity from 250 kg to 700 kg, fully automated and equipped with a mechanical rotor lift.
  • URO-200KA—used for refining processes in crucible furnaces and allows refining in a ladle. The process is fully automated, with a hydraulic rotor lift.
  • URO-200KX—a combination of the XR and KA models, designed for the ladle refining process. Additionally, refining in heated crucibles is possible. The unit is equipped with a manual hydraulic rotor lift.
  • URO-200PA—designed to cooperate with induction or crucible furnaces or intermediate chambers, the capacity of which does not exceed one ton. This unit is an integral part of the furnace. The rotor lift is equipped with a screw drive.

Studies making use of a physical model can be associated with the observation of the flow and circulation of gas bubbles. They require meeting several criteria regarding the similarity of the process and the object characteristics. The similarity conditions mainly include geometric, mechanical, chemical, thermal, and kinetic parameters. During simulation of aluminum refining with inert gas, it is necessary to maintain the geometric similarity between the model and the real object, as well as the similarity related to the flow of liquid metal and gas (hydrodynamic similarity). These quantities are characterized by the Reynolds, Weber, and Froude numbers. The Froude number is the most important parameter characterizing the process, its magnitude is the same for the physical model and the real object. Water was used as the medium in the physical modeling. The factors influencing the choice of water are its availability, relatively low cost, and kinematic viscosity at room temperature, which is very close to that of liquid aluminum.

The physical model studies focused on the flow of inert gas in the form of gas bubbles with varying degrees of dispersion, particularly with respect to some flow patterns such as flow in columns and geysers, as well as disturbance of the metal surface. The most important refining parameters are gas flow rate and rotor speed. The barbotage refining studies for the developed impeller (variants B4, B8, B12, and RT3) designs were conducted for the following process parameters:

  • Rotor speed: 200, 300, 400, and 500 rpm,
  • Ideal gas flow: 10, 20, and 30 dm3·min−1,
  • Temperature: 293 K (20 °C).

These studies were aimed at determining the most favorable variants of impellers, which were then verified using the numerical modeling methods in the Flow-3D program.

2.3. Numerical Simulations with Flow-3D Program

Testing different rotor impellers using a physical model allows for observing the phenomena taking place while refining. This is a very important step when testing new design solutions without using expensive industrial trials. Another solution is modeling by means of commercial simulation programs such as ANSYS Fluent or Flow-3D [18,19]. Unlike studies on a physical model, in a computer program, the parameters of the refining process and the object itself, including the impeller design, can be easily modified. The simulations were performed with the Flow-3D program version 12.03.02. A three-dimensional system with the same dimensions as in the physical modeling was used in the calculations. The isothermal flow of liquid–gas bubbles was analyzed. As in the physical model, three speeds were adopted in the numerical tests: 200, 300, and 500 rpm. During the initial phase of the simulations, the velocity field around the rotor generated an appropriate direction of motion for the newly produced bubbles. When the required speed was reached, the generation of randomly distributed bubbles around the rotor was started at a rate of 2000 per second. Table 1 lists the most important simulation parameters.

Table 1

Values of parameters used in the calculations.

ParameterValueUnit
Maximum number of gas particles1,000,000
Rate of particle generation20001·s−1
Specific gas constant287.058J·kg−1·K−1
Atmospheric pressure1.013 × 105Pa
Water density1000kg·m−3
Water viscosity0.001kg·m−1·s−1
Boundary condition on the wallsNo-slip
Size of computational cell0.0034m

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In the case of the CFD analysis, the numerical solutions require great care when generating the computational mesh. Therefore, computational mesh tests were performed prior to the CFD calculations. The effect of mesh density was evaluated by taking into account the velocity of water in the tested object on the measurement line A (height of 0.065 m from the bottom) in a characteristic cross-section passing through the object axis (see Figure 6). The mesh contained 3,207,600, 6,311,981, 7,889,512, 11,569,230, and 14,115,049 cells.

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Figure 6

The velocity of the water depending on the size of the computational grid.

The quality of the generated computational meshes was checked using the criterion skewness angle QEAS [18]. This criterion is described by the following relationship:

QEAS=max{βmax−βeq180−βeq,βeq−βminβeq},

(1)

where βmaxβmin are the maximal and minimal angles (in degrees) between the edges of the cell, and βeq is the angle corresponding to an ideal cell, which for cubic cells is 90°.

Normalized in the interval [0;1], the value of QEAS should not exceed 0.75, which identifies the permissible skewness angle of the generated mesh. For the computed meshes, this value was equal to 0.55–0.65.

Moreover, when generating the computational grids in the studied facility, they were compacted in the areas of the highest gradients of the calculated values, where higher turbulence is to be expected (near the impeller). The obtained results of water velocity in the studied object at constant gas flow rate are shown in Figure 6.

The analysis of the obtained water velocity distributions (see Figure 6) along the line inside the object revealed that, with the density of the grid of nodal points, the velocity changed and its changes for the test cases of 7,889,512, 11,569,230, and 14,115,049 were insignificant. Therefore, it was assumed that a grid containing not less than 7,900,000 (7,889,512) cells would not affect the result of CFD calculations.

A single-block mesh of regular cells with a size of 0.0034 m was used in the numerical calculations. The total number of cells was approximately 7,900,000 (7,889,512). This grid resolution (see Figure 7) allowed the geometry of the system to be properly represented, maintaining acceptable computation time (about 3 days on a workstation with 2× CPU and 12 computing cores).

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Figure 7

Structured equidistant mesh used in numerical calculations: (a) mesh with smoothed, surface cells (the so-called FAVOR method) used in Flow-3D; (b) visualization of the applied mesh resolution.

The calculations were conducted with an explicit scheme. The timestep was selected by the program automatically and controlled by stability and convergence. From the moment of the initial velocity field generation (start of particle generation), it was 0.0001 s.

When modeling the degassing process, three fluids are present in the system: water, gas supplied through the rotor head (impeller), and the surrounding air. Modeling such a multiphase flow is a numerically very complex issue. The necessity to overcome the liquid backpressure by the gas flowing out from the impeller leads to the formation of numerical instabilities in the volume of fluid (VOF)-based approach used by Flow-3D software. Therefore, a mixed description of the analyzed flow was used here. In this case, water was treated as a continuous medium, while, in the case of gas bubbles, the discrete phase model (DPM) model was applied. The way in which the air surrounding the system was taken into account is later described in detail.

The following additional assumptions were made in the modeling:

  • —The liquid phase was considered as an incompressible Newtonian fluid.
  • —The effect of chemical reactions during the refining process was neglected.
  • —The composition of each phase (gas and liquid) was considered homogeneous; therefore, the viscosity and surface tension were set as constants.
  • —Only full turbulence existed in the liquid, and the effect of molecular viscosity was neglected.
  • —The gas bubbles were shaped as perfect spheres.
  • —The mutual interaction between gas bubbles (particles) was neglected.

2.3.1. Modeling of Liquid Flow 

The motion of the real fluid (continuous medium) is described by the Navier–Stokes Equation [20].

dudt=−1ρ∇p+ν∇2u+13ν∇(∇⋅ u)+F,

(2)

where du/dt is the time derivative, u is the velocity vector, t is the time, and F is the term accounting for external forces including gravity (unit components denoted by XYZ).

In the simulations, the fluid flow was assumed to be incompressible, in which case the following equation is applicable:

∂u∂t+(u⋅∇)u=−1ρ∇p+ν∇2u+F.

(3)

Due to the large range of liquid velocities during flows, the turbulence formation process was included in the modeling. For this purpose, the k–ε model turbulence kinetic energy k and turbulence dissipation ε were the target parameters, as expressed by the following equations [21]:

∂(ρk)∂t+∂(ρkvi)∂xi=∂∂xj[(μ+μtσk)⋅∂k∂xi]+Gk+Gb−ρε−Ym+Sk,

(4)

∂(ρε)∂t+∂(ρεui)∂xi=∂∂xj[(μ+μtσε)⋅∂k∂xi]+C1εεk(Gk+G3εGb)+C2ερε2k+Sε,

(5)

where ρ is the gas density, σκ and σε are the Prandtl turbulence numbers, k and ε are constants of 1.0 and 1.3, and Gk and Gb are the kinetic energy of turbulence generated by the average velocity and buoyancy, respectively.

As mentioned earlier, there are two gas phases in the considered problem. In addition to the gas bubbles, which are treated here as particles, there is also air, which surrounds the system. The boundary of phase separation is in this case the free surface of the water. The shape of the free surface can change as a result of the forming velocity field in the liquid. Therefore, it is necessary to use an appropriate approach to free surface tracking. The most commonly used concept in liquid–gas flow modeling is the volume of fluid (VOF) method [22,23], and Flow-3D uses a modified version of this method called TrueVOF. It introduces the concept of the volume fraction of the liquid phase fl. This parameter can be used for classifying the cells of a discrete grid into areas filled with liquid phase (fl = 1), gaseous phase, or empty cells (fl = 0) and those through which the phase separation boundary (fl ∈ (0, 1)) passes (free surface). To determine the local variations of the liquid phase fraction, it is necessary to solve the following continuity equation:

dfldt=0.

(6)

Then, the fluid parameters in the region of coexistence of the two phases (the so-called interface) depend on the volume fraction of each phase.

ρ=flρl+(1−fl)ρg,

(7)

ν=flνl+(1−fl)νg,

(8)

where indices l and g refer to the liquid and gaseous phases, respectively.

The parameter of fluid velocity in cells containing both phases is also determined in the same way.

u=flul+(1−fl)ug.

(9)

Since the processes taking place in the surrounding air can be omitted, to speed up the calculations, a single-phase, free-surface model was used. This means that no calculations were performed in the gas cells (they were treated as empty cells). The liquid could fill them freely, and the air surrounding the system was considered by the atmospheric pressure exerted on the free surface. This approach is often used in modeling foundry and metallurgical processes [24].

2.3.2. Modeling of Gas Bubble Flow 

As stated, a particle model was used to model bubble flow. Spherical particles (gas bubbles) of a given size were randomly generated in the area marked with green in Figure 7b. In the simulations, the gas bubbles were assumed to have diameters of 0.016 and 0.02 m corresponding to the gas flow rates of 10 and 30 dm3·min−1, respectively.

Experimental studies have shown that, as a result of turbulent fluid motion, some of the bubbles may burst, leading to the formation of smaller bubbles, although merging of bubbles into larger groupings may also occur. Therefore, to be able to observe the behavior of bubbles of different sizes (diameter), the calculations generated two additional particle types with diameters twice smaller and twice larger, respectively. The proportion of each species in the system was set to 33.33% (Table 2).

Table 2

Data assumed for calculations.

NoRotor Speed (Rotational Speed)
rpm
Bubbles Diameter
m
Corresponding Gas Flow Rate
dm3·min−1
NoRotor Speed (Rotational Speed)
rpm
Bubbles Diameter
m
Corresponding Gas Flow Rate
dm3·min−1
A2000.01610D2000.0230
0.0080.01
0.0320.04
B3000.01610E3000.0230
0.0080.01
0.0320.04
C5000.01610F5000.0230
0.0080.01
0.0320.04

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The velocity of the particle results from the generated velocity field (calculated from Equation (3) in the liquid ul around it and its velocity resulting from the buoyancy force ub. The effect of particle radius r on the terminal velocity associated with buoyancy force can be determined according to Stokes’ law.

ub=29 (ρg−ρl)μlgr2,

(10)

where g is the acceleration (9.81).

The DPM model was used for modeling the two-phase (water–air) flow. In this model, the fluid (water) is treated as a continuous phase and described by the Navier–Stokes equation, while gas bubbles are particles flowing in the model fluid (discrete phase). The trajectories of each bubble in the DPM system are calculated at each timestep taking into account the mass forces acting on it. Table 3 characterizes the DPM model used in our own research [18].

Table 3

Characteristic of the DPM model.

MethodEquations
Euler–LagrangeBalance equation:
dugdt=FD(u−ug)+g(ϱg−ϱ)ϱg+F.
FD (u − up) denotes the drag forces per mass unit of a bubble, and the expression for the drag coefficient FD is of the form
FD=18μCDReϱ⋅gd2g24.
The relative Reynolds number has the form
Re≡ρdg|ug−u|μ.
On the other hand, the force resulting from the additional acceleration of the model fluid has the form
F=12dρdtρg(u−ug),
where ug is the gas bubble velocity, u is the liquid velocity, dg is the bubble diameter, and CD is the drag coefficient.

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3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Calculations of Power and Mixing Time by the Flowing Gas Bubbles

One of the most important parameters of refining with a rotor is the mixing power induced by the spinning rotor and the outflowing gas bubbles (via impeller). The mixing power of liquid metal in a ladle of height (h) by gas injection can be determined from the following relation [15]:

pgVm=ρ⋅g⋅uB,

(11)

where pg is the mixing power, Vm is the volume of liquid metal in the reactor, ρ is the density of liquid aluminum, and uB is the average speed of bubbles, given below.

uB=n⋅R⋅TAc⋅Pm⋅t,

(12)

where n is the number of gas moles, R is the gas constant (8.314), Ac is the cross-sectional area of the reactor vessel, T is the temperature of liquid aluminum in the reactor, and Pm is the pressure at the middle tank level. The pressure at the middle level of the tank is calculated by a function of the mean logarithmic difference.

Pm=(Pa+ρ⋅g⋅h)−Paln(Pa+ρ⋅g⋅h)Pa,

(13)

where Pa is the atmospheric pressure, and h is the the height of metal in the reactor.

Themelis and Goyal [25] developed a model for calculating mixing power delivered by gas injection.

pg=2Q⋅R⋅T⋅ln(1+m⋅ρ⋅g⋅hP),

(14)

where Q is the gas flow, and m is the mass of liquid metal.

Zhang [26] proposed a model taking into account the temperature difference between gas and alloy (metal).

pg=QRTgVm[ln(1+ρ⋅g⋅hPa)+(1−TTg)],

(15)

where Tg is the gas temperature at the entry point.

Data for calculating the mixing power resulting from inert gas injection into liquid aluminum are given below in Table 4. The design parameters were adopted for the model, the parameters of which are shown in Figure 5.

Table 4

Data for calculating mixing power introduced by an inert gas.

ParameterValueUnit
Height of metal column0.7m
Density of aluminum2375kg·m−3
Process duration20s
Gas temperature at the injection site940K
Cross-sectional area of ladle0.448m2
Mass of liquid aluminum546.25kg
Volume of ladle0.23M3
Temperature of liquid aluminum941.15K

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Table 5 presents the results of mixing power calculations according to the models of Themelis and Goyal and of Zhang for inert gas flows of 10, 20, and 30 dm3·min−1. The obtained calculation results significantly differed from each other. The difference was an order of magnitude, which indicates that the model is highly inaccurate without considering the temperature of the injected gas. Moreover, the calculations apply to the case when the mixing was performed only by the flowing gas bubbles, without using a rotor, which is a great simplification of the phenomenon.

Table 5

Mixing power calculated from mathematical models.

Mathematical ModelMixing Power (W·t−1)
for a Given Inert Gas Flow (dm3·min−1)
102030
Themelis and Goyal11.4923.3335.03
Zhang0.821.662.49

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The mixing time is defined as the time required to achieve 95% complete mixing of liquid metal in the ladle [27,28,29,30]. Table 6 groups together equations for the mixing time according to the models.

Table 6

Models for calculating mixing time.

AuthorsModelRemarks
Szekely [31]τ=800ε−0.4ε—W·t−1
Chiti and Paglianti [27]τ=CVQlV—volume of reactor, m3
Ql—flow intensity, m3·s−1
Iguchi and Nakamura [32]τ=1200⋅Q−0.4D1.97h−1.0υ0.47υ—kinematic viscosity, m2·s−1
D—diameter of ladle, m
h—height of metal column, m
Q—liquid flow intensity, m3·s−1

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Figure 8 and Figure 9 show the mixing time as a function of gas flow rate for various heights of the liquid column in the ladle and mixing power values.

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Figure 8

Mixing time as a function of gas flow rate for various heights of the metal column (Iguchi and Nakamura model).

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Figure 9

Mixing time as a function of mixing power (Szekly model).

3.2. Determining the Bubble Size

The mechanisms controlling bubble size and mass transfer in an alloy undergoing refining are complex. Strong mixing conditions in the reactor promote impurity mass transfer. In the case of a spinning rotor, the shear force generated by the rotor motion separates the bubbles into smaller bubbles. Rotational speed, mixing force, surface tension, and liquid density have a strong influence on the bubble size. To characterize the kinetic state of the refining process, parameters k and A were introduced. Parameters kA, and uB can be calculated using the below equations [33].

k=2D⋅uBdB⋅π−−−−−−√,

(16)

A=6Q⋅hdB⋅uB,

(17)

uB=1.02g⋅dB,−−−−−√

(18)

where D is the diffusion coefficient, and dB is the bubble diameter.

After substituting appropriate values, we get

dB=3.03×104(πD)−2/5g−1/5h4/5Q0.344N−1.48.

(19)

According to the last equation, the size of the gas bubble decreases with the increasing rotational speed (see Figure 10).

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Object name is materials-15-05273-g010.jpg

Figure 10

Effect of rotational speed on the bubble diameter.

In a flow of given turbulence intensity, the diameter of the bubble does not exceed the maximum size dmax, which is inversely proportional to the rate of kinetic energy dissipation in a viscous flow ε. The size of the gas bubble diameter as a function of the mixing energy, also considering the Weber number and the mixing energy in the negative power, can be determined from the following equations [31,34]:

  • —Sevik and Park:

dBmax=We0.6kr⋅(σ⋅103ρ⋅10−3)0.6⋅(10⋅ε)−0.4⋅10−2.

(20)

  • —Evans:

dBmax=⎡⎣Wekr⋅σ⋅1032⋅(ρ⋅10−3)13⎤⎦35 ⋅(10⋅ε)−25⋅10−2.

(21)

The results of calculating the maximum diameter of the bubble dBmax determined from Equation (21) are given in Table 7.

Table 7

The results of calculating the maximum diameter of the bubble using Equation (21).

ModelMixing Energy
ĺ (m2·s−3)
Weber Number (Wekr)
0.591.01.2
Zhang and Taniguchi
dmax
0.10.01670.02300.026
0.50.00880.01210.013
1.00.00670.00910.010
1.50.00570.00780.009
Sevik and Park
dBmax
0.10.2650.360.41
0.50.1390.190.21
1.00.1060.140.16
1.50.0900.120.14
Evans
dBmax
0.10.2470.3400.38
0.50.1300.1780.20
1.00.0980.1350.15
1.50.0840.1150.13

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3.3. Physical Modeling

The first stage of experiments (using the URO-200 water model) included conducting experiments with impellers equipped with four, eight, and 12 gas outlets (variants B4, B8, B12). The tests were carried out for different process parameters. Selected results for these experiments are presented in Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13 and Figure 14.

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Figure 11

Impeller variant B4—gas bubbles dispersion registered for a gas flow rate of 10 dm3·min−1 and rotor speed of (a) 200, (b) 300, (c) 400, and (d) 500 rpm.

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Figure 12

Impeller variant B8—gas bubbles dispersion registered for a gas flow rate of 10 dm3·min−1 and rotor speed of (a) 200, (b) 300, (c) 400, and (d) 500 rpm.

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Object name is materials-15-05273-g013.jpg

Figure 13

Gas bubble dispersion registered for different processing parameters (impeller variant B12).

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Figure 14

Gas bubble dispersion registered for different processing parameters (impeller variant RT3).

The analysis of the refining variants presented in Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13 and Figure 14 reveals that the proposed impellers design model is not useful for the aluminum refining process. The number of gas outlet orifices, rotational speed, and flow did not affect the refining efficiency. In all the variants shown in the figures, very poor dispersion of gas bubbles was observed in the object. The gas bubble flow had a columnar character, and so-called dead zones, i.e., areas where no inert gas bubbles are present, were visible in the analyzed object. Such dead zones were located in the bottom and side zones of the ladle, while the flow of bubbles occurred near the turning rotor. Another negative phenomenon observed was a significant agitation of the water surface due to excessive (rotational) rotor speed and gas flow (see Figure 13, cases 20; 400, 30; 300, 30; 400, and 30; 500).

Research results for a ‘red triangle’ impeller equipped with three gas supply orifices (variant RT3) are presented in Figure 14.

In this impeller design, a uniform degree of bubble dispersion in the entire volume of the modeling fluid was achieved for most cases presented (see Figure 14). In all tested variants, single bubbles were observed in the area of the water surface in the vessel. For variants 20; 200, 30; 200, and 20; 300 shown in Figure 14, the bubble dispersion results were the worst as the so-called dead zones were identified in the area near the bottom and sidewalls of the vessel, which disqualifies these work parameters for further applications. Interestingly, areas where swirls and gas bubble chains formed were identified only for the inert gas flows of 20 and 30 dm3·min−1 and 200 rpm in the analyzed model. This means that the presented model had the best performance in terms of dispersion of gas bubbles in the model liquid. Its design with sharp edges also differed from previously analyzed models, which is beneficial for gas bubble dispersion, but may interfere with its suitability in industrial conditions due to possible premature wear.

3.4. Qualitative Comparison of Research Results (CFD and Physical Model)

The analysis (physical modeling) revealed that the best mixing efficiency results were obtained with the RT3 impeller variant. Therefore, numerical calculations were carried out for the impeller model with three outlet orifices (variant RT3). The CFD results are presented in Figure 15 and Figure 16.

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Figure 15

Simulation results of the impeller RT3, for given flows and rotational speeds after a time of 1 s: simulation variants (a) A, (b) B, (c) C, (d) D, (e) E, and (f) F.

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Figure 16

Simulation results of the impeller RT3, for given flows and rotational speeds after a time of 5.4 s.: simulation variants (a) A, (b) B, (c) C, (d) D, (e) E, and (f) F.

CFD results are presented for all analyzed variants (impeller RT3) at two selected calculation timesteps of 1 and 5.40 s. They show the velocity field of the medium (water) and the dispersion of gas bubbles.

Figure 15 shows the initial refining phase after 1 s of the process. In this case, the gas bubble formation and flow were observed in an area close to contact with the rotor. Figure 16 shows the phase when the dispersion and flow of gas bubbles were advanced in the reactor area of the URO-200 model.

The quantitative evaluation of the obtained results of physical and numerical model tests was based on the comparison of the degree of gas dispersion in the model liquid. The degree of gas bubble dispersion in the volume of the model liquid and the areas of strong turbulent zones formation were evaluated during the analysis of the results of visualization and numerical simulations. These two effects sufficiently characterize the required course of the process from the physical point of view. The known scheme of the below description was adopted as a basic criterion for the evaluation of the degree of dispersion of gas bubbles in the model liquid.

  • Minimal dispersion—single bubbles ascending in the region of their formation along the ladle axis; lack of mixing in the whole bath volume.
  • Accurate dispersion—single and well-mixed bubbles ascending toward the bath mirror in the region of the ladle axis; no dispersion near the walls and in the lower part of the ladle.
  • Uniform dispersion—most desirable; very good mixing of fine bubbles with model liquid.
  • Excessive dispersion—bubbles join together to form chains; large turbulence zones; uneven flow of gas.

The numerical simulation results give a good agreement with the experiments performed with the physical model. For all studied variants (used process parameters), the single bubbles were observed in the area of water surface in the vessel. For variants presented in Figure 13 (200 rpm, gas flow 20 and dm3·min−1) and relevant examples in numerical simulation Figure 16, the worst bubble dispersion results were obtained because the dead zones were identified in the area near the bottom and sidewalls of the vessel, which disqualifies these work parameters for further use. The areas where swirls and gas bubble chains formed were identified only for the inert gas flows of 20 and 30 dm3·min−1 and 200 rpm in the analyzed model (physical model). This means that the presented impeller model had the best performance in terms of dispersion of gas bubbles in the model liquid. The worst bubble dispersion results were obtained because the dead zones were identified in the area near the bottom and side walls of the vessel, which disqualifies these work parameters for further use.

Figure 17 presents exemplary results of model tests (CFD and physical model) with marked gas bubble dispersion zones. All variants of tests were analogously compared, and this comparison allowed validating the numerical model.

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Figure 17

Compilations of model research results (CFD and physical): A—single gas bubbles formed on the surface of the modeling liquid, B—excessive formation of gas chains and swirls, C—uniform distribution of gas bubbles in the entire volume of the tank, and D—dead zones without gas bubbles, no dispersion. (a) Variant B; (b) variant F.

It should be mentioned here that, in numerical simulations, it is necessary to make certain assumptions and simplifications. The calculations assumed three particle size classes (Table 2), which represent the different gas bubbles that form due to different gas flow rates. The maximum number of particles/bubbles (Table 1) generated was assumed in advance and related to the computational capabilities of the computer. Too many particles can also make it difficult to visualize and analyze the results. The size of the particles, of course, affects their behavior during simulation, while, in the figures provided in the article, the bubbles are represented by spheres (visualization of the results) of the same size. Please note that, due to the adopted Lagrangian–Eulerian approach, the simulation did not take into account phenomena such as bubble collapse or fusion. However, the obtained results allow a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of gas bubbles in the system under consideration.

The comparative analysis of the visualization (quantitative) results obtained with the water model and CFD simulations (see Figure 17) generated a sufficient agreement from the point of view of the trends. A precise quantitative evaluation is difficult to perform because of the lack of a refraction compensating system in the water model. Furthermore, in numerical simulations, it is not possible to determine the geometry of the forming gas bubbles and their interaction with each other as opposed to the visualization in the water model. The use of both research methods is complementary. Thus, a direct comparison of images obtained by the two methods requires appropriate interpretation. However, such an assessment gives the possibility to qualitatively determine the types of the present gas bubble dispersion, thus ultimately validating the CFD results with the water model.

A summary of the visualization results for impellers RT3, i.e., analysis of the occurring gas bubble dispersion types, is presented in Table 8.

Table 8

Summary of visualization results (impeller RT3)—different types of gas bubble dispersion.

No Exp.ABCDEF
Gas flow rate, dm3·min−11030
Impeller speed, rpm200300500200300500
Type of dispersionAccurateUniformUniform/excessiveMinimalExcessiveExcessive

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Tests carried out for impeller RT3 confirmed the high efficiency of gas bubble distribution in the volume of the tested object at a low inert gas flow rate of 10 dm3·min−1. The most optimal variant was variant B (300 rpm, 10 dm3·min−1). However, the other variants A and C (gas flow rate 10 dm3·min−1) seemed to be favorable for this type of impeller and are recommended for further testing. The above process parameters will be analyzed in detail in a quantitative analysis to be performed on the basis of the obtained efficiency curves of the degassing process (oxygen removal). This analysis will give an unambiguous answer as to which process parameters are the most optimal for this type of impeller; the results are planned for publication in the next article.

It should also be noted here that the high agreement between the results of numerical calculations and physical modelling prompts a conclusion that the proposed approach to the simulation of a degassing process which consists of a single-phase flow model with a free surface and a particle flow model is appropriate. The simulation results enable us to understand how the velocity field in the fluid is formed and to analyze the distribution of gas bubbles in the system. The simulations in Flow-3D software can, therefore, be useful for both the design of the impeller geometry and the selection of process parameters.

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4. Conclusions

The results of experiments carried out on the physical model of the device for the simulation of barbotage refining of aluminum revealed that the worst results in terms of distribution and dispersion of gas bubbles in the studied object were obtained for the black impellers variants B4, B8, and B12 (multi-orifice impellers—four, eight, and 12 outlet holes, respectively).

In this case, the control of flow, speed, and number of gas exit orifices did not improve the process efficiency, and the developed design did not meet the criteria for industrial tests. In the case of the ‘red triangle’ impeller (variant RT3), uniform gas bubble dispersion was achieved throughout the volume of the modeling fluid for most of the tested variants. The worst bubble dispersion results due to the occurrence of the so-called dead zones in the area near the bottom and sidewalls of the vessel were obtained for the flow variants of 20 dm3·min−1 and 200 rpm and 30 dm3·min−1 and 200 rpm. For the analyzed model, areas where swirls and gas bubble chains were formed were found only for the inert gas flow of 20 and 30 dm3·min−1 and 200 rpm. The model impeller (variant RT3) had the best performance compared to the previously presented impellers in terms of dispersion of gas bubbles in the model liquid. Moreover, its design differed from previously presented models because of its sharp edges. This can be advantageous for gas bubble dispersion, but may negatively affect its suitability in industrial conditions due to premature wearing.

The CFD simulation results confirmed the results obtained from the experiments performed on the physical model. The numerical simulation of the operation of the ‘red triangle’ impeller model (using Flow-3D software) gave good agreement with the experiments performed on the physical model. This means that the presented model impeller, as compared to other (analyzed) designs, had the best performance in terms of gas bubble dispersion in the model liquid.

In further work, the developed numerical model is planned to be used for CFD simulations of the gas bubble distribution process taking into account physicochemical parameters of liquid aluminum based on industrial tests. Consequently, the obtained results may be implemented in production practice.

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Funding Statement

This paper was created with the financial support grants from the AGH-UST, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, Poland (16.16.170.654 and 11/990/BK_22/0083) for the Faculty of Materials Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Poland.

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Author Contributions

Conceptualization, K.K. and D.K.; methodology, J.P. and T.M.; validation, M.S. and S.G.; formal analysis, D.K. and T.M.; investigation, J.P., K.K. and S.G.; resources, M.S., J.P. and K.K.; writing—original draft preparation, D.K. and T.M.; writing—review and editing, D.K. and T.M.; visualization, J.P., K.K. and S.G.; supervision, D.K.; funding acquisition, D.K. and T.M. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

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Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

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Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

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Data Availability Statement

Data are contained within the article.

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Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Footnotes

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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Fig. 1. Schematic figure showing the PREP with additional gas flowing on the end face of electrode.

플라즈마 회전 전극 공정 중 분말 형성에 대한 공정 매개변수 및 냉각 가스의 영향

Effects of process parameters and cooling gas on powder formation during the plasma rotating electrode process

Yujie Cuia Yufan Zhaoa1 Haruko Numatab Kenta Yamanakaa Huakang Biana Kenta Aoyagia AkihikoChibaa
aInstitute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, JapanbDepartment of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan

Highlights

•The limitation of increasing the rotational speed in decreasing powder size was clarified.

•Cooling and disturbance effects varied with the gas flowing rate.

•Inclined angle of the residual electrode end face affected powder formation.

•Additional cooling gas flowing could be applied to control powder size.

Abstract

The plasma rotating electrode process (PREP) is rapidly becoming an important powder fabrication method in additive manufacturing. However, the low production rate of fine PREP powder limits the development of PREP. Herein, we investigated different factors affecting powder formation during PREP by combining experimental methods and numerical simulations. The limitation of increasing the rotation electrode speed in decreasing powder size is attributed to the increased probability of adjacent droplets recombining and the decreased tendency of granulation. The effects of additional Ar/He gas flowing on the rotational electrode on powder formation is determined through the cooling effect, the disturbance effect, and the inclined effect of the residual electrode end face simultaneously. A smaller-sized powder was obtained in the He atmosphere owing to the larger inclined angle of the residual electrode end face compared to the Ar atmosphere. Our research highlights the route for the fabrication of smaller-sized powders using PREP.

플라즈마 회전 전극 공정(PREP)은 적층 제조 에서 중요한 분말 제조 방법으로 빠르게 자리잡고 있습니다. 그러나 미세한 PREP 분말의 낮은 생산율은 PREP의 개발을 제한합니다. 여기에서 우리는 실험 방법과 수치 시뮬레이션을 결합하여 PREP 동안 분말 형성에 영향을 미치는 다양한 요인을 조사했습니다. 분말 크기 감소에서 회전 전극 속도 증가의 한계는 인접한 액적 재결합 확률 증가 및 과립화 경향 감소에 기인합니다.. 회전 전극에 흐르는 추가 Ar/He 가스가 분말 형성에 미치는 영향은 냉각 효과, 외란 효과 및 잔류 전극 단면의 경사 효과를 통해 동시에 결정됩니다. He 분위기에서는 Ar 분위기에 비해 잔류 전극 단면의 경사각이 크기 때문에 더 작은 크기의 분말이 얻어졌다. 우리의 연구는 PREP를 사용하여 더 작은 크기의 분말을 제조하는 경로를 강조합니다.

Keywords

Plasma rotating electrode process

Ti-6Al-4 V alloy, Rotating speed, Numerical simulation, Gas flowing, Powder size

Introduction

With the development of additive manufacturing, there has been a significant increase in high-quality powder production demand [1,2]. The initial powder characteristics are closely related to the uniform powder spreading [3,4], packing density [5], and layer thickness observed during additive manufacturing [6], thus determining the mechanical properties of the additive manufactured parts [7,8]. Gas atomization (GA) [9–11], centrifugal atomization (CA) [12–15], and the plasma rotating electrode process (PREP) are three important powder fabrication methods.

Currently, GA is the dominant powder fabrication method used in additive manufacturing [16] for the fabrication of a wide range of alloys [11]. GA produces powders by impinging a liquid metal stream to droplets through a high-speed gas flow of nitrogen, argon, or helium. With relatively low energy consumption and a high fraction of fine powders, GA has become the most popular powder manufacturing technology for AM.

The entrapped gas pores are generally formed in the powder after solidification during GA, in which the molten metal is impacted by a high-speed atomization gas jet. In addition, satellites are formed in GA powder when fine particles adhere to partially molten particles.

The gas pores of GA powder result in porosity generation in the additive manufactured parts, which in turn deteriorates its mechanical properties because pores can become crack initiation sites [17]. In CA, a molten metal stream is poured directly onto an atomizer disc spinning at a high rotational speed. A thin film is formed on the surface of the disc, which breaks into small droplets due to the centrifugal force. Metal powder is obtained when these droplets solidify.

Compared with GA powder, CA powder exhibits higher sphericity, lower impurity content, fewer satellites, and narrower particle size distribution [12]. However, very high speed is required to obtain fine powder by CA. In PREP, the molten metal, melted using the plasma arc, is ejected from the rotating rod through centrifugal force. Compared with GA powder, PREP-produced powders also have higher sphericity and fewer pores and satellites [18].

For instance, PREP-fabricated Ti6Al-4 V alloy powder with a powder size below 150 μm exhibits lower porosity than gas-atomized powder [19], which decreases the porosity of additive manufactured parts. Furthermore, the process window during electron beam melting was broadened using PREP powder compared to GA powder in Inconel 718 alloy [20] owing to the higher sphericity of the PREP powder.

In summary, PREP powder exhibits many advantages and is highly recommended for powder-based additive manufacturing and direct energy deposition-type additive manufacturing. However, the low production rate of fine PREP powder limits the widespread application of PREP powder in additive manufacturing.

Although increasing the rotating speed is an effective method to decrease the powder size [21,22], the reduction in powder size becomes smaller with the increased rotating speed [23]. The occurrence of limiting effects has not been fully clarified yet.

Moreover, the powder size can be decreased by increasing the rotating electrode diameter [24]. However, these methods are quite demanding for the PREP equipment. For instance, it is costly to revise the PREP equipment to meet the demand of further increasing the rotating speed or electrode diameter.

Accordingly, more feasible methods should be developed to further decrease the PREP powder size. Another factor that influences powder formation is the melting rate [25]. It has been reported that increasing the melting rate decreases the powder size of Inconel 718 alloy [26].

In contrast, the powder size of SUS316 alloy was decreased by decreasing the plasma current within certain ranges. This was ascribed to the formation of larger-sized droplets from fluid strips with increased thickness and spatial density at higher plasma currents [27]. The powder size of NiTi alloy also decreases at lower melting rates [28]. Consequently, altering the melting rate, varied with the plasma current, is expected to regulate the PREP powder size.

Furthermore, gas flowing has a significant influence on powder formation [27,29–31]. On one hand, the disturbance effect of gas flowing promotes fluid granulation, which in turn contributes to the formation of smaller-sized powder [27]. On the other hand, the cooling effect of gas flowing facilitates the formation of large-sized powder due to increased viscosity and surface tension. However, there is a lack of systematic research on the effect of different gas flowing on powder formation during PREP.

Herein, the authors systematically studied the effects of rotating speed, electrode diameter, plasma current, and gas flowing on the formation of Ti-6Al-4 V alloy powder during PREP as additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4 V alloy exhibits great application potential [32]. Numerical simulations were conducted to explain why increasing the rotating speed is not effective in decreasing powder size when the rotation speed reaches a certain level. In addition, the different factors incited by the Ar/He gas flowing on powder formation were clarified.

Fig. 1. Schematic figure showing the PREP with additional gas flowing on the end face of electrode.
Fig. 1. Schematic figure showing the PREP with additional gas flowing on the end face of electrode.

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Fig. 1. A typical Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and selected segment of study for simulation

Understanding dry-out mechanism in rod bundles of boiling water reactor

끓는 물 원자로 봉 다발의 건조 메커니즘 이해

Liril D.SilviaDinesh K.ChandrakercSumanaGhoshaArup KDasb
aDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India
bDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India
cReactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India

Abstract

Present work reports numerical understanding of interfacial dynamics during co-flow of vapor and liquid phases of water inside a typical Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), consisting of a nuclear fuel rod bundle assembly of 7 pins in a circular array. Two representative spacings between rods in a circular array are used to carry out the simulation. In literature, flow boiling in a nuclear reactor is dealt with mechanistic models or averaged equations. Hence, in the present study using the Volume of Fluid (VOF) based multiphase model, a detailed numerical understanding of breaking and making in interfaces during flow boiling in BWR is targeted. Our work will portray near realistic vapor bubble and liquid flow dynamics in rod bundle scenario. Constant wall heat flux for fuel rod and uniform velocity of the liquid at the inlet patch is applied as a boundary condition. The saturation properties of water are taken at 30 bar pressure. Flow boiling stages involving bubble nucleation, growth, merging, local dry-out, rewetting with liquid patches, and complete dry-out are illustrated. The dry-out phenomenon with no liquid presence is numerically observed with phase fraction contours at various axial cut-sections. The quantification of the liquid phase fraction at different axial planes is plotted over time, emphasizing the progressive dry-out mechanism. A comparison of liquid-vapor distribution for inner and outer rods reveals that the inner rod’s dry-out occurs sooner than that of the outer rod. The heat transfer coefficient to identify the heat dissipation capacity of each case is also reported.

현재 작업은 원형 배열에 있는 7개의 핀으로 구성된 핵연료봉 다발 어셈블리로 구성된 일반적인 끓는 물 원자로(BWR) 내부의 물의 증기 및 액체상의 동시 흐름 동안 계면 역학에 대한 수치적 이해를 보고합니다.

원형 배열의 막대 사이에 두 개의 대표적인 간격이 시뮬레이션을 수행하는 데 사용됩니다. 문헌에서 원자로의 유동 비등은 기계론적 모델 또는 평균 방정식으로 처리됩니다.

따라서 VOF(Volume of Fluid) 기반 다상 모델을 사용하는 본 연구에서는 BWR에서 유동 비등 동안 계면의 파괴 및 생성에 대한 자세한 수치적 이해를 목표로 합니다.

우리의 작업은 막대 번들 시나리오에서 거의 사실적인 증기 기포 및 액체 흐름 역학을 묘사합니다. 연료봉에 대한 일정한 벽 열유속과 입구 패치에서 액체의 균일한 속도가 경계 조건으로 적용됩니다. 물의 포화 특성은 30bar 압력에서 취합니다.

기포 핵 생성, 성장, 병합, 국소 건조, 액체 패치로 재습윤 및 완전한 건조를 포함하는 유동 비등 단계가 설명됩니다. 액체가 존재하지 않는 건조 현상은 다양한 축 단면에서 위상 분율 윤곽으로 수치적으로 관찰됩니다.

다른 축 평면에서 액상 분율의 정량화는 점진적인 건조 메커니즘을 강조하면서 시간이 지남에 따라 표시됩니다. 내부 막대와 외부 막대의 액-증기 분포를 비교하면 내부 막대의 건조가 외부 막대보다 더 빨리 발생함을 알 수 있습니다. 각 경우의 방열 용량을 식별하기 위한 열 전달 계수도 보고됩니다.

Fig. 1. A typical Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and selected segment of study for simulation
Fig. 1. A typical Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and selected segment of study for simulation
Fig. 2. (a-c) dimensions and mesh configuration for G = 6 mm; (d-f) dimensions and mesh configuration for G = 0.6 mm
Fig. 2. (a-c) dimensions and mesh configuration for G = 6 mm; (d-f) dimensions and mesh configuration for G = 0.6 mm
Fig. 3. Simulating the effect of spacer (a) Spacer configuration around rod bundle (b) Mesh structure in spacer zone (c) Distribution of vapor bubbles in a rod bundle with spacer (d) Liquid phase fraction comparison for geometry with and without spacer (e,f,g) Wall temperature comparison for geometry with and without spacer; WS: With Spacer, WOS: Without Spacer; Temperature in the y-axis is in (f) and (g) is same as (e).
Fig. 3. Simulating the effect of spacer (a) Spacer configuration around rod bundle (b) Mesh structure in spacer zone (c) Distribution of vapor bubbles in a rod bundle with spacer (d) Liquid phase fraction comparison for geometry with and without spacer (e,f,g) Wall temperature comparison for geometry with and without spacer; WS: With Spacer, WOS: Without Spacer; Temperature in the y-axis is in (f) and (g) is same as (e).
Fig. 4. Validation of the present numerical model with crossflow boiling over a heated cylindrical rod [40]
Fig. 4. Validation of the present numerical model with crossflow boiling over a heated cylindrical rod [40]
Fig. 5. Grid-Independent study in terms of vapor volume in 1/4th of computational domain
Fig. 5. Grid-Independent study in terms of vapor volume in 1/4th of computational domain
Fig. 6. Interface contour for G = 6 mm; ul = 1.2 m/s; q˙ w = 396 kW/m2; they are showing nucleation, growth, merging, and pseudo-steady-state condition.
Fig. 6. Interface contour for G = 6 mm; ul = 1.2 m/s; q˙ w = 396 kW/m2; they are showing nucleation, growth, merging, and pseudo-steady-state condition.
Fig. 7. Interface contours for G = 0.6 mm; ul = 1.2 m/s; q˙ w = 396 kW/m2; It shows dry-out at pseudo-steady-state near the exit
Fig. 7. Interface contours for G = 0.6 mm; ul = 1.2 m/s; q˙ w = 396 kW/m2; It shows dry-out at pseudo-steady-state near the exit
Fig. 8. Vapor-liquid distribution across various distant cross-sections (Black color indicates liquid; Gray color indicates vapor); Magnification factor: 1 × (for a and b), 1.5 × (for c and d)
Fig. 8. Vapor-liquid distribution across various distant cross-sections (Black color indicates liquid; Gray color indicates vapor); Magnification factor: 1 × (for a and b), 1.5 × (for c and d)
Fig. 21. Two-phase flow mixture velocity (u¯z); for G = 6 mm, r = 5 means location at inner heated wall and r = 25 means location at outer adiabatic wall; for G = 0.66 mm, r = 5 means location at inner heated wall and r = 16.6 mm means location at outer adiabatic wall.
Fig. 21. Two-phase flow mixture velocity (u¯z); for G = 6 mm, r = 5 means location at inner heated wall and r = 25 means location at outer adiabatic wall; for G = 0.66 mm, r = 5 means location at inner heated wall and r = 16.6 mm means location at outer adiabatic wall.

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Figure 2: Temperature contours and melt pool border lines at different times for the 50 % duty cycle case: (a) - (c) Δtcycle = 400 μs, (d) – (f) Δtcycle = 1000 μs and (g) – (i) Δtcycle = 3000 μs.

MULTIPHYSICS SIMULATION OF THEMRAL AND FLUID DYNAMICS PHENOMENA DURING THE PULSED LASER POWDER BED FUSION PROCESS OF 316-L STEEL

M. Bayat* , V. K. Nadimpalli, J. H. Hattel
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Produktionstorvet
425, Kgs. 2800, Lyngby, Denmark

ABSTRACT

L-PBF(Laser Powder Bed Fusion)는 다양한 산업 분야에서 많은 관심을 받았으며, 주로 기존 제조 기술을 사용하여 만들 수 없었던 복잡한 토폴로지 최적화 구성 요소를 구현하는 잘 알려진 능력 덕분입니다. . 펄스 L-PBF(PL-PBF)에서 레이저의 시간적 프로파일은 주기 지속 시간과 듀티 주기 중 하나 또는 둘 다를 수정하여 변조할 수 있습니다. 따라서 레이저의 시간적 프로파일은 향후 적용을 위해 이 프로세스를 더 잘 제어할 수 있는 길을 열어주는 새로운 프로세스 매개변수로 간주될 수 있습니다. 따라서 이 작업에서 우리는 레이저의 시간적 프로파일을 변경하는 것이 PL-PBF 공정에서 용융 풀 조건과 트랙의 최종 모양 및 형상에 어떻게 영향을 미칠 수 있는지 조사하는 것을 목표로 합니다. 이와 관련하여 본 논문에서는 CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) 소프트웨어 패키지인 Flow-3D를 기반으로 하는 316-L 스테인리스강 PL-PBF 공정의 다중물리 수치 모델을 개발하고 이 모델을 사용하여 열과 유체를 시뮬레이션합니다. 다양한 펄스 모드에서 공정 과정 중 용융 풀 내부에서 발생하는 유동 조건. 따라서 고정된 레이저 듀티 사이클(50%)이 있는 레이저 주기 지속 시간이 용융 풀의 모양과 크기 및 최종 트랙 형태에 미치는 영향을 연구하기 위해 매개변수 연구가 수행됩니다. 더 긴 주기 기간에서 더 많은 재료가 더 큰 용융 풀 내에서 변위됨에 따라 용융 풀의 후류에 더 눈에 띄는 혹이 형성되며, 동시에 더 심각한 반동 압력을 받습니다. 또한 시뮬레이션에서 50% 듀티 사이클에서 1000μs에서 형성된 보다 대칭적인 용융 풀과 비교하여 400μs 사이클 주기에서 더 긴 용융 풀이 형성된다는 것이 관찰되었습니다. 풀 볼륨은 1000μs의 경우 더 큽니다. 매개변수 연구는 연속 트랙과 파손된 트랙 PL-PBF 사이의 경계를 설명하며, 여기서 연속 트랙은 항상 소량의 용융 재료를 유지함으로써 유지됩니다.

English Abstract

Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) has attracted a lot of attention from various industrial sectors and mainly thanks to its well-proven well-known capacity of realizing complex topology-optimized components that have so far been impossible to make using conventional manufacturing techniques. In Pulsed L-PBF (PL-PBF), the laser’s temporal profile can be modulated via modifying either or both the cycle duration and the duty cycle. Thus, the laser’s temporal profile could be considered as a new process parameter that paves the way for a better control of this process for future applications. Therefore, in this work we aim to investigate how changing the laser’s temporal profile can affect the melt pool conditions and the final shape and geometry of a track in the PL-PBF process. In this respect, in this paper a multiphysics numerical model of the PL-PBF process of 316-L stainless steel is developed based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package Flow-3D and the model is used to simulate the heat and fluid flow conditions occurring inside the melt pool during the course of the process at different pulsing modes. Thus, a parametric study is carried out to study the influence of the laser’s cycle duration with a fixed laser duty cycle (50 %) on the shape and size of the melt pool and the final track morphology. It is noticed that at longer cycle periods, more noticeable humps form at the wake of the melt pool as more material is displaced within bigger melt pools, which are at the same time subjected to more significant recoil pressures. It is also observed in the simulations that at 50 % duty cycle, longer melt pools form at 400 μs cycle period compared to the more symmetrical melt pools formed at 1000 μs, primarily because of shorter laser off-times in the former, even though melt pool volume is bigger for the 1000 μs case. The parameteric study illustrates the boundary between a continuous track and a broken track PL-PBF wherein the continuous track is retained by always maintaining a small volume of molten material.

Figure 1: Front and side views of the computational domain. Note that the region along z and from -100 μm to +50 μm is void.
Figure 1: Front and side views of the computational domain. Note that the region along z and from -100 μm to +50 μm is void.
Figure 2: Temperature contours and melt pool border lines at different times for the 50 % duty cycle case: (a) - (c) Δtcycle = 400 μs, (d) – (f) Δtcycle = 1000 μs and (g) – (i) Δtcycle = 3000 μs.
Figure 2: Temperature contours and melt pool border lines at different times for the 50 % duty cycle case: (a) – (c) Δtcycle = 400 μs, (d) – (f) Δtcycle = 1000 μs and (g) – (i) Δtcycle = 3000 μs.
Figure 3: Plot of melt pool volume versus time for four cases including continuous wave laser as well as 50 % duty cycle at 400 μs, 1000 μs and 3000 μs.
Figure 3: Plot of melt pool volume versus time for four cases including continuous wave laser as well as 50 % duty cycle at 400 μs, 1000 μs and 3000 μs.

CONCLUSIONS

In this work a CFD model of the modulated PL-PBF process of stainless steel 316-L is developed in the commercial software package Flow-3D. The model involves physics such as solidification, melting, evaporation, convection, laser-material interaction, capillarity, Marangoni effect and the recoil pressure effect. In the current study, a parametric study is carried out to understand how the change in the cycle period duration affects the melt pool’s thermo-fluid conditions during the modulated PL-PBF process. It is observed that at the pulse mode with 50 % duty cycle and 400 μs cycle period, an overlapped chain of humps form at the wake of the melt pool and at a spatial frequency of occurrence of about 78 μm. Furthermore and as expected, it is noted that the melt pool volume, the size of the hump as well as the crater size at the end of the track, increase with increase in the cycle period duration, as more material is re-deposited at the back of the melt pool and that itself is caused by more pronounced recoil pressures. Moreover, it is noticed that due to the short off-time period of the laser in the 400 μs cycle period case, there is always an amount of liquid metal left from the previous cycle, at the time the new cycle starts. This is found to be the main reason why longer and elongated melt pools form at 400 μs cycle period, compared to the bigger, shorter and more symmetrical-like melt pools forming at the 1000 μs case. In this study PL-PBF single tracks including the broken track and the continuous track examples were studied to illustrate the boundary of this transition at a given laser scan parameter setting. At higher scan speeds, it is expected that the Plateau–Rayleigh instability will compete with the pulsing behavior to change the transition boundary between a broken and continuous track, which is suggested as future work from this study.

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A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig7

A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys

Mohamad Bayat Venkata K. Nadimpalli David B. Pedersen Jesper H. Hattel
Department of mechanical engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Building 425, 2800 Kgs., Lyngby, Denmark

Received 21 August 2020, Revised 18 November 2020, Accepted 25 November 2020, Available online 15 December 2020.

Abstract

Several different interfacial forces affect the free surface of liquid metals during metal additive manufacturing processes. One of these is thermo-capillarity or the so-called Marangoni effect. In this work, a novel framework is introduced for unraveling the effects of thermo-capillarity on the melt pool morphology/size and its thermo-fluid conditions during the Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) process. In this respect, a multi-physics numerical model is developed based on the commercial software package Flow-3D. The model is verified and validated via mesh-independency analysis and by comparison of the predicted melt pool profile with those from lab-scale single-track experiments. Two sets of parametric studies are carried out to find the role of both positive and inverse thermo-capillarity on the melt pool shape and its thermal and fluid dynamics conditions. The thermo-fluid conditions of the melt pool are further investigated using appropriate dimensionless numbers. The results show that for the higher Marangoni number cases, the melt pool temperature drops, and at the same time, the temperature field becomes more uniform. Also, it is shown that at higher Marangoni numbers, temperature gradients decrease, thus reducing the role of conduction in the heat transfer from the melt pool. Furthermore, for the first time, a novel methodology is introduced for the calculation of the melt pool’s average Nusselt number. The average Nusselt numbers calculated for the positive and inverse thermo-capillarity are then used for finding the effective liquid conductivity required for a computationally cheaper pure heat conduction simulation. The results show that the deviation between the average melt pool temperature, using the pure conduction model with effective conductivity, and the one obtained from the advanced fluid dynamics model is less than 2%.

Keywords

Thermo-capillarity, Melt pool, Heat and fluid flow, Numerical model, L-PBF

Korea Abstract

금속 적층 제조 공정 중 액체 금속의 자유 표면에 여러 가지 다른 계면력이 영향을 미칩니다. 이들 중 하나는 열 모세관 또는 소위 Marangoni 효과입니다.

이 작업에서는 L-PBF (Laser Powder Bed Fusion) 공정 중 용융 풀 형태 / 크기 및 열 유동 조건에 대한 열 모세관의 영향을 밝히기 위한 새로운 프레임워크가 도입되었습니다.

이러한 점에서 상용 소프트웨어 패키지 Flow-3D를 기반으로 다중 물리 수치 모델이 개발되었습니다. 모델은 메쉬 독립 분석을 통해 그리고 예측 된 용융 풀 프로필을 실험실 규모의 단일 트랙 실험에서 얻은 프로필과 비교하여 검증 및 검증됩니다.

용융 풀 모양과 열 및 유체 역학 조건에 대한 양 및 역 열 모세관의 역할을 찾기 위해 두 세트의 매개 변수 연구가 수행됩니다. 용융 풀의 열 유동 조건은 적절한 무 차원 숫자를 사용하여 추가로 조사됩니다.

결과는 Marangoni 수가 더 높은 경우 용융 풀 온도가 떨어지고 동시에 온도 필드가 더 균일 해짐을 보여줍니다. 또한 Marangoni 수가 높을수록 온도 구배가 감소하여 용융 풀에서 열 전달에서 전도의 역할이 감소하는 것으로 나타났습니다.

또한 용융 풀의 평균 Nusselt 수를 계산하기위한 새로운 방법론이 처음으로 도입되었습니다. 그런 다음 양수 및 역 열 모세관에 대해 계산 된 평균 Nusselt 수는 계산적으로 더 저렴한 순수 열 전도 시뮬레이션에 필요한 효과적인 액체 전도도를 찾는 데 사용됩니다. 결과는 유효 전도도가 있는 순수 전도 모델을 사용한 평균 용융 풀 온도와 고급 유체 역학 모델에서 얻은 편차가 2 % 미만임을 보여줍니다.

A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig1
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig1
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig2
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig2
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig3
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig3
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig4
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig4
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig5
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig5
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig6
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig6
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig7
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig7
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig8
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig8
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig9
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig9
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig10
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig10
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig11
A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys Fig11
Weld bead surface images showing the slag formation location for (a) wire 1 and (b) wire 2.

The effect of alloying elements of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) wire on weld pool flow and slag formation location in cold metal transfer (CMT)

가스 금속 아크 용접 (GMAW) 와이어의 합금 원소가 CMT (Cold Metal Transfer)에서 용접 풀 흐름 및 슬래그 형성 위치에 미치는 영향

Md. R. U. Ahsan1,3, Muralimohan. Cheepu2, Yeong-Do Park* 2,3
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, International University of Business, Agriculture and Technology,
Dhaka 1230, Bangladesh.
r.ahsan06me@gmail.com
2Department of Advanced Materials and Industrial Management Engineering, Dong-Eui University, Busan
47340, Republic of Korea.
muralicheepu@gmail.com
3Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dong-Eui University, B

Abstract

용접시 표면 장력 구동 흐름 또는 마랑고니 흐름은 용접 비드 모양을 제어하는데 중요한 역할을 하므로 용접 접합 품질에 영향을 미칩니다. 용해된 금속의 표면 장력은 보통 음의 온도 계수를 가지므로 용접 풀이 중심에서 토우 방향으로 흐르게 됩니다.

표면 장력의 이 온도 계수는 황(S), 산소(O), 셀레늄(Se) 및 텔루륨(Te)과 같은 표면 활성 요소가 있는 경우 양의 계수로 변경할 수 있습니다. 소모품에 존재하는 탈산화 원소의 양이 용접 금속에 존재하는 산소량을 결정합니다. 탈산화제 양이 적으면 용접 금속에 산소 농도가 높아집니다.

적절한 양의 산소가 있으면 용융지에 표면 장력 구배의 양의 온도 계수가 발생할 수 있습니다. 이 경우 용접 풀은 토우에서 중앙 방향으로 흐릅니다. 그 결과, 아크와 용융지에 있는 화농성 반응의 경우, 합금 요소의 다양한 산화물이 슬래그(slag)라고 합니다. 슬래그는 용융지 표면에 떠서 용융지 흐름 패턴에 따라 누적됩니다.

그 결과, 슬래그는 용융지 흐름 패턴에 따라 용접 비드 중심 또는 토우 중심을 따라 형성됩니다. 슬래그는 용접 비드의 외관과 도장 접착력을 저하시키므로 제거해야 합니다. 쉽게 분리할 수 있기 때문에 용접 비드 중심 부근에서 슬래그가 형성되는 것이 좋습니다.

용접 풀의 현장 고속 비디오 촬영, 용접 금속 화학 성분 분석, 소모품 합금 요소가 용접 풀 흐름 패턴 및 슬래그 형성 위치에 미치는 영향이 공개되어 CMT-GMAW의 생산성 향상을 위해 용접 소모품 선택을 용이하게 할 수 있습니다.

The surface tension driven flow or Marangoni flow in welding plays an important role in governing weld bead shape hence affecting the weld joint quality. The surface tension of molten metal usually has a negative temperature coefficient causing the weld pool to flow from the center towards the toe.

This temperature coefficient of the surface tension can be altered to be a positive one in the presence of surface-active elements like sulfur (S), oxygen (O), selenium (Se) and tellurium (Te). The amount of deoxidizing elements present in the consumables governs the amount of oxygen present in the weld metal. The presence of a lower amount of deoxidizers results in higher concentration of oxygen in the weld metal.

The presence of adequate amount of oxygen can result in a positive temperature coefficient of surface tension gradient in the weld pool. In such situation, the weld pool flows from the toe towards the direction of the center. As a result, of pyrometallurgical reactions in the arc and the weld pool various oxides of the alloying elements are former which are referred as slag.

The slags float on the weld pool surface and accumulate following the weld pool flow pattern. As a result, slags form either along the center of the weld bead or the toe depending on the weld pool flow pattern. The slags need to be removed as they degrade the weld bead appearance and paint adhesiveness.

Due to easy detachability, slag formation near the center of the weld bead is desired. From in-situ high-speed videography of weld pool, weld metal chemical composition analysis, the effect of consumables alloying elements on weld pool flow pattern and slag formation location are disclosed, which can facilitate the selection of the welding consumables for better productivity in CMT-GMAW.

Weld bead surface images showing the slag formation location for (a) wire 1 and (b) wire 2.
Weld bead surface images showing the slag formation location for (a) wire 1 and (b) wire 2.
Fig. 2: High-speed movie frames and schematic showing the weld pool flow pattern and the slag formation location for wire 1 and wire 2.
Fig. 2: High-speed movie frames and schematic showing the weld pool flow pattern and the slag formation location for wire 1 and wire 2.
Fig. 3: Quantitative analysis data on slag formation for different wire.
Fig. 3: Quantitative analysis data on slag formation for different wire.

References

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Figure 4.9 Flow analysis results using FLOW3D of the metal flow and solidification in the main cavity. (The velocity is in m/s.)

Numerical Analysis of Die-Casting Process in Thin Cavities Using Lubrication Approximation

Alexandre Reikher
A Dissertation Submitted in
Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
In Engineering
at
The University of Wisconsin Milwaukee
December 2012

ABSTRACT

얇은 벽 부품의 주조는 오늘날 다이 캐스트 산업의 현실이 되었습니다. 전산 유체 역학 분석은 생산 개발 프로세스의 필수적인 부분입니다. 일반적으로 에너지 방정식과 결합 된 3 차원 Navier-Stokes 방정식은 유동 및 응고 패턴, 유동 선단의 위치, 함수로서 고체-액체 인터페이스의 위치를 ​​이해하기 위해 해결되어야 합니다.

캐비티 충전 및 응고 과정에서 시간. 얇은 벽 주조에 대한 지배 방정식의 일반적인 솔루션에는 많은 수의 계산 셀이 필요하므로 솔루션을 생성하는 데 비현실적으로 오랜 시간이 걸립니다.

Hele Shaw 유동 모델링 접근법을 사용하면 평면 외 유동을 무시함으로써 얇은 캐비티의 유동 문제 해결을 단순화 할 수 있습니다. 추가적인 이점으로, 문제는 3 차원 문제에서 2 차원 문제로 축소됩니다. 그러나 Hele-Shaw 근사는 흐름의 점성력이 관성력보다 훨씬 더 높아야하며,이 경우 Navier-Stokes 방정식은 Reynolds의 윤활 방정식으로 축소됩니다.

그러나 다이 캐스트 공정의 빠른 사출 속도로 인해 관성력을 무시할 수 없습니다. 따라서 윤활 방정식은 흐름의 관성 효과를 포함하도록 수정되어야 합니다.

이 박사 학위 논문에서는 얇은 공동에서 응고와 함께 액체 금속의 정상 상태 및 과도 흐름을 모델링하기 위한 빠른 수치 알고리즘이 개발되었습니다. 설명된 문제는 저온 챔버, 고압 다이 캐스트 공정, 특히 얇은 환기 채널에서 관찰되는 금속 흐름 현상과 밀접한 관련이 있습니다.

채널의 금속 흐름 속도가 고체-액체 계면 속도보다 훨씬 높다는 사실을 사용하여 두께에 따른 열 전달을 처리하면서 금속 흐름을 주어진 시간 단계에서 안정된 것으로 처리하여 새로운 수치 알고리즘을 개발했습니다.

일시적인 방향. 얇은 캐비티의 흐름은 채널 두께에 대한 운동량과 연속성 방정식을 통합 한 후 2 차원으로 처리되고 열 전달은 두께 방향의 1 차원 현상으로 모델링 됩니다. 엇갈린 격자 배열은 유동 지배 방정식을 이산화하는데 사용되며 결과적인 편미분 방정식 세트는 SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations) 알고리즘을 사용하여 해결됩니다.

상 변화를 수반하는 두께 방향 열 전달 문제는 제어 볼륨 공식을 사용하여 해결됩니다. 고체-액체 계면의 위치와 모양은 솔루션의 일부로 Stefan 조건을 사용하여 찾을 수 있습니다. 시뮬레이션 결과는 응고와 함께 전체 3 차원 흐름 및 열 전달 방정식을 해결하는 상용 소프트웨어 FLOW-3D®의 예측과 잘 비교되는 것으로 나타났습니다.

제안된 수치 알고리즘은 또한 얇은 채널에서 일시적인 금속 충전 및 응고 문제를 해결하기 위해 적용되었습니다. 움직이는 고체-액체 인터페이스의 존재는 이제 반복적으로 해결되는 일련의 흐름 방정식에 비선형 성을 도입합니다.

다시 한번, FLOW3D®의 예측과 잘 일치하는 것이 관찰되었습니다.

이 두 연구는 제안 된 관성 수정 레이놀즈의 윤활 방정식과 함께 두께를 통한 열 손실 및 응고 모델을 성공적으로 구현하여 다이 캐스트 공정 중에 얇은 채널에서 액체 금속의 유동 및 응고에 대한 빠른 분석을 제공 할 수 있음을 나타냅니다. CPU 시간을 대폭 절약하여 얻은 이러한 시뮬레이션 결과는 다이 캐스트 다이의 환기 채널을 설계하는 동안 빠른 초기 분석을 제공하는 데 사용할 수 있습니다.

Figure 1.3. Schematic representation of steps in the hot chamber die-cast process: a.  plunger pushes metal from the sleeve through the gating system into the cavity; b. after  solidification process is complete, the die opens; c. the part is ejected from the cavity.
Figure 1.3. Schematic representation of steps in the hot chamber die-cast process: a. plunger pushes metal from the sleeve through the gating system into the cavity; b. after solidification process is complete, the die opens; c. the part is ejected from the cavity.
Figure 1.5. Schematic representation of steps in the cold chamber die-cast process: a.  molten metal is ladled into the shot sleeve; b. hydraulic cylinder applies pressure on  plunger; c. plunger pushes metal from the sleeve through the gating system into the  cavity; d. high pressure is maintained during solidification; e. after solidification is  complete, the die opens; f. the part is ejected from the cavity.
Figure 1.5. Schematic representation of steps in the cold chamber die-cast process: a. molten metal is ladled into the shot sleeve; b. hydraulic cylinder applies pressure on plunger; c. plunger pushes metal from the sleeve through the gating system into the cavity; d. high pressure is maintained during solidification; e. after solidification is complete, the die opens; f. the part is ejected from the cavity.
Figure 4.6 A schematic of a die-cast die with shot sleeve and plunger: 1) Shot  sleeve, 2) Plunger, 3) Stationary half of the die-cast die, 4) Ejector half of the die-cast die,  5) Mold cavity, 6) Ventilation channel.
Figure 4.6 A schematic of a die-cast die with shot sleeve and plunger: 1) Shot sleeve, 2) Plunger, 3) Stationary half of the die-cast die, 4) Ejector half of the die-cast die, 5) Mold cavity, 6) Ventilation channel.
Figure 4.8 A picture (a ‘full shot’) of a part made using the die-cast process. The  overflows are created when the metal front, after filling the main cavity, fills up the  machined ‘overflow’ pockets in the die-cast mold. Ventilation channel is last to fill-up.
Figure 4.8 A picture (a ‘full shot’) of a part made using the die-cast process. The overflows are created when the metal front, after filling the main cavity, fills up the machined ‘overflow’ pockets in the die-cast mold. Ventilation channel is last to fill-up.
Figure 4.9 Flow analysis results using FLOW3D of the metal flow and solidification in the main cavity. (The velocity is in m/s.)
Figure 4.9 Flow analysis results using FLOW3D of the metal flow and solidification in the main cavity. (The velocity is in m/s.)
Figure 4.10 Temperature distribution in the considered cavity of the die-cast die, filled  with liquid metal at the end of the fill process. (The temperature is in 0C.)
Figure 4.10 Temperature distribution in the considered cavity of the die-cast die, filled with liquid metal at the end of the fill process. (The temperature is in 0C.)
Figure 4.16 Experimentally observed solidified metal in the ventilation channel; a)  Measured length of metal flow in the ventilation channel after solidification stops it; b)  Enlarged image of the solidified metal in the channel
Figure 4.16 Experimentally observed solidified metal in the ventilation channel; a) Measured length of metal flow in the ventilation channel after solidification stops it; b) Enlarged image of the solidified metal in the channel

Liquid Metal 3D Printing

Liquid Metal 3D Printing

This article was contributed by V.Sukhotskiy1,2, I. H. Karampelas3, G. Garg 1, A. Verma1, M. Tong 1, S. Vader2, Z. Vader2, and E. P. Furlani1
1
University at Buffalo SUNY, 2Vader Systems, 3Flow Science, Inc.

Drop-on-demand 잉크젯 인쇄는 상업 및 소비자 이미지 재생을 위한 잘 정립 된 방법입니다. 이 기술을 주도하는 동일한 원리는 인쇄 및 적층 제조 분야에도 적용될 수 있습니다. 기존의 잉크젯 기술은 폴리머에서 살아있는 세포에 이르기까지 다양한 재료를 증착하고 패턴화하여 다양한 기능성 매체, 조직 및 장치를 인쇄하는 데 사용되었습니다 [1, 2]. 이 작업의 초점은 잉크젯 기반 기술을 3D 솔리드 금속 구조 인쇄로 확장하는 데 있습니다 [3, 4]. 현재 대부분의 3D 금속 프린팅 응용 프로그램은 고체 물체를 형성하기 위해 레이저 [6] 또는 전자 빔 [7]과 같은 외부 지향 에너지 원의 영향을 받아 증착 된 금속 분말 소결 또는 용융을 포함합니다. 그러나 이러한 방법은 비용 및 프로세스 복잡성 측면에서 단점이 있습니다. 예를 들어, 3D 프린팅 프로세스에 앞서 분말을 생성하기 위해 시간과 에너지 집약적인 기술이 필요합니다.

이 기사에서는 MHD (자기 유체 역학) drop-on-demand 방출 및 움직이는 기판에 액체 방울 증착을 기반으로 3D 금속 구조의 적층 제조에 대한 새로운 접근 방식에 대해 설명합니다. 프로세스의 각 부분을 연구하기 위해 많은 시뮬레이션이 수행되었습니다.

단순화를 위해 이 연구는 두 부분으로 나뉘었습니다.

첫 번째 부분에서는 MHD 분석을 사용하여 프린트 헤드 내부의 Lorentz 힘 밀도에 의해 생성 된 압력을 추정 한 다음 FLOW-3D 모델의 경계 조건으로 사용됩니다. 액적 방출 역학을 연구하는 데 사용되었습니다.

두 번째 부분에서는 이상적인 액적 증착 조건을 식별하기 위해 FLOW-3D 매개 변수 분석을 수행했습니다. 모델링 노력의 결과는 그림 1에 표시된 장치의 설계를 안내하는데 사용되었습니다.

코일은 배출 챔버를 둘러싸고 전기적으로 펄스되어 액체 금속을 투과하고 폐쇄 루프를 유도하는 과도 자기장을 생성합니다. 그 안에 일시적인 전기장. 전기장은 순환 전류 밀도를 발생시키고, 이는 과도장에 역 결합되고 챔버 내에서 자홍 유체 역학적 로렌츠 힘 밀도를 생성합니다. 힘의 방사형 구성 요소는 오리피스에서 액체 금속 방울을 분출하는 역할을 하는 압력을 생성합니다. 분출된 액적은 기질로 이동하여 결합 및 응고되어 확장된 고체 구조를 형성합니다. 임의의 형태의 3 차원 구조는 입사 액적의 정확한 패턴 증착을 가능하게 하는 움직이는 기판을 사용하여 층별로 인쇄 될 수 있습니다. 이 기술은 상표명 MagnetoJet으로 Vader Systems (www.vadersystems.com)에 의해 특허 및 상용화되었습니다.

MagnetoJet 프린팅 공정의 장점은 상대적으로 높은 증착 속도와 낮은 재료 비용으로 임의 형상의 3D 금속 구조를 인쇄하는 것입니다 [8, 9]. 또한 고유한 금속 입자 구조가 존재하기 때문에 기계적 특성이 개선된 부품을 인쇄 할 수 있습니다.

프로토타입 디바이스 개발

Vader Systems의 3D 인쇄 시스템의 핵심 구성 요소는 두 부분의 노즐과 솔레노이드 코일로 구성된 프린트 헤드 어셈블리입니다. 액체화는 노즐의 상부에서 발생합니다. 하부에는 직경이 100μm ~ 500μm 인 서브 밀리미터 오리피스가 있습니다. 수냉식 솔레노이드 코일은 위 그림에 표시된 바와 같이 오리피스 챔버를 둘러싸고있습니다 (냉각 시스템은 도시되지 않음). 다수의 프린트 헤드 디자인의 반복적인 개발은 액체 금속 배출 거동뿐만 아니라, 액체 금속 충전 거동에 대한 사출 챔버 기하적인 효과를 분석하기 위해 연구되었습니다.

이 프로토타입 시스템은 일반적인 알루미늄 합금으로 만들어진 견고한 3D 구조를 성공적으로 인쇄했습니다 (아래 그림 참조). 액적 직경, 기하학, 토출 빈도 및 기타 매개 변수에 따라 직경이 50 μm에서 500 μm까지 다양합니다. 짧은 버스트에서 최대 5000 Hz까지 40-1000 Hz의 지속적인 방울 분사 속도가 달성 되었습니다.

Computational Models

프로토 타입 장치 개발의 일환으로, 성능 (예 : 액적 방출 역학, 액적-공기 및 액적-기질 상호 작용)에 대한 설계 개념을 스크리닝하기 위해 프로토타입 제작 전에 계산 시뮬레이션을 수행했습니다. 분석을 단순화하기 위해 CFD 분석 뿐만 아니라 컴퓨터 전자기(CE)를 사용하는 두 가지 다른 보완 모델이 개발되었습니다. 첫 번째 모델에서는 2 단계 CE 및 CFD 분석을 사용하여 MHD 기반 액적 분출 거동과 효과적인 압력 생성을 연구했습니다. 두 번째 모델에서는 열-유체 CFD 분석을 사용하여 기판상의 액적 패턴화, 유착 및 응고를 연구했습니다.

MHD 분석 후, 첫 번째 모델에서 등가 압력 프로파일을 추출하여 액적 분출 및 액적-기질 상호 작용의 과도 역학을 탐구하도록 설계된 FLOW-3D 모델의 입력으로 사용되었습니다. FLOW-3D 시뮬레이션은 액적 분출에 대한 오리피스 안과 주변의 습윤 효과를 이해하기 위해 수행되었습니다. 오리피스 내부와 외부 모두에서 유체 초기화 수준을 변경하고 펄스 주파수에 의해 결정된 펄스 사이의 시간을 허용함으로써 크기 및 속도를 포함하여 분출 된 액 적의 특성 차이를 식별 할 수있었습니다.

Droplet 생성

MagnetoJet 인쇄 프로세스에서, 방울은 전압 펄스 매개 변수에 따라 일반적으로 1 – 10m/s 범위의 속도로 배출되고 기판에 충돌하기 전에 비행 중에 약간 냉각됩니다. 기판상의 액적들의 패터닝 및 응고를 제어하는 ​​능력은 정밀한 3D 솔리드 구조의 형성에 중요합니다. 고해상도 3D 모션베이스를 사용하여 패터닝을 위한 정확한 Droplet 배치가 이루어집니다. 그러나 낮은 다공성과 원하지 않는 레이어링 artifacts가 없는 잘 형성된 3D 구조를 만들기 위해 응고를 제어하는 ​​것은 다음과 같은 제어를 필요로하기 때문에 어려움이 있습니다.

  • 냉각시 액체 방울로부터 주변 물질로의 열 확산,
  • 토출된 액적의 크기,
  • 액적 분사 빈도 및
  • 이미 형성된 3D 물체로부터의 열 확산.

이들 파라미터를 최적화 함으로써, 인쇄된 형상의 높은 공간 분해능을 제공하기에 충분히 작으며, 인접한 액적들 및 층들 사이의 매끄러운 유착을 촉진하기에 충분한 열 에너지를 보유 할 것입니다. 열 관리 문제에 직면하는 한 가지 방법은 가열된 기판을 융점보다 낮지만 상대적으로 가까운 온도에서 유지하는 것입니다. 이는 액체 금속 방울과 그 주변 사이의 온도 구배를 감소시켜 액체 금속 방울로부터의 열의 확산을 늦춤으로써 유착을 촉진시키고 고형화하여 매끄러운 입체 3D 덩어리를 형성합니다. 이 접근법의 실행 가능성을 탐구하기 위해 FLOW-3D를 사용한 파라 메트릭 CFD 분석이 수행되었습니다.

액체 금속방울 응집과 응고

우리는 액체 금속방울 분사 주파수뿐만 아니라 액체 금속방울 사이의 중심 간 간격의 함수로서 가열된 기판에서 내부 층의 금속방울 유착 및 응고를 조사했습니다. 이 분석에서 액체 알루미늄의 구형 방울은 3mm 높이에서 가열 된 스테인리스 강 기판에 충돌합니다. 액적 분리 거리 (100)로 변화 될 때 방울이 973 K의 초기 온도를 가지고, 기판이 다소 943 K.도 3의 응고 온도보다 900 K로 유지됩니다. 실선의 인쇄 중에 액적 유착 및 응고를 도시 50㎛의 간격으로 500㎛에서 400㎛까지 연속적으로 유지하고, 토출 주파수는 500Hz에서 일정하게 유지 하였습니다.

방울 분리가 250μm를 초과하면 선을 따라 입자가 있는 응고된 세그먼트가 나타납니다. 350μm 이상의 거리에서는 세그먼트가 분리되고 선이 채워지지 않은 간극이 있어 부드러운 솔리드 구조를 형성하는데 적합하지 않습니다. 낮은 온도에서 유지되는 기질에 대해서도 유사한 분석을 수행했습니다(예: 600K, 700K 등). 3D 구조물이 쿨러 기질에 인쇄될 수 있지만, 그것들은 후속적인 퇴적 금속 층들 사이에 강한 결합의 결여와 같은 바람직하지 않은 공예품을 보여주는 것이 관찰되었습니다. 이는 침전된 물방울의 열 에너지 손실률이 증가했기 때문입니다. 기판 온도의 최종 선택은 주어진 용도에 대해 물체의 허용 가능한 인쇄 품질에 따라 결정될 수 있습니다. 인쇄 중에 부품이 커짐에 따라 더 높은 열 확산에 맞춰 동적으로 조정할 수도 있습니다.

FLOW-3D 결과 검증

위 그림은 가열된 기판 상에 인쇄된 컵 구조 입니다. 인쇄 과정에서 가열된 인쇄물의 온도는 인쇄된 부분의 순간 높이를 기준으로 실시간으로 733K (430 ° C)에서 833K (580 ° C)로 점차 증가했습니다. 이것은 물체 표면적이 증가함에 따라 국부적인 열 확산의 증가를 극복하기 위해 행해졌습니다. 알루미늄의 높은 열전도율은 국부적인 온도 구배에 대한 조정이 신속하게 이루어져야 하기 때문에 특히 어렵습니다. 그렇지 않으면 온도가 빠르게 감소하고 층내 유착을 저하시킵니다.

결론

시뮬레이션 결과를 바탕으로, Vader System의 프로토타입 마그네슘 유체 역학 액체 금속 Drop-on-demand 3D 프린터 프로토 타입은 임의의 형태의 3D 솔리드 알루미늄 구조를 인쇄할 수 있었습니다. 이러한 구조물은 서브 밀리미터의 액체 금속방울을 층 단위로 패턴화하여 성공적으로 인쇄되었습니다. 시간당 540 그램 이상의 재료 증착 속도는 오직 하나의 노즐을 사용하여 달성 되었습니다.

이 기술의 상업화는 잘 진행되고 있지만 처리량, 효율성, 해상도 및 재료 선택면에서 최적의 인쇄 성능을 실현하는 데는 여전히 어려움이 있습니다. 추가 모델링 작업은 인쇄 과정 중 과도 열 영향을 정량화하고, 메니스커스 동작뿐만 아니라 인쇄된 부품의 품질을 평가하는 데 초점을 맞출 것입니다.

References
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[2] Sirringhaus, H., Kawase, T., Friend, R.H., Shimoda, T., Inbasekaran, M., Wu, W. and Woo, E.P., “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290(5499), 2123-2126 (2000).

[3] Tseng, A.A., Lee, M.H. and Zhao, B., “Design and operation of a droplet deposition system for freeform fabrication of metal parts,” Transactions-American Society of Mechanical Engineers Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology 123(1), 74-84 (2001).

[4] Suter, M., Weingärtner, E. and Wegener, K., “MHD printhead for additive manufacturing of metals,” Procedia CIRP 2, 102-106 (2012).

[5] Loh, L.E., Chua, C.K., Yeong, W.Y., Song, J., Mapar, M., Sing, S.L., Liu, Z.H. and Zhang, D.Q., “Numerical investigation and an effective modelling on the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process with aluminium alloy 6061,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 80, 288-300 (2015).

[6] Simchi, A., “Direct laser sintering of metal powders: Mechanism, kinetics and microstructural features,” Materials Science and Engineering: A 428(1), 148-158 (2006).

[7] Murr, L.E., Gaytan, S.M., Ramirez, D.A., Martinez, E., Hernandez, J., Amato, K.N., Shindo, P.W., Medina, F.R. and Wicker, R.B., “Metal fabrication by additive manufacturing using laser and electron beam melting technologies,” Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 28(1), 1-14 (2012).

[8] J. Jang and S. S. Lee, “Theoretical and experimental study of MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) micropump,” Sensors & Actuators: A. Physical, 80(1), 84-89 (2000).

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igure 1:Essential componentsof the MHD printhead (a) cross-sectional view of printhead showing flow of liquid metal.(b) simulation model showing the magneticfield generated by a pulsed magnetic coil as well as an ejecteddroplet of liquid aluminum.

Timeline of molten metal droplet ejection

용융 금속 액적 분출 타임 라인

Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamicdroplet ejection, droplet on demandprinting, 3D printing of molten metal, additive manufacturing, thermo-fluidic analysis, molten aluminum.

우리는 액체 금속 방울을 사용하여 3D 고체 금속 구조의 DOD (drop-on-demand) 프린팅을 위한 새로운 방법을 제시합니다. 이 방법은 MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic) 기반 방울 생성에 의존합니다. 특히, 외부 코일에 의해 공급되는 맥동 자기장은 액체 금속으로 채워진 분사 챔버 내에서 MHD 기반 힘 밀도를 유도하여 물방울이 노즐을 통해 분사되도록 합니다.

임의의 모양의 3 차원 (3D) 고체 금속 구조는 드롭 방식의 유착 및 응고와 함께 방울의 층별 패턴 증착을 통해 인쇄 할 수 있습니다. 샘플 인쇄 구조와 함께 이 프로토 타입 MHD 인쇄 시스템을 소개합니다. 또한 드롭 생성을 제어하는 기본 물리학에 대해 논의하고 장치 성능을 예측하기 위한 계산 모델을 소개합니다.

주문형 잉크젯 인쇄는 상업용 및 소비자용 이미지 재생을 위한 잘 정립된 방법입니다. 이 기술을 주도하는 동일한 원리는 기능 인쇄 및 적층 제조 분야에도 적용될 수 있습니다. 기존의 잉크젯 기술은 폴리머에서 살아있는 세포에 이르기까지 다양한 재료를 증착하고 패턴 화하여 다양한 기능성 매체, 조직 및 장치를 인쇄하는 데 사용되어 왔습니다 [1, 2]. 이 작업의 초점은 잉크젯 기반 기술을 3D 솔리드 금속 구조 프린팅으로 확장하는 데 있습니다 [3, 4]. 현재 대부분의 3D 금속 프린팅 응용 분야에는 레이저 (예 : 선택적 레이저 소결 [5] 및 직접 레이저 금속 소결 [6]) 또는 전자 빔 (예 : 레이저 소결 [6])과 같은 외부 지향 에너지 원의 영향으로 증착 된 금속 분말 소결 또는 용융이 포함됩니다. 전자빔 용융 [7])을 사용하여 고체 물체를 형성합니다. 그러나 이러한 방법은 비용 및 복잡성 측면에서 단점이 있습니다. 3D 프린팅 프로세스에 앞서 금속을 밀링해야 합니다.

igure  1:Essential componentsof the MHD printhead (a) cross-sectional  view  of  printhead  showing  flow  of liquid metal.(b) simulation model showing the magneticfield  generated  by  a  pulsed  magnetic  coil  as  well  as an ejecteddroplet of liquid aluminum.
igure 1:Essential componentsof the MHD printhead (a) cross-sectional view of printhead showing flow of liquid metal.(b) simulation model showing the magneticfield generated by a pulsed magnetic coil as well as an ejecteddroplet of liquid aluminum.

이 작업에서 우리는 자기 유체 역학의 원리에 기반한 금속 구조물의 적층 제조에 대한 새로운 접근 방식을 소개합니다. 이 방법에서는 감긴 고체 금속 와이어가 MHD 프린트 헤드의 아세라 미치 팅 챔버에 연속적으로 공급되고 용융되어 그림 1에 표시된 것처럼 모세관 힘을 통해 배출 챔버에 공급되는 액체 금속 저장소를 형성합니다. 코일이 배출 챔버를 둘러싸고 있습니다. 액체 금속 내에서 과도 전기장을 유도하는 과도 자기장을 생성하도록 전기적으로 펄스됩니다. 전기장은 유도 된 순환 전류 밀도를 생성하며, 이는 적용된 자기장과 결합하여 챔버 내에서 오리피스의 액체 금속 방울을 방출하는 역할을하는 로렌츠 힘 밀도 (fMHD)를 생성합니다. 분출 된 액 적은 기질로 이동하여 결합 및 응고되어 확장 된 고체 구조를 형성합니다. 임의의 형태의 3 차원 구조는 입사 액 적의 정확한 패턴 증착을 가능하게하는 움직이는 기판을 사용하여 층별로 인쇄 될 수 있습니다. 이 기술은 Vader Systems (www.vadersystems.com)에서 MagnetoJet이라는 상표명으로 개척하고 상용화했습니다. MagnetoJet 인쇄 공정의 장점은 상대적으로 높은 증착 속도와 낮은 재료 비용으로 임의의 모양의 3D 금속 구조를 인쇄하는 것입니다. 이 작업에서는 MagnetoJet 프로토 타입 프린팅 프로세스에 대해 논의하고 샘플 3D 프린팅 구조를 시연하며 합리적인 설계 및 장치 성능 예측을 가능하게하는 계산 모델을 소개합니다.

Figure 2:Printed     3D structures: (a) ring showing as printed base and processed    upper    portion, and (b) cat
Figure 2:Printed 3D structures: (a) ring showing as printed base and processed upper portion, and (b) cat
Fig. 3. Comparison of SEM photographs and simulation results of two neighboring aluminum droplets from (a) top view, (b) side view and (c) bottom view. The scale bar is 100 µm.

Effect of the surface morphology of solidified droplet on remelting
between neighboring aluminum droplets

Abstract

인접한 물방울 사이의 좋은 야금학적 결합은 droplet 기반 3D 프린팅에서 필수적입니다. 그러나 재용해 메커니즘이 명확하게 마스터되었지만, 콜드 랩은 균일한 알루미늄 액적 증착 제조에서 형성된 부품의 일반적인 내부 결함이며, 이는 응고된 액 적의 표면 형태를 간과하기 때문입니다.

여기에서 처음으로 물방울 사이의 융합에 대한 잔물결과 응고각의 차단 효과가 드러났습니다. 재용해의 자세한 과정을 조사하기 위해 VOF (체적 부피) 방법을 기반으로 3D 수치 모델을 개발했습니다. 실험과 시뮬레이션을 통해 인접한 액적 간의 재 용융 공정은 두 번째 액 적과 기판 사이의 과도 접촉에 따라 두 단계로 나눌 수 있음을 보여줍니다.

첫 번째 단계에서는 재용해 조건이 이론적으로 충족 되더라도 콜드 랩이 형성 될 수 있다는 직관적이지 않은 결과가 관찰됩니다. 이전에 증착된 액적 표면의 잔물결은 새로운 액적과의 직접 접촉을 차단합니다. 두 번째 단계에서는 응고 각도가 90 °보다 클 때 액체 금속이 불완전하게 채워져 바닥 표면에 콜드랩이 형성됩니다. 또한 이러한 콜드 랩은 온도 매개 변수를 개선하여 완전히 피하는 것이 어렵습니다.

이 문제를 해결하기 위해 기판의 열전도 계수를 감소시키는 새로운 전략이 제안 되었습니다. 이 방법은 잔물결을 제거하고 응고 각도를 줄임으로써 물방울 사이의 재용해를 효과적으로 촉진합니다.

Keywords: 3D printing; aluminum droplets; metallurgical bonding; ripples; solidification angle.

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of (a) experimental setup and (b) process principle of uniform aluminum droplet deposition manufacturing.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of (a) experimental setup and (b) process principle of uniform aluminum droplet deposition manufacturing.
Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the numerical model of two droplets successively depositing on the substrate.
Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the numerical model of two droplets successively depositing on the substrate.
Fig. 3. Comparison of SEM photographs and simulation results of two neighboring aluminum droplets from (a) top view, (b) side view and (c) bottom view. The scale bar is 100 µm.
Fig. 3. Comparison of SEM photographs and simulation results of two neighboring aluminum droplets from (a) top view, (b) side view and (c) bottom view. The scale bar is 100 µm.
Fig. 4. Experimental and simulation images of shape evolution during two neighboring droplets successively impacting at (a) t, (b) t+0.5 ms, (c) t+1 ms, (d) t+2 ms, (e) t+3 ms and (f) t+5 ms.
Fig. 4. Experimental and simulation images of shape evolution during two neighboring droplets successively impacting at (a) t, (b) t+0.5 ms, (c) t+1 ms, (d) t+2 ms, (e) t+3 ms and (f) t+5 ms.
Fig. 5. SEM observation of (a) side view and (b) bottom view of successive deposition of aluminum droplets; (c) enlarged side view of the section of the printed metal trace in (a); (d) fracture of two neighboring droplets; (e) cross-section of two droplets successive deposition; (f) enlarged view of the selected section in (e).
Fig. 5. SEM observation of (a) side view and (b) bottom view of successive deposition of aluminum droplets; (c) enlarged side view of the section of the printed metal trace in (a); (d) fracture of two neighboring droplets; (e) cross-section of two droplets successive deposition; (f) enlarged view of the selected section in (e).
Fig. 6. Simulation results of (a) shape evolution and solid fraction distribution in Y- Z middle cross-section of two successively-deposited droplets; (b) temperature variation with time at three points (labeled A-C) on the surface of the first droplet during the deposition of the second droplet.
Fig. 6. Simulation results of (a) shape evolution and solid fraction distribution in Y- Z middle cross-section of two successively-deposited droplets; (b) temperature variation with time at three points (labeled A-C) on the surface of the first droplet during the deposition of the second droplet.

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Advances in Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Jet Printing

Advances in Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Jet Printing

Scott Vader1, Zachary Vader1, Ioannis H. Karampelas2 and Edward P. Furlani2, 3
1Vader Systems, Buffalo, NY
2Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 3 Dept. of Electrical Engineering,
University at Buffalo SUNY, NY 14260, Office: (716) 645-1194, Fax: (716) 645-3822, efurlani@buffalo.edu

ABSTRACT

자기유체역학적 액체 금속 제트 프린팅

우리는 용해된 금속 방울을 3D 물체로 만드는 새로운 주문형 DOD(Drop-on-Demand) 인쇄 방법을 제안합니다. 이 접근 방식에서는 단단한 금속 와이어가 인쇄 헤드 내에서 용해된 다음 펄스 자기장에 노출됩니다.

적용된 필드가 챔버에 침투하여 액상 금속 내에 자기 유압(MHD) 기반 압력 펄스를 유도하여 금속 일부가 노즐 챔버를 통해 이동된 후 배출됩니다. 표면 장력은 분출된 금속 위에 작용하여 가해진 압력에 따라 초 당 수 미터 범위의 속도로 구형 방울을 형성합니다.

잠시 비행한 후 방울이 기질에 충돌하여 냉각되어 고체 덩어리를 형성합니다. 따라서 패턴이 있는 증착 및 드롭 방식의 고형화를 통해 3D 솔리드 구조를 인쇄할 수 있습니다.

현재 연구에서는 샘플 프린팅 구조와 함께 시제품 MHD 프린팅 시스템 개발에 대한 발전된 점을 제시합니다. 또한 드롭 생성을 관리하는 기본 물리학에 대해 논의하고 장치 성능을 예측하기 위한 새로운 컴퓨팅 모델을 소개합니다.

Computational model of magnetohydrodynamic-based drop generation
Computational model of magnetohydrodynamic-based drop generation (printhead reservoir and ejection chamber
not shown): (a) the magnetic field generated by a pulsed coil is shown

INTRODUCTION

주문형 드롭온 잉크젯 프린팅은 상업 및 소비자 이미지 재현을 위한 잘 확립된 방법입니다. 이 기술을 추진하는 원리와 동일한 원리가 기능 인쇄 및 적층 제조 분야에도 적용될 수 있습니다.

Early stage prototype of a single nozzle printhead
Early stage prototype of a single nozzle printhead

기존의 잉크젯 기술은 폴리머에서 살아있는 세포에 이르는 다양한 재료를 증착하고 패터링하여 다양한 기능성 매체, 조직 및 장치를 프린팅하는 데 사용되어 왔습니다. 현재 진행 중인 작업을 통해 잉크젯 인쇄를 3D 금속 부품으로 확장하려고 시도하고 있습니다.

현재, 대부분의 3D 금속 인쇄 애플리케이션은 고체 물체를 형성하기 위해 레이저(예: 선택적 레이저 소거 [1] 및 직접 금속 소거[2]) 또는 전자 빔(예: 전자 빔 용해 [3])과 같은 외부 유도 에너지원에 의해 소거 또는 녹는 퇴적 금속 분말을 포함합니다.

그러나 이러한 방법은 비용과 복잡성, 즉 3D 프린팅 공정에 앞서 금속을 분쇄해야 한다는 점에서 일정한 단점이 있을 수 있습니다.

이 프레젠테이션에서는 자기 유압 역학 원리를 기반으로 하는 금속 적층 제조의 근본적으로 다른 접근 방식을 제안합니다. 이 방법은 스풀링된 고체 금속 와이어를 인쇄 헤드에 공급하고 노즐에서 업스트림을 예열하여 노즐 챔버에 공급되는 액체 금속 저장소를 형성하는 것입니다. 챔버가 채워지면 액체 금속 내에서 과도 전류를 유도하는 펄스 자기장이 인가됩니다. 유도 전류가 인가된 필드에 결합되어 로렌츠 힘 밀도를 생성하여, 인가된 압력에 따라 속도가 달라지는 용융 금속 방울을 배출하는 작용을 하는 챔버 내의 유사 압력을 제공합니다.

방울은 냉각된 기질에 투영되어 고체 덩어리를 형성합니다. 3D 솔리드 구조를 패터닝으로 인쇄할 수 있습니다. 방울의 침적과 방울의 현명한 응고입니다. 이 유망한 신기술은 낮은 재료 비용, 높은 제조율 및 매력적인 재료 특성 때문에 적층 제조 애플리케이션에 광범위한 영향을 미칠 수 있습니다.

현재 작업에서는 새로운 3D 인쇄 시스템을 도입하고 기기 개발의 진보를 설명하고 샘플 인쇄 구조를 시연합니다. 또한 드롭 생성-배출 메커니즘에 대해 설명하고 인쇄 성능을 예측하기 위한 일련의 새로운 컴퓨팅 모델을 제시합니다.

자세한 내용은 본문을 참고하시기 바랍니다.

FLOW-3D CAST Bibliography

FLOW-3D CAST bibliography

아래는 FSI의 금속 주조 참고 문헌에 수록된 기술 논문 모음입니다. 이 모든 논문에는 FLOW-3D CAST 해석 결과가 수록되어 있습니다. FLOW-3D CAST를 사용하여 금속 주조 산업의 응용 프로그램을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Metal Casting Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D CAST results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D CAST can be used to successfully simulate applications for the Metal Casting Industry.

33-20     Eric Riedel, Martin Liepe Stefan Scharf, Simulation of ultrasonic induced cavitation and acoustic streaming in liquid and solidifying aluminum, Metals, 10.4; 476, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10040476

20-20   Wu Yue, Li Zhuo and Lu Rong, Simulation and visual tester verification of solid propellant slurry vacuum plate casting, Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, 2020. doi.org/10.1002/prep.201900411

17-20   C.A. Jones, M.R. Jolly, A.E.W. Jarfors and M. Irwin, An experimental characterization of thermophysical properties of a porous ceramic shell used in the investment casting process, Supplimental Proceedings, pp. 1095-1105, TMS 2020 149th Annual Meeting and Exhibition, San Diego, CA, February 23-27, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36296-6_102

12-20   Franz Josef Feikus, Paul Bernsteiner, Ricardo Fernández Gutiérrez and Michal Luszczak , Further development of electric motor housings, MTZ Worldwide, 81, pp. 38-43, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s38313-019-0176-z

09-20   Mingfan Qi, Yonglin Kang, Yuzhao Xu, Zhumabieke Wulabieke and Jingyuan Li, A novel rheological high pressure die-casting process for preparing large thin-walled Al–Si–Fe–Mg–Sr alloy with high heat conductivity, high plasticity and medium strength, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 776, art. no. 139040, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2020.139040

07-20   Stefan Heugenhauser, Erhard Kaschnitz and Peter Schumacher, Development of an aluminum compound casting process – Experiments and numerical simulations, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 279, art. no. 116578, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.116578

05-20   Michail Papanikolaou, Emanuele Pagone, Mark Jolly and Konstantinos Salonitis, Numerical simulation and evaluation of Campbell running and gating systems, Metals, 10.1, art. no. 68, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10010068

102-19   Ferencz Peti and Gabriela Strnad, The effect of squeeze pin dimension and operational parameters on material homogeneity of aluminium high pressure die cast parts, Acta Marisiensis. Seria Technologica, 16.2, 2019. doi.org/0.2478/amset-2019-0010

94-19   E. Riedel, I. Horn, N. Stein, H. Stein, R. Bahr, and S. Scharf, Ultrasonic treatment: a clean technology that supports sustainability incasting processes, Procedia, 26th CIRP Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) Conference, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, May 7-9, 2019. 

93-19   Adrian V. Catalina, Liping Xue, Charles A. Monroe, Robin D. Foley, and John A. Griffin, Modeling and Simulation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi- and AlCu-based Alloys, Transactions, 123rd Metalcasting Congress, Atlanta, GA, USA, April 27-30, 2019. 

84-19   Arun Prabhakar, Michail Papanikolaou, Konstantinos Salonitis, and Mark Jolly, Sand casting of sheet lead: numerical simulation of metal flow and solidification, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, pp. 1-13, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-019-04522-3

72-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Eric Macdonald, Robert Voigt, and Guha Manogharan, Measurement of metal velocity in sand casting during mold filling, Metals, 9:1079, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/met9101079

71-19   Sebastian Findeisen, Robin Van Der Auwera, Michael Heuser, and Franz-Josef Wöstmann, Gießtechnische Fertigung von E-Motorengehäusen mit interner Kühling (Casting production of electric motor housings with internal cooling), Geisserei, 106, pp. 72-78, 2019 (in German).

58-19     Von Malte Leonhard, Matthias Todte, and Jörg Schäffer, Realistic simulation of the combustion of exothermic feeders, Casting, No. 2, pp. 28-32, 2019. In English and German.

52-19     S. Lakkum and P. Kowitwarangkul, Numerical investigations on the effect of gas flow rate in the gas stirred ladle with dual plugs, International Conference on Materials Research and Innovation (ICMARI), Bangkok, Thailand, December 17-21, 2018. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 526, 2019. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/526/1/012028

47-19     Bing Zhou, Shuai Lu, Kaile Xu, Chun Xu, and Zhanyong Wang, Microstructure and simulation of semisolid aluminum alloy castings in the process of stirring integrated transfer-heat (SIT) with water cooling, International Journal of Metalcasting, Online edition, pp. 1-13, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s40962-019-00357-6

31-19     Zihao Yuan, Zhipeng Guo, and S.M. Xiong, Skin layer of A380 aluminium alloy die castings and its blistering during solution treatment, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, Vol. 35, No. 9, pp. 1906-1916, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2019.05.011

25-19     Stefano Mascetti, Raul Pirovano, and Giulio Timelli, Interazione metallo liquido/stampo: Il fenomeno della metallizzazione, La Metallurgia Italiana, No. 4, pp. 44-50, 2019. In Italian.

20-19     Fu-Yuan Hsu, Campbellology for runner system design, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 187-199, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_19

19-19     Chengcheng Lyu, Michail Papanikolaou, and Mark Jolly, Numerical process modelling and simulation of Campbell running systems designs, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 53-64, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_5

18-19     Adrian V. Catalina, Liping Xue, and Charles Monroe, A solidification model with application to AlSi-based alloys, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 201-213, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_20

17-19     Fu-Yuan Hsu and Yu-Hung Chen, The validation of feeder modeling for ductile iron castings, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 227-238, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_22

04-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch and Guha Manogharan, Novel sprue designs in metal casting via 3D sand-printing, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 25, pp. 563-578, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.009

02-19   Jingying Sun, Qichi Le, Li Fu, Jing Bai, Johannes Tretter, Klaus Herbold and Hongwei Huo, Gas entrainment behavior of aluminum alloy engine crankcases during the low-pressure-die-casting-process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 266, pp. 274-282, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.11.016

92-18   Fast, Flexible… More Versatile, Foundry Management Technology, March, 2018. 

82-18   Xu Zhao, Ping Wang, Tao Li, Bo-yu Zhang, Peng Wang, Guan-zhou Wang and Shi-qi Lu, Gating system optimization of high pressure die casting thin-wall AlSi10MnMg longitudinal loadbearing beam based on numerical simulation, China Foundry, Vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 436-442, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s41230-018-8052-z

80-18   Michail Papanikolaou, Emanuele Pagone, Konstantinos Salonitis, Mark Jolly and Charalampos Makatsoris, A computational framework towards energy efficient casting processes, Sustainable Design and Manufacturing 2018: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing (KES-SDM-18), Gold Coast, Australia, June 24-26 2018, SIST 130, pp. 263-276, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04290-5_27

64-18   Vasilios Fourlakidis, Ilia Belov and Attila Diószegi, Strength prediction for pearlitic lamellar graphite iron: Model validation, Metals, Vol. 8, No. 9, 2018. doi.org/10.3390/met8090684

51-18   Xue-feng Zhu, Bao-yi Yu, Li Zheng, Bo-ning Yu, Qiang Li, Shu-ning Lü and Hao Zhang, Influence of pouring methods on filling process, microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91 Mg alloy pipe by horizontal centrifugal casting, China Foundry, vol. 15, no. 3, pp.196-202, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s41230-018-7256-6

47-18   Santosh Reddy Sama, Jiayi Wang and Guha Manogharan, Non-conventional mold design for metal casting using 3D sand-printing, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, vol. 34-B, pp. 765-775, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2018.03.049

42-18   M. Koru and O. Serçe, The Effects of Thermal and Dynamical Parameters and Vacuum Application on Porosity in High-Pressure Die Casting of A383 Al-Alloy, International Journal of Metalcasting, pp. 1-17, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s40962-018-0214-7

41-18   Abhilash Viswanath, S. Savithri, U.T.S. Pillai, Similitude analysis on flow characteristics of water, A356 and AM50 alloys during LPC process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 257, pp. 270-277, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.02.031

29-18   Seyboldt, Christoph and Liewald, Mathias, Investigation on thixojoining to produce hybrid components with intermetallic phase, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1960, no. 1, 2018. doi.org/10.1063/1.5034992

28-18   Laura Schomer, Mathias Liewald and Kim Rouven Riedmüller, Simulation of the infiltration process of a ceramic open-pore body with a metal alloy in semi-solid state to design the manufacturing of interpenetrating phase composites, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1960, no. 1, 2018. doi.org/10.1063/1.5034991

41-17   Y. N. Wu et al., Numerical Simulation on Filling Optimization of Copper Rotor for High Efficient Electric Motors in Die Casting Process, Materials Science Forum, Vol. 898, pp. 1163-1170, 2017.

12-17   A.M.  Zarubin and O.A. Zarubina, Controlling the flow rate of melt in gravity die casting of aluminum alloys, Liteynoe Proizvodstvo (Casting Manufacturing), pp 16-20, 6, 2017. In Russian.

10-17   A.Y. Korotchenko, Y.V. Golenkov, M.V. Tverskoy and D.E. Khilkov, Simulation of the Flow of Metal Mixtures in the Mold, Liteynoe Proizvodstvo (Casting Manufacturing), pp 18-22, 5, 2017. In Russian.

08-17   Morteza Morakabian Esfahani, Esmaeil Hajjari, Ali Farzadi and Seyed Reza Alavi Zaree, Prediction of the contact time through modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in compound casting process of Al/Mg light metals, Journal of Materials Research, © Materials Research Society 2017

04-17   Huihui Liu, Xiongwei He and Peng Guo, Numerical simulation on semi-solid die-casting of magnesium matrix composite based on orthogonal experiment, AIP Conference Proceedings 1829, 020037 (2017); doi.org/10.1063/1.4979769.

100-16  Robert Watson, New numerical techniques to quantify and predict the effect of entrainment defects, applied to high pressure die casting, PhD Thesis: University of Birmingham, 2016.

88-16   M.C. Carter, T. Kauffung, L. Weyenberg and C. Peters, Low Pressure Die Casting Simulation Discovery through Short Shot, Cast Expo & Metal Casting Congress, April 16-19, 2016, Minneapolis, MN, Copyright 2016 American Foundry Society.

61-16   M. Koru and O. Serçe, Experimental and numerical determination of casting mold interfacial heat transfer coefficient in the high pressure die casting of a 360 aluminum alloy, ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, Vol. 129 (2016)

59-16   R. Pirovano and S. Mascetti, Tracking of collapsed bubbles during a filling simulation, La Metallurgia Italiana – n. 6 2016

43-16   Kevin Lee, Understanding shell cracking during de-wax process in investment casting, Ph.D Thesis: University of Birmingham, School of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2016.

35-16   Konstantinos Salonitis, Mark Jolly, Binxu Zeng, and Hamid Mehrabi, Improvements in energy consumption and environmental impact by novel single shot melting process for casting, Journal of Cleaner Production, doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.165, Open Access funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, June 29, 2016

20-16   Fu-Yuan Hsu, Bifilm Defect Formation in Hydraulic Jump of Liquid Aluminum, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 2016, Band: 47, Heft 3, 1634-1648.

15-16   Mingfan Qia, Yonglin Kanga, Bing Zhoua, Wanneng Liaoa, Guoming Zhua, Yangde Lib,and Weirong Li, A forced convection stirring process for Rheo-HPDC aluminum and magnesium alloys, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 234 (2016) 353–367

112-15   José Miguel Gonçalves Ledo Belo da Costa, Optimization of filling systems for low pressure by FLOW-3D, Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Mecânica, 2015.

89-15   B.W. Zhu, L.X. Li, X. Liu, L.Q. Zhang and R. Xu, Effect of Viscosity Measurement Method to Simulate High Pressure Die Casting of Thin-Wall AlSi10MnMg Alloy Castings, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Published online, November 2015, doi.org/10.1007/s11665-015-1783-8, © ASM International.

88-15   Peng Zhang, Zhenming Li, Baoliang Liu, Wenjiang Ding and Liming Peng, Improved tensile properties of a new aluminum alloy for high pressure die casting, Materials Science & Engineering A651(2016)376–390, Available online, November 2015.

83-15   Zu-Qi Hu, Xin-Jian Zhang and Shu-Sen Wu, Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Die-Filling Behavior of High-Performance Die-Cast Al–Mg–Si–Mn Alloy, Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett.), doi.org/10.1007/s40195-015-0332-7, © The Chinese Society for Metals and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.

82-15   J. Müller, L. Xue, M.C. Carter, C. Thoma, M. Fehlbier and M. Todte, A Die Spray Cooling Model for Thermal Die Cycling Simulations, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

81-15   M. T. Murray, L.F. Hansen, L. Chilcott, E. Li and A.M. Murray, Case Studies in the Use of Simulation- Improved Yield and Reduced Time to Market, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

80-15   R. Bhola, S. Chandra and D. Souders, Predicting Castability of Thin-Walled Parts for the HPDC Process Using Simulations, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

76-15   Prosenjit Das, Sudip K. Samanta, Shashank Tiwari and Pradip Dutta, Die Filling Behaviour of Semi Solid A356 Al Alloy Slurry During Rheo Pressure Die Casting, Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, pp 1-6, October 2015

74-15   Murat KORU and Orhan SERÇE, Yüksek Basınçlı Döküm Prosesinde Enjeksiyon Parametrelerine Bağlı Olarak Döküm Simülasyon, Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Science, Science Journal (CSJ), Vol. 36, No: 5 (2015) ISSN: 1300-1949, May 2015

69-15   A. Viswanath, S. Sivaraman, U. T. S. Pillai, Computer Simulation of Low Pressure Casting Process Using FLOW-3D, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 830-831, pp. 45-48, September 2015

68-15   J. Aneesh Kumar, K. Krishnakumar and S. Savithri, Computer Simulation of Centrifugal Casting Process Using FLOW-3D, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 830-831, pp. 53-56, September 2015

59-15   F. Hosseini Yekta and S. A. Sadough Vanini, Simulation of the flow of semi-solid steel alloy using an enhanced model, Metals and Materials International, August 2015.

44-15   Ulrich E. Klotz, Tiziana Heiss and Dario Tiberto, Platinum investment casting material properties, casting simulation and optimum process parameters, Jewelry Technology Forum 2015

41-15   M. Barkhudarov and R. Pirovano, Minimizing Air Entrainment in High Pressure Die Casting Shot Sleeves, GIFA 2015, Düsseldorf, Germany

40-15   M. Todte, A. Fent, and H. Lang, Simulation in support of the development of innovative processes in the casting industry, GIFA 2015, Düsseldorf, Germany

19-15   Bruce Morey, Virtual casting improves powertrain design, Automotive Engineering, SAE International, March 2015.

15-15   K.S. Oh, J.D. Lee, S.J. Kim and J.Y. Choi, Development of a large ingot continuous caster, Metall. Res. Technol. 112, 203 (2015) © EDP Sciences, 2015, doi.org/10.1051/metal/2015006, www.metallurgical-research.org

14-15   Tiziana Heiss, Ulrich E. Klotz and Dario Tiberto, Platinum Investment Casting, Part I: Simulation and Experimental Study of the Casting Process, Johnson Matthey Technol. Rev., 2015, 59, (2), 95, doi.org/10.1595/205651315×687399

138-14 Christopher Thoma, Wolfram Volk, Ruben Heid, Klaus Dilger, Gregor Banner and Harald Eibisch, Simulation-based prediction of the fracture elongation as a failure criterion for thin-walled high-pressure die casting components, International Journal of Metalcasting, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 47-54, 2014. doi.org/10.1007/BF03355594

107-14  Mehran Seyed Ahmadi, Dissolution of Si in Molten Al with Gas Injection, ProQuest Dissertations And Theses; Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Toronto (Canada), 2014; Publication Number: AAT 3637106; ISBN: 9781321195231; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 76-02(E), Section: B.; 191 p.

99-14   R. Bhola and S. Chandra, Predicting Castability for Thin-Walled HPDC Parts, Foundry Management Technology, December 2014

92-14   Warren Bishenden and Changhua Huang, Venting design and process optimization of die casting process for structural components; Part II: Venting design and process optimization, Die Casting Engineer, November 2014

90-14   Ken’ichi Kanazawa, Ken’ichi Yano, Jun’ichi Ogura, and Yasunori Nemoto, Optimum Runner Design for Die-Casting using CFD Simulations and Verification with Water-Model Experiments, Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2014, November 14-20, 2014, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, IMECE2014-37419

89-14   P. Kapranos, C. Carney, A. Pola, and M. Jolly, Advanced Casting Methodologies: Investment Casting, Centrifugal Casting, Squeeze Casting, Metal Spinning, and Batch Casting, In Comprehensive Materials Processing; McGeough, J., Ed.; 2014, Elsevier Ltd., 2014; Vol. 5, pp 39–67.

77-14   Andrei Y. Korotchenko, Development of Scientific and Technological Approaches to Casting Net-Shaped Castings in Sand Molds Free of Shrinkage Defects and Hot Tears, Post-doctoral thesis: Russian State Technological University, 2014. In Russian.

69-14   L. Xue, M.C. Carter, A.V. Catalina, Z. Lin, C. Li, and C. Qiu, Predicting, Preventing Core Gas Defects in Steel Castings, Modern Casting, September 2014

68-14   L. Xue, M.C. Carter, A.V. Catalina, Z. Lin, C. Li, and C. Qiu, Numerical Simulation of Core Gas Defects in Steel Castings, Copyright 2014 American Foundry Society, 118th Metalcasting Congress, April 8 – 11, 2014, Schaumburg, IL

51-14   Jesus M. Blanco, Primitivo Carranza, Rafael Pintos, Pedro Arriaga, and Lakhdar Remaki, Identification of Defects Originated during the Filling of Cast Pieces through Particles Modelling, 11th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM XI), 5th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM V), 6th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ECFD VI), E. Oñate, J. Oliver and A. Huerta (Eds)

47-14   B. Vijaya Ramnatha, C.Elanchezhiana, Vishal Chandrasekhar, A. Arun Kumarb, S. Mohamed Asif, G. Riyaz Mohamed, D. Vinodh Raj , C .Suresh Kumar, Analysis and Optimization of Gating System for Commutator End Bracket, Procedia Materials Science 6 ( 2014 ) 1312 – 1328, 3rd International Conference on Materials Processing and Characterisation (ICMPC 2014)

42-14  Bing Zhou, Yong-lin Kang, Guo-ming Zhu, Jun-zhen Gao, Ming-fan Qi, and Huan-huan Zhang, Forced convection rheoforming process for preparation of 7075 aluminum alloy semisolid slurry and its numerical simulation, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 24(2014) 1109−1116

37-14    A. Karwinski, W. Lesniewski, P. Wieliczko, and M. Malysza, Casting of Titanium Alloys in Centrifugal Induction Furnaces, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, Volume 59, Issue 1, doi.org/10.2478/amm-2014-0068, 2014.

26-14    Bing Zhou, Yonglin Kang, Mingfan Qi, Huanhuan Zhang and Guoming ZhuR-HPDC Process with Forced Convection Mixing Device for Automotive Part of A380 Aluminum Alloy, Materials 2014, 7, 3084-3105; doi.org/10.3390/ma7043084

20-14  Johannes Hartmann, Tobias Fiegl, Carolin Körner, Aluminum integral foams with tailored density profile by adapted blowing agents, Applied Physics A, doi.org/10.1007/s00339-014-8377-4, March 2014.

19-14    A.Y. Korotchenko, N.A. Nikiforova, E.D. Demjanov, N.C. Larichev, The Influence of the Filling Conditions on the Service Properties of the Part Side Frame, Russian Foundryman, 1 (January), pp 40-43, 2014. In Russian.

11-14 B. Fuchs and C. Körner, Mesh resolution consideration for the viability prediction of lost salt cores in the high pressure die casting process, Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2014, Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

08-14 FY Hsu, SW Wang, and HJ Lin, The External and Internal Shrinkages in Aluminum Gravity Castings, Shape Casting: 5th International Symposium 2014. Available online at Google Books

103-13  B. Fuchs, H. Eibisch and C. Körner, Core Viability Simulation for Salt Core Technology in High-Pressure Die Casting, International Journal of Metalcasting, July 2013, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 39–45

94-13    Randall S. Fielding, J. Crapps, C. Unal, and J.R.Kennedy, Metallic Fuel Casting Development and Parameter Optimization Simulations, International Conference on Fast reators and Related Fuel Cycles (FR13), 4-7 March 2013, Paris France

90-13  A. Karwińskia, M. Małyszaa, A. Tchórza, A. Gila, B. Lipowska, Integration of Computer Tomography and Simulation Analysis in Evaluation of Quality of Ceramic-Carbon Bonded Foam Filter, Archives of Foundry Engineering, doi.org/10.2478/afe-2013-0084, Published quarterly as the organ of the Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ISSN, (2299-2944), Volume 13, Issue 4/2013

88-13  Litie and Metallurgia (Casting and Metallurgy), 3 (72), 2013, N.V.Sletova, I.N.Volnov, S.P.Zadrutsky, V.A.Chaikin, Modeling of the Process of Removing Non-metallic Inclusions in Aluminum Alloys Using the FLOW-3D program, pp 138-140. In Russian.

85-13    Michał Szucki,Tomasz Goraj, Janusz Lelito, Józef S. Suchy, Numerical Analysis of Solid Particles Flow in Liquid Metal, XXXVII International Scientific Conference Foundryman’ Day 2013, Krakow, 28-29 November 2013

84-13  Körner, C., Schwankl, M., Himmler, D., Aluminum-Aluminum compound castings by electroless deposited zinc layers, Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2014), doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.12.01483-13.

77-13  Antonio Armillotta & Raffaello Baraggi & Simone Fasoli, SLM tooling for die casting with conformal cooling channels, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, doi.org/10.1007/s00170-013-5523-7, December 2013.

64-13   Johannes Hartmann, Christina Blümel, Stefan Ernst, Tobias Fiegl, Karl-Ernst Wirth, Carolin Körner, Aluminum integral foam castings with microcellular cores by nano-functionalization, J Mater Sci, doi.org/10.1007/s10853-013-7668-z, September 2013.

46-13  Nicholas P. Orenstein, 3D Flow and Temperature Analysis of Filling a Plutonium Mold, LA-UR-13-25537, Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Los Alamos Annual Student Symposium 2013, 2013-07-24 (Rev.1)

42-13   Yang Yue, William D. Griffiths, and Nick R. Green, Modelling of the Effects of Entrainment Defects on Mechanical Properties in a Cast Al-Si-Mg Alloy, Materials Science Forum, 765, 225, 2013.

39-13  J. Crapps, D.S. DeCroix, J.D Galloway, D.A. Korzekwa, R. Aikin, R. Fielding, R. Kennedy, C. Unal, Separate effects identification via casting process modeling for experimental measurement of U-Pu-Zr alloys, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 15 July 2013.

35-13   A. Pari, Real Life Problem Solving through Simulations in the Die Casting Industry – Case Studies, © Die Casting Engineer, July 2013.

34-13  Martin Lagler, Use of Simulation to Predict the Viability of Salt Cores in the HPDC Process – Shot Curve as a Decisive Criterion, © Die Casting Engineer, July 2013.

24-13    I.N.Volnov, Optimizatsia Liteynoi Tekhnologii, (Casting Technology Optimization), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), 3, 2013, 27-29. In Russian

23-13  M.R. Barkhudarov, I.N. Volnov, Minimizatsia Zakhvata Vozdukha v Kamere Pressovania pri Litie pod Davleniem, (Minimization of Air Entrainment in the Shot Sleeve During High Pressure Die Casting), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), 3, 2013, 30-34. In Russian

09-13  M.C. Carter and L. Xue, Simulating the Parameters that Affect Core Gas Defects in Metal Castings, Copyright 2012 American Foundry Society, Presented at the 2013 CastExpo, St. Louis, Missouri, April 2013

08-13  C. Reilly, N.R. Green, M.R. Jolly, J.-C. Gebelin, The Modelling Of Oxide Film Entrainment In Casting Systems Using Computational Modelling, Applied Mathematical Modelling, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2013.03.061, April 2013.

03-13  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A fast simulation of transient metal flow and solidification in a narrow channel. Part II. Model validation and parametric study, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.12.061.

02-13  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A fast simulation of transient metal flow and solidification in a narrow channel. Part I: Model development using lubrication approximation, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.12.060.

116-12  Jufu Jianga, Ying Wang, Gang Chena, Jun Liua, Yuanfa Li and Shoujing Luo, “Comparison of mechanical properties and microstructure of AZ91D alloy motorcycle wheels formed by die casting and double control forming, Materials & Design, Volume 40, September 2012, Pages 541-549.

107-12  F.K. Arslan, A.H. Hatman, S.Ö. Ertürk, E. Güner, B. Güner, An Evaluation for Fundamentals of Die Casting Materials Selection and Design, IMMC’16 International Metallurgy & Materials Congress, Istanbul, Turkey, 2012.

103-12 WU Shu-sen, ZHONG Gu, AN Ping, WAN Li, H. NAKAE, Microstructural characteristics of Al−20Si−2Cu−0.4Mg−1Ni alloy formed by rheo-squeeze casting after ultrasonic vibration treatment, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 22 (2012) 2863-2870, November 2012. Full paper available online.

109-12 Alexandre Reikher, Numerical Analysis of Die-Casting Process in Thin Cavities Using Lubrication Approximation, Ph.D. Thesis: The University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Engineering Department (2012) Theses and Dissertations. Paper 65.

97-12 Hong Zhou and Li Heng Luo, Filling Pattern of Step Gating System in Lost Foam Casting Process and its Application, Advanced Materials Research, Volumes 602-604, Progress in Materials and Processes, 1916-1921, December 2012.

93-12  Liangchi Zhang, Chunliang Zhang, Jeng-Haur Horng and Zichen Chen, Functions of Step Gating System in the Lost Foam Casting Process, Advanced Materials Research, 591-593, 940, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.591-593.940, November 2012.

91-12  Hong Yan, Jian Bin Zhu, Ping Shan, Numerical Simulation on Rheo-Diecasting of Magnesium Matrix Composites, 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.192-193.287, Solid State Phenomena, 192-193, 287.

89-12  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A Fast Numerical Simulation for Modeling Simultaneous Metal Flow and Solidification in Thin Cavities Using the Lubrication Approximation, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications: An International Journal of Computation and Methodology, 63:2, 75-100, November 2012.

82-12  Jufu Jiang, Gang Chen, Ying Wang, Zhiming Du, Weiwei Shan, and Yuanfa Li, Microstructure and mechanical properties of thin-wall and high-rib parts of AM60B Mg alloy formed by double control forming and die casting under the optimal conditions, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2012.10.086, October 2012.

78-12   A. Pari, Real Life Problem Solving through Simulations in the Die Casting Industry – Case Studies, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

77-12  Y. Wang, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian and R.A. Miller, Rheological behavior models of metal matrix alloys in semi-solid casting process, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

76-12  A. Reikher and H. Gerber, Analysis of Solidification Parameters During the Die Cast Process, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

75-12 R.A. Miller, Y. Wang and K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, Estimating Cavity Fill Time, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012Indianapolis, IN.

65-12  X.H. Yang, T.J. Lu, T. Kim, Influence of non-conducting pore inclusions on phase change behavior of porous media with constant heat flux boundaryInternational Journal of Thermal Sciences, Available online 10 October 2012. Available online at SciVerse.

55-12  Hejun Li, Pengyun Wang, Lehua Qi, Hansong Zuo, Songyi Zhong, Xianghui Hou, 3D numerical simulation of successive deposition of uniform molten Al droplets on a moving substrate and experimental validation, Computational Materials Science, Volume 65, December 2012, Pages 291–301.

52-12 Hongbing Ji, Yixin Chen and Shengzhou Chen, Numerical Simulation of Inner-Outer Couple Cooling Slab Continuous Casting in the Filling Process, Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 557-559), Advanced Materials and Processes II, pp. 2257-2260, July 2012.

47-12    Petri Väyrynen, Lauri Holappa, and Seppo Louhenkilpi, Simulation of Melting of Alloying Materials in Steel Ladle, SCANMET IV – 4th International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking, Lulea, Sweden, June 10-13, 2012.

46-12  Bin Zhang and Dave Salee, Metal Flow and Heat Transfer in Billet DC Casting Using Wagstaff® Optifill™ Metal Distribution Systems, 5th International Metal Quality Workshop, United Arab Emirates Dubai, March 18-22, 2012.

45-12 D.R. Gunasegaram, M. Givord, R.G. O’Donnell and B.R. Finnin, Improvements engineered in UTS and elongation of aluminum alloy high pressure die castings through the alteration of runner geometry and plunger velocity, Materials Science & Engineering.

44-12    Antoni Drys and Stefano Mascetti, Aluminum Casting Simulations, Desktop Engineering, September 2012

42-12   Huizhen Duan, Jiangnan Shen and Yanping Li, Comparative analysis of HPDC process of an auto part with ProCAST and FLOW-3D, Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 184-185 (2012) pp 90-94, Online available since 2012/Jun/14 at www.scientific.net, © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.184-185.90.

41-12    Deniece R. Korzekwa, Cameron M. Knapp, David A. Korzekwa, and John W. Gibbs, Co-Design – Fabrication of Unalloyed Plutonium, LA-UR-12-23441, MDI Summer Research Group Workshop Advanced Manufacturing, 2012-07-25/2012-07-26 (Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States)

29-12  Dario Tiberto and Ulrich E. Klotz, Computer simulation applied to jewellery casting: challenges, results and future possibilities, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.33 012008. Full paper available at IOP.

28-12  Y Yue and N R Green, Modelling of different entrainment mechanisms and their influences on the mechanical reliability of Al-Si castings, 2012 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 33,012072.Full paper available at IOP.

27-12  E Kaschnitz, Numerical simulation of centrifugal casting of pipes, 2012 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 33 012031, Issue 1. Full paper available at IOP.

15-12  C. Reilly, N.R Green, M.R. Jolly, The Present State Of Modeling Entrainment Defects In The Shape Casting Process, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Available online 27 April 2012, ISSN 0307-904X, 10.1016/j.apm.2012.04.032.

12-12   Andrei Starobin, Tony Hirt, Hubert Lang, and Matthias Todte, Core drying simulation and validation, International Foundry Research, GIESSEREIFORSCHUNG 64 (2012) No. 1, ISSN 0046-5933, pp 2-5

10-12  H. Vladimir Martínez and Marco F. Valencia (2012). Semisolid Processing of Al/β-SiC Composites by Mechanical Stirring Casting and High Pressure Die Casting, Recent Researches in Metallurgical Engineering – From Extraction to Forming, Dr Mohammad Nusheh (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0356-1, InTech

07-12     Amir H. G. Isfahani and James M. Brethour, Simulating Thermal Stresses and Cooling Deformations, Die Casting Engineer, March 2012

06-12   Shuisheng Xie, Youfeng He and Xujun Mi, Study on Semi-solid Magnesium Alloys Slurry Preparation and Continuous Roll-casting Process, Magnesium Alloys – Design, Processing and Properties, ISBN: 978-953-307-520-4, InTech.

04-12 J. Spangenberg, N. Roussel, J.H. Hattel, H. Stang, J. Skocek, M.R. Geiker, Flow induced particle migration in fresh concrete: Theoretical frame, numerical simulations and experimental results on model fluids, Cement and Concrete Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2012.01.007, February 2012.

01-12   Lee, B., Baek, U., and Han, J., Optimization of Gating System Design for Die Casting of Thin Magnesium Alloy-Based Multi-Cavity LCD Housings, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Springer New York, Issn: 1059-9495, 10.1007/s11665-011-0111-1, Volume 1 / 1992 – Volume 21 / 2012. Available online at Springer Link.

104-11  Fu-Yuan Hsu and Huey Jiuan Lin, Foam Filters Used in Gravity Casting, Metall and Materi Trans B (2011) 42: 1110. doi:10.1007/s11663-011-9548-8.

99-11    Eduardo Trejo, Centrifugal Casting of an Aluminium Alloy, thesis: Doctor of Philosophy, Metallurgy and Materials School of Engineering University of Birmingham, October 2011. Full paper available upon request.

93-11  Olga Kononova, Andrejs Krasnikovs ,Videvuds Lapsa,Jurijs Kalinka and Angelina Galushchak, Internal Structure Formation in High Strength Fiber Concrete during Casting, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 59 2011

76-11  J. Hartmann, A. Trepper, and C. Körner, Aluminum Integral Foams with Near-Microcellular Structure, Advanced Engineering Materials 2011, Volume 13 (2011) No. 11, © Wiley-VCH

71-11  Fu-Yuan Hsu and Yao-Ming Yang Confluence Weld in an Aluminum Gravity Casting, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Available online 23 November 2011, ISSN 0924-0136, 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2011.11.006.

65-11     V.A. Chaikin, A.V. Chaikin, I.N.Volnov, A Study of the Process of Late Modification Using Simulation, in Zagotovitelnye Proizvodstva v Mashinostroenii, 10, 2011, 8-12. In Russian.

54-11  Ngadia Taha Niane and Jean-Pierre Michalet, Validation of Foundry Process for Aluminum Parts with FLOW-3D Software, Proceedings of the 2011 International Symposium on Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, 2011.

51-11    A. Reikher and H. Gerber, Calculation of the Die Cast parameters of the Thin Wall Aluminum Cast Part, 2011 Die Casting Congress & Tabletop, Columbus, OH, September 19-21, 2011

50-11   Y. Wang, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, and R.A. Miller, Runner design optimization based on CFD simulation for a die with multiple cavities, 2011 Die Casting Congress & Tabletop, Columbus, OH, September 19-21, 2011

48-11 A. Karwiński, W. Leśniewski, S. Pysz, P. Wieliczko, The technology of precision casting of titanium alloys by centrifugal process, Archives of Foundry Engineering, ISSN: 1897-3310), Volume 11, Issue 3/2011, 73-80, 2011.

46-11  Daniel Einsiedler, Entwicklung einer Simulationsmethodik zur Simulation von Strömungs- und Trocknungsvorgängen bei Kernfertigungsprozessen mittels CFD (Development of a simulation methodology for simulating flow and drying operations in core production processes using CFD), MSc thesis at Technical University of Aalen in Germany (Hochschule Aalen), 2011.

44-11  Bin Zhang and Craig Shaber, Aluminum Ingot Thermal Stress Development Modeling of the Wagstaff® EpsilonTM Rolling Ingot DC Casting System during the Start-up Phase, Materials Science Forum Vol. 693 (2011) pp 196-207, © 2011 Trans Tech Publications, July, 2011.

43-11 Vu Nguyen, Patrick Rohan, John Grandfield, Alex Levin, Kevin Naidoo, Kurt Oswald, Guillaume Girard, Ben Harker, and Joe Rea, Implementation of CASTfill low-dross pouring system for ingot casting, Materials Science Forum Vol. 693 (2011) pp 227-234, © 2011 Trans Tech Publications, July, 2011.

40-11  A. Starobin, D. Goettsch, M. Walker, D. Burch, Gas Pressure in Aluminum Block Water Jacket Cores, © 2011 American Foundry Society, International Journal of Metalcasting/Summer 2011

37-11 Ferencz Peti, Lucian Grama, Analyze of the Possible Causes of Porosity Type Defects in Aluminum High Pressure Diecast Parts, Scientific Bulletin of the Petru Maior University of Targu Mures, Vol. 8 (XXV) no. 1, 2011, ISSN 1841-9267

31-11  Johannes Hartmann, André Trepper, Carolin Körner, Aluminum Integral Foams with Near-Microcellular Structure, Advanced Engineering Materials, 13: n/a. doi: 10.1002/adem.201100035, June 2011.

27-11  A. Pari, Optimization of HPDC Process using Flow Simulation Case Studies, Die Casting Engineer, July 2011

26-11    A. Reikher, H. Gerber, Calculation of the Die Cast Parameters of the Thin Wall Aluminum Die Casting Part, Die Casting Engineer, July 2011

21-11 Thang Nguyen, Vu Nguyen, Morris Murray, Gary Savage, John Carrig, Modelling Die Filling in Ultra-Thin Aluminium Castings, Materials Science Forum (Volume 690), Light Metals Technology V, pp 107-111, 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.690.107, June 2011.

19-11 Jon Spangenberg, Cem Celal Tutum, Jesper Henri Hattel, Nicolas Roussel, Metter Rica Geiker, Optimization of Casting Process Parameters for Homogeneous Aggregate Distribution in Self-Compacting Concrete: A Feasibility Study, © IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2011, New Orleans, USA

16-11  A. Starobin, C.W. Hirt, H. Lang, and M. Todte, Core Drying Simulation and Validations, AFS Proceedings 2011, © American Foundry Society, Presented at the 115th Metalcasting Congress, Schaumburg, Illinois, April 2011.

15-11  J. J. Hernández-Ortega, R. Zamora, J. López, and F. Faura, Numerical Analysis of Air Pressure Effects on the Flow Pattern during the Filling of a Vertical Die Cavity, AIP Conf. Proc., Volume 1353, pp. 1238-1243, The 14th International Esaform Conference on Material Forming: Esaform 2011; doi:10.1063/1.3589686, May 2011. Available online.

10-11 Abbas A. Khalaf and Sumanth Shankar, Favorable Environment for Nondentric Morphology in Controlled Diffusion Solidification, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-011-0641-z, © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2011, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, March 11, 2011.

08-11 Hai Peng Li, Chun Yong Liang, Li Hui Wang, Hong Shui Wang, Numerical Simulation of Casting Process for Gray Iron Butterfly Valve, Advanced Materials Research, 189-193, 260, February 2011.

04-11  C.W. Hirt, Predicting Core Shooting, Drying and Defect Development, Foundry Management & Technology, January 2011.

76-10  Zhizhong Sun, Henry Hu, Alfred Yu, Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of Squeeze Casting Magnesium Alloy AM50, Magnesium Technology 2010, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & ExhibitionFebruary 14-18, 2010, Seattle, WA.

68-10  A. Reikher, H. Gerber, K.M. Pillai, T.-C. Jen, Natural Convection—An Overlooked Phenomenon of the Solidification Process, Die Casting Engineer, January 2010

54-10    Andrea Bernardoni, Andrea Borsi, Stefano Mascetti, Alessandro Incognito and Matteo Corrado, Fonderia Leonardo aveva ragione! L’enorme cavallo dedicato a Francesco Sforza era materialmente realizzabile, A&C – Analisis e Calcolo, Giugno 2010. In  Italian.

48-10  J. J. Hernández-Ortega, R. Zamora, J. Palacios, J. López and F. Faura, An Experimental and Numerical Study of Flow Patterns and Air Entrapment Phenomena During the Filling of a Vertical Die Cavity, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., October 2010, Volume 132, Issue 5, 05101, doi:10.1115/1.4002535.

47-10  A.V. Chaikin, I.N. Volnov, and V.A. Chaikin, Development of Dispersible Mixed Inoculant Compositions Using the FLOW-3D Program, Liteinoe Proizvodstvo, October, 2010, in Russian.

42-10  H. Lakshmi, M.C. Vinay Kumar, Raghunath, P. Kumar, V. Ramanarayanan, K.S.S. Murthy, P. Dutta, Induction reheating of A356.2 aluminum alloy and thixocasting as automobile component, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China 20(20101) s961-s967.

41-10  Pamela J. Waterman, Understanding Core-Gas Defects, Desktop Engineering, October 2010. Available online at Desktop Engineering. Also published in the Foundry Trade Journal, November 2010.

39-10  Liu Zheng, Jia Yingying, Mao Pingli, Li Yang, Wang Feng, Wang Hong, Zhou Le, Visualization of Die Casting Magnesium Alloy Steering Bracket, Special Casting & Nonferrous Alloys, ISSN: 1001-2249, CN: 42-1148/TG, 2010-04. In Chinese.

37-10  Morris Murray, Lars Feldager Hansen, and Carl Reinhardt, I Have Defects – Now What, Die Casting Engineer, September 2010

36-10  Stefano Mascetti, Using Flow Analysis Software to Optimize Piston Velocity for an HPDC Process, Die Casting Engineer, September 2010. Also available in Italian: Ottimizzare la velocita del pistone in pressofusione.  A & C, Analisi e Calcolo, Anno XII, n. 42, Gennaio 2011, ISSN 1128-3874.

32-10  Guan Hai Yan, Sheng Dun Zhao, Zheng Hui Sha, Parameters Optimization of Semisolid Diecasting Process for Air-Conditioner’s Triple Valve in HPb59-1 Alloy, Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 129 – 131), Vol. Material and Manufacturing Technology, pp. 936-941, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.129-131.936, August 2010.

29-10 Zheng Peng, Xu Jun, Zhang Zhifeng, Bai Yuelong, and Shi Likai, Numerical Simulation of Filling of Rheo-diecasting A357 Aluminum Alloy, Special Casting & Nonferrous Alloys, DOI: CNKI:SUN:TZZZ.0.2010-01-024, 2010.

27-10 For an Aerospace Diecasting, Littler Uses Simulation to Reveal Defects, and Win a New Order, Foundry Management & Technology, July 2010

23-10 Michael R. Barkhudarov, Minimizing Air Entrainment, The Canadian Die Caster, June 2010

15-10 David H. Kirkwood, Michel Suery, Plato Kapranos, Helen V. Atkinson, and Kenneth P. Young, Semi-solid Processing of Alloys, 2010, XII, 172 p. 103 illus., 19 in color., Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-642-00705-7.

09-10  Shannon Wetzel, Fullfilling Da Vinci’s Dream, Modern Casting, April 2010.

08-10 B.I. Semenov, K.M. Kushtarov, Semi-solid Manufacturing of Castings, New Industrial Technologies, Publication of Moscow State Technical University n.a. N.E. Bauman, 2009 (in Russian)

07-10 Carl Reilly, Development Of Quantitative Casting Quality Assessment Criteria Using Process Modelling, thesis: The University of Birmingham, March 2010 (Available upon request)

06-10 A. Pari, Optimization of HPDC Process using Flow Simulation – Case Studies, CastExpo ’10, NADCA, Orlando, Florida, March 2010

05-10 M.C. Carter, S. Palit, and M. Littler, Characterizing Flow Losses Occurring in Air Vents and Ejector Pins in High Pressure Die Castings, CastExpo ’10, NADCA, Orlando, Florida, March 2010

04-10 Pamela Waterman, Simulating Porosity Factors, Foundry Management Technology, March 2010, Article available at Foundry Management Technology

03-10 C. Reilly, M.R. Jolly, N.R. Green, JC Gebelin, Assessment of Casting Filling by Modeling Surface Entrainment Events Using CFD, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Jim Evans Honorary Symposium), Seattle, Washington, USA, February 14-18, 2010

02-10 P. Väyrynen, S. Wang, J. Laine and S.Louhenkilpi, Control of Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Inclusions in Continuous Casting – CFD and Neural Network Studies, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Jim Evans Honorary Symposium), Seattle, Washington, USA, February 14-18, 2010

60-09   Somlak Wannarumon, and Marco Actis Grande, Comparisons of Computer Fluid Dynamic Software Programs applied to Jewelry Investment Casting Process, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 55 2009.

59-09   Marco Actis Grande and Somlak Wannarumon, Numerical Simulation of Investment Casting of Gold Jewelry: Experiments and Validations, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol:3 2009-07-24

56-09  Jozef Kasala, Ondrej Híreš, Rudolf Pernis, Start-up Phase Modeling of Semi Continuous Casting Process of Brass Billets, Metal 2009, 19.-21.5.2009

51-09  In-Ting Hong, Huan-Chien Tung, Chun-Hao Chiu and Hung-Shang Huang, Effect of Casting Parameters on Microstructure and Casting Quality of Si-Al Alloy for Vacuum Sputtering, China Steel Technical Report, No. 22, pp. 33-40, 2009.

42-09  P. Väyrynen, S. Wang, S. Louhenkilpi and L. Holappa, Modeling and Removal of Inclusions in Continuous Casting, Materials Science & Technology 2009 Conference & Exhibition, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, October 25-29, 2009

41-09 O.Smirnov, P.Väyrynen, A.Kravchenko and S.Louhenkilpi, Modern Methods of Modeling Fluid Flow and Inclusions Motion in Tundish Bath – General View, Proceedings of Steelsim 2009 – 3rd International Conference on Simulation and Modelling of Metallurgical Processes in Steelmaking, Leoben, Austria, September 8-10, 2009

21-09 A. Pari, Case Studies – Optimization of HPDC Process Using Flow Simulation, Die Casting Engineer, July 2009

20-09 M. Sirvio, M. Wos, Casting directly from a computer model by using advanced simulation software, FLOW-3D Cast, Archives of Foundry Engineering Volume 9, Issue 1/2009, 79-82

19-09 Andrei Starobin, C.W. Hirt, D. Goettsch, A Model for Binder Gas Generation and Transport in Sand Cores and Molds, Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Solidification Processes XII, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Minerals Society), June 2009

11-09 Michael Barkhudarov, Minimizing Air Entrainment in a Shot Sleeve during Slow-Shot Stage, Die Casting Engineer (The North American Die Casting Association ISSN 0012-253X), May 2009

10-09 A. Reikher, H. Gerber, Application of One-Dimensional Numerical Simulation to Optimize Process Parameters of a Thin-Wall Casting in High Pressure Die Casting, Die Casting Engineer (The North American Die Casting Association ISSN 0012-253X), May 2009

7-09 Andrei Starobin, Simulation of Core Gas Evolution and Flow, presented at the North American Die Casting Association – 113th Metalcasting Congress, April 7-10, 2009, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

6-09 A.Pari, Optimization of HPDC PROCESS: Case Studies, North American Die Casting Association – 113th Metalcasting Congress, April 7-10, 2009, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

2-09 C. Reilly, N.R. Green and M.R. Jolly, Oxide Entrainment Structures in Horizontal Running Systems, TMS 2009, San Francisco, California, February 2009

30-08 I.N.Volnov, Computer Modeling of Casting of Pipe Fittings, © 2008, Pipe Fittings, 5 (38), 2008. Russian version

28-08 A.V.Chaikin, I.N.Volnov, V.A.Chaikin, Y.A.Ukhanov, N.R.Petrov, Analysis of the Efficiency of Alloy Modifiers Using Statistics and Modeling, © 2008, Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), October, 2008

27-08 P. Scarber, Jr., H. Littleton, Simulating Macro-Porosity in Aluminum Lost Foam Castings, American Foundry Society, © 2008, AFS Lost Foam Conference, Asheville, North Carolina, October, 2008

25-08 FMT Staff, Forecasting Core Gas Pressures with Computer Simulation, Foundry Management and Technology, October 28, 2008 © 2008 Penton Media, Inc. Online article

24-08 Core and Mold Gas Evolution, Foundry Management and Technology, January 24, 2008 (excerpted from the FM&T May 2007 issue) © 2008 Penton Media, Inc.

22-08 Mark Littler, Simulation Eliminates Die Casting Scrap, Modern Casting/September 2008

21-08 X. Chen, D. Penumadu, Permeability Measurement and Numerical Modeling for Refractory Porous Materials, AFS Transactions © 2008 American Foundry Society, CastExpo ’08, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

20-08 Rolf Krack, Using Solidification Simulations for Optimising Die Cooling Systems, FTJ July/August 2008

19-08 Mark Littler, Simulation Software Eliminates Die Casting Scrap, ECS Casting Innovations, July/August 2008

13-08 T. Yoshimura, K. Yano, T. Fukui, S. Yamamoto, S. Nishido, M. Watanabe and Y. Nemoto, Optimum Design of Die Casting Plunger Tip Considering Air Entrainment, Proceedings of 10th Asian Foundry Congress (AFC10), Nagoya, Japan, May 2008

08-08 Stephen Instone, Andreas Buchholz and Gerd-Ulrich Gruen, Inclusion Transport Phenomena in Casting Furnaces, Light Metals 2008, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), 2008

07-08 P. Scarber, Jr., H. Littleton, Simulating Macro-Porosity in Aluminum Lost Foam Casting, AFS Transactions 2008 © American Foundry Society, CastExpo ’08, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

06-08 A. Reikher, H. Gerber and A. Starobin, Multi-Stage Plunger Deceleration System, CastExpo ’08, NADCA, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

05-08 Amol Palekar, Andrei Starobin, Alexander Reikher, Die-casting end-of-fill and drop forge viscometer flow transients examined with a coupled-motion numerical model, 68th World Foundry Congress, Chennai, India, February 2008

03-08 Petri J. Väyrynen, Sami K. Vapalahti and Seppo J. Louhenkilpi, On Validation of Mathematical Fluid Flow Models for Simulation of Tundish Water Models and Industrial Examples, AISTech 2008, May 2008

53-07   A. Kermanpur, Sh. Mahmoudi and A. Hajipour, Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Metal Flow and Solidification in the Multi-cavity Casting Moulds of Automotive Components, International Journal of Iron & Steel Society of Iran, Article 2, Volume 4, Issue 1, Summer and Autumn 2007, pages 8-15.

36-07 Duque Mesa A. F., Herrera J., Cruz L.J., Fernández G.P. y Martínez H.V., Caracterización Defectológica de Piezas Fundida por Lost Foam Casting Mediante Simulación Numérica, 8° Congreso Iberoamericano de Ingenieria Mecanica, Cusco, Peru, 23 al 25 de Octubre de 2007 (in Spanish)

27-07 A.Y. Korotchenko, A.M. Zarubin, I.A.Korotchenko, Modeling of High Pressure Die Casting Filling, Russian Foundryman, December 2007, pp 15-19. (in Russian)

26-07 I.N. Volnov, Modeling of Casting Processes with Variable Geometry, Russian Foundryman, November 2007, pp 27-30. (in Russian)

16-07 P. Väyrynen, S. Vapalahti, S. Louhenkilpi, L. Chatburn, M. Clark, T. Wagner, Tundish Flow Model Tuning and Validation – Steady State and Transient Casting Situations, STEELSIM 2007, Graz/Seggau, Austria, September 12-14 2007

11-07 Marco Actis Grande, Computer Simulation of the Investment Casting Process – Widening of the Filling Step, Santa Fe Symposium on Jewelry Manufacturing Technology, May 2007

09-07 Alexandre Reikher and Michael Barkhudarov, Casting: An Analytical Approach, Springer, 1st edition, August 2007, Hardcover ISBN: 978-1-84628-849-4. U.S. Order Form; Europe Order Form.

07-07 I.N. Volnov, Casting Modeling Systems – Current State, Problems and Perspectives, (in Russian), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), June 2007

05-07 A.N. Turchin, D.G. Eskin, and L. Katgerman, Solidification under Forced-Flow Conditions in a Shallow Cavity, DOI: 10.1007/s1161-007-9183-9, © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2007

04-07 A.N. Turchin, M. Zuijderwijk, J. Pool, D.G. Eskin, and L. Katgerman, Feathery grain growth during solidification under forced flow conditions, © Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2007.02.030, April 2007

03-07 S. Kuyucak, Sponsored Research – Clean Steel Casting Production—Evaluation of Laboratory Castings, Transactions of the American Foundry Society, Volume 115, 111th Metalcasting Congress, May 2007

02-07 Fu-Yuan Hsu, Mark R. Jolly and John Campbell, The Design of L-Shaped Runners for Gravity Casting, Shape Casting: 2nd International Symposium, Edited by Paul N. Crepeau, Murat Tiryakioðlu and John Campbell, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), Orlando, FL, Feb 2007

30-06 X.J. Liu, S.H. Bhavnani, R.A. Overfelt, Simulation of EPS foam decomposition in the lost foam casting process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 182 (2007) 333–342, © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

25-06 Michael Barkhudarov and Gengsheng Wei, Modeling Casting on the Move, Modern Casting, August 2006; Modeling of Casting Processes with Variable Geometry, Russian Foundryman, December 2007, pp 10-15. (in Russian)

24-06 P. Scarber, Jr. and C.E. Bates, Simulation of Core Gas Production During Mold Fill, © 2006 American Foundry Society

7-06 M.Y.Smirnov, Y.V.Golenkov, Manufacturing of Cast Iron Bath Tubs Castings using Vacuum-Process in Russia, Russia’s Foundryman, July 2006. In Russian.

6-06 M. Barkhudarov, and G. Wei, Modeling of the Coupled Motion of Rigid Bodies in Liquid Metal, Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes – XI, May 28 – June 2, 2006, Opio, France, eds. Ch.-A. Gandin and M. Bellet, pp 71-78, 2006.

2-06 J.-C. Gebelin, M.R. Jolly and F.-Y. Hsu, ‘Designing-in’ Controlled Filling Using Numerical Simulation for Gravity Sand Casting of Aluminium Alloys, Int. J. Cast Met. Res., 2006, Vol.19 No.1

1-06 Michael Barkhudarov, Using Simulation to Control Microporosity Reduces Die Iterations, Die Casting Engineer, January 2006, pp. 52-54

30-05 H. Xue, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, R.A. Miller, Modeling Dynamic Cavity Pressure and Impact Spike in Die Casting, Cast Expo ’05, April 16-19, 2005

22-05 Blas Melissari & Stavros A. Argyropoulous, Measurement of Magnitude and Direction of Velocity in High-Temperature Liquid Metals; Part I, Mathematical Modeling, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Volume 36B, October 2005, pp. 691-700

21-05 M.R. Jolly, State of the Art Review of Use of Modeling Software for Casting, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 337-346

20-05 J-C Gebelin, M.R. Jolly & F-Y Hsu, ‘Designing-in’ Controlled Filling Using Numerical Simulation for Gravity Sand Casting of Aluminium Alloys, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 355-364

19-05 F-Y Hsu, M.R. Jolly & J Campbell, Vortex Gate Design for Gravity Castings, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 73-82

18-05 M.R. Jolly, Modelling the Investment Casting Process: Problems and Successes, Japanese Foundry Society, JFS, Tokyo, Sept. 2005

13-05 Xiaogang Yang, Xiaobing Huang, Xiaojun Dai, John Campbell and Joe Tatler, Numerical Modelling of the Entrainment of Oxide Film Defects in Filling of Aluminium Alloy Castings, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 17 (6), 2004, 321-331

10-05 Carlos Evaristo Esparza, Martha P. Guerro-Mata, Roger Z. Ríos-Mercado, Optimal Design of Gating Systems by Gradient Search Methods, Computational Materials Science, October 2005

6-05 Birgit Hummler-Schaufler, Fritz Hirning, Jurgen Schaufler, A World First for Hatz Diesel and Schaufler Tooling, Die Casting Engineer, May 2005, pp. 18-21

4-05 Rolf Krack, The W35 Topic—A World First, Die Casting World, March 2005, pp. 16-17

3-05 Joerg Frei, Casting Simulations Speed Up Development, Die Casting World, March 2005, p. 14

2-05 David Goettsch and Michael Barkhudarov, Analysis and Optimization of the Transient Stage of Stopper-Rod Pour, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2005

36-04  Ik Min Park, Il Dong Choi, Yong Ho Park, Development of Light-Weight Al Scroll Compressor for Car Air Conditioner, Materials Science Forum, Designing, Processing and Properties of Advanced Engineering Materials, 449-452, 149, March 2004.

32-04 D.H. Kirkwood and P.J Ward, Numerical Modelling of Semi-Solid Flow under Processing Conditions, steel research int. 75 (2004), No. 8/9

30-04 Haijing Mao, A Numerical Study of Externally Solidified Products in the Cold Chamber Die Casting Process, thesis: The Ohio State University, 2004 (Available upon request)

28-04 Z. Cao, Z. Yang, and X.L. Chen, Three-Dimensional Simulation of Transient GMA Weld Pool with Free Surface, Supplement to the Welding Journal, June 2004.

23-04 State of the Art Use of Computational Modelling in the Foundry Industry, 3rd International Conference Computational Modelling of Materials III, Sicily, Italy, June 2004, Advances in Science and Technology,  Eds P. Vincenzini & A Lami, Techna Group Srl, Italy, ISBN: 88-86538-46-4, Part B, pp 479-490

22-04 Jerry Fireman, Computer Simulation Helps Reduce Scrap, Die Casting Engineer, May 2004, pp. 46-49

21-04 Joerg Frei, Simulation—A Safe and Quick Way to Good Components, Aluminium World, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 42-43

20-04 J.-C. Gebelin, M.R. Jolly, A. M. Cendrowicz, J. Cirre and S. Blackburn, Simulation of Die Filling for the Wax Injection Process – Part II Numerical Simulation, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, Volume 35B, August 2004

14-04 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov, Charles H. Sherwin, and Ruel A. Overfelt, Hot Distortion Studies In Phenolic Urethane Cold Box System, American Foundry Society, 108th Casting Congress, June 12-15, 2004, Rosemont, IL, USA

13-04 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov and Ruel A. Overfelt, First V-Process Casting of Magnesium, American Foundry Society, 108th Casting Congress, June 12-15, 2004, Rosemont, IL, USA

5-04 C. Schlumpberger & B. Hummler-Schaufler, Produktentwicklung auf hohem Niveau (Product Development on a High Level), Druckguss Praxis, January 2004, pp 39-42 (in German).

3-04 Charles Bates, Dealing with Defects, Foundry Management and Technology, February 2004, pp 23-25

1-04 Laihua Wang, Thang Nguyen, Gary Savage and Cameron Davidson, Thermal and Flow Modeling of Ladling and Injection in High Pressure Die Casting Process, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, vol. 16 No 4 2003, pp 409-417

2-03 J-C Gebelin, AM Cendrowicz, MR Jolly, Modeling of the Wax Injection Process for the Investment Casting Process – Prediction of Defects, presented at the Third International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Minerals and Process Industries, December 10-12, 2003, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 415-420

29-03 C. W. Hirt, Modeling Shrinkage Induced Micro-porosity, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-03-TN66)

28-03 Thixoforming at the University of Sheffield, Diecasting World, September 2003, pp 11-12

26-03 William Walkington, Gas Porosity-A Guide to Correcting the Problems, NADCA Publication: 516

22-03 G F Yao, C W Hirt, and M Barkhudarov, Development of a Numerical Approach for Simulation of Sand Blowing and Core Formation, in Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Process-X”, Ed. By Stefanescu et al pp. 633-639, 2003

21-03 E F Brush Jr, S P Midson, W G Walkington, D T Peters, J G Cowie, Porosity Control in Copper Rotor Die Castings, NADCA Indianapolis Convention Center, Indianapolis, IN September 15-18, 2003, T03-046

12-03 J-C Gebelin & M.R. Jolly, Modeling Filters in Light Alloy Casting Processes,  Trans AFS, 2002, 110, pp. 109-120

11-03 M.R. Jolly, Casting Simulation – How Well Do Reality and Virtual Casting Match – A State of the Art Review, Intl. J. Cast Metals Research, 2002, 14, pp. 303-313

10-03 Gebelin., J-C and Jolly, M.R., Modeling of the Investment Casting Process, Journal of  Materials Processing Tech., Vol. 135/2-3, pp. 291 – 300

9-03 Cox, M, Harding, R.A. and Campbell, J., Optimised Running System Design for Bottom Filled Aluminium Alloy 2L99 Investment Castings, J. Mat. Sci. Tech., May 2003, Vol. 19, pp. 613-625

8-03 Von Alexander Schrey and Regina Reek, Numerische Simulation der Kernherstellung, (Numerical Simulation of Core Blowing), Giesserei, June 2003, pp. 64-68 (in German)

7-03 J. Zuidema Jr., L Katgerman, Cyclone separation of particles in aluminum DC Casting, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 607-614

6-03 Jean-Christophe Gebelin and Mark Jolly, Numerical Modeling of Metal Flow Through Filters, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 431-438

5-03 N.W. Lai, W.D. Griffiths and J. Campbell, Modelling of the Potential for Oxide Film Entrainment in Light Metal Alloy Castings, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 415-422

21-02 Boris Lukezic, Case History: Process Modeling Solves Die Design Problems, Modern Casting, February 2003, P 59

20-02 C.W. Hirt and M.R. Barkhudarov, Predicting Defects in Lost Foam Castings, Modern Casting, December 2002, pp 31-33

19-02 Mark Jolly, Mike Cox, Ric Harding, Bill Griffiths and John Campbell, Quiescent Filling Applied to Investment Castings, Modern Casting, December 2002 pp. 36-38

18-02 Simulation Helps Overcome Challenges of Thin Wall Magnesium Diecasting, Foundry Management and Technology, October 2002, pp 13-15

17-02 G Messmer, Simulation of a Thixoforging Process of Aluminum Alloys with FLOW-3D, Institute for Metal Forming Technology, University of Stuttgart

16-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Computer Simulation of Lost Foam Process, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 319-324

15-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Computer Simulation of Inclusion Tracking, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 341-346

14-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Advanced Simulation of the Flow and Heat Transfer of an Alternator Housing, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 219-228

8-02 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov, and Ruel A. Overfelt, Experimental and Numerical Study of Bonded Sand-Air Two-Phase Flow in PUA Process, Auburn University, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-091, Kansas City, MO

7-02 A Habibollah Zadeh, and J Campbell, Metal Flow Through a Filter System, University of Birmingham, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-020, Kansas City, MO

6-02 Phil Ward, and Helen Atkinson, Final Report for EPSRC Project: Modeling of Thixotropic Flow of Metal Alloys into a Die, GR/M17334/01, March 2002, University of Sheffield

5-02 S. I. Bakhtiyarov and R. A. Overfelt, Numerical and Experimental Study of Aluminum Casting in Vacuum-sealed Step Molding, Auburn University, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-050, Kansas City, MO

4-02 J. C. Gebelin and M. R. Jolly, Modelling Filters in Light Alloy Casting Processes, University of Birmingham, 2002 American Foundry Society AFS Transactions 02-079, Kansas City, MO

3-02 Mark Jolly, Mike Cox, Jean-Christophe Gebelin, Sam Jones, and Alex Cendrowicz, Fundamentals of Investment Casting (FOCAST), Modelling the Investment Casting Process, Some preliminary results from the UK Research Programme, IRC in Materials, University of Birmingham, UK, AFS2001

49-01   Hua Bai and Brian G. Thomas, Bubble formation during horizontal gas injection into downward-flowing liquid, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 1143-1159, 2001. doi.org/10.1007/s11663-001-0102-y

45-01 Jan Zuidema; Laurens Katgerman; Ivo J. Opstelten;Jan M. Rabenberg, Secondary Cooling in DC Casting: Modelling and Experimental Results, TMS 2001, New Orleans, Louisianna, February 11-15, 2001

43-01 James Andrew Yurko, Fluid Flow Behavior of Semi-Solid Aluminum at High Shear Rates,Ph.D. thesis; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2001. Abstract only; full thesis available at http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/8451 (for a fee).

33-01 Juang, S.H., CAE Application on Design of Die Casting Dies, 2001 Conference on CAE Technology and Application, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan, November 2001, (article in Chinese with English-language abstract)

32-01 Juang, S.H. and C. M. Wang, Effect of Feeding Geometry on Flow Characteristics of Magnesium Die Casting by Numerical Analysis, The Preceedings of 6th FADMA Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, July 2001, Chinese language with English abstract

26-01 C. W. Hirt., Predicting Defects in Lost Foam Castings, December 13, 2001

21-01 P. Scarber Jr., Using Liquid Free Surface Areas as a Predictor of Reoxidation Tendency in Metal Alloy Castings, presented at the Steel Founders’ Society of American, Technical and Operating Conference, October 2001

20-01 P. Scarber Jr., J. Griffin, and C. E. Bates, The Effect of Gating and Pouring Practice on Reoxidation of Steel Castings, presented at the Steel Founders’ Society of American, Technical and Operating Conference, October 2001

19-01 L. Wang, T. Nguyen, M. Murray, Simulation of Flow Pattern and Temperature Profile in the Shot Sleeve of a High Pressure Die Casting Process, CSIRO Manufacturing Science and Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Presented by North American Die Casting Association, Oct 29-Nov 1, 2001, Cincinnati, To1-014

18-01 Rajiv Shivpuri, Venkatesh Sankararaman, Kaustubh Kulkarni, An Approach at Optimizing the Ingate Design for Reducing Filling and Shrinkage Defects, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, Presented by North American Die Casting Association, Oct 29-Nov 1, 2001, Cincinnati, TO1-052

5-01 Michael Barkhudarov, Simulation Helps Overcome Challenges of Thin Wall Magnesium Diecasting, Diecasting World, March 2001, pp. 5-6

2-01 J. Grindling, Customized CFD Codes to Simulate Casting of Thermosets in Full 3D, Electrical Manufacturing and Coil Winding 2000 Conference, October 31-November 2, 20

20-00 Richard Schuhmann, John Carrig, Thang Nguyen, Arne Dahle, Comparison of Water Analogue Modelling and Numerical Simulation Using Real-Time X-Ray Flow Data in Gravity Die Casting, Australian Die Casting Association Die Casting 2000 Conference, September 3-6, 2000, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

15-00 M. Sirvio, Vainola, J. Vartianinen, M. Vuorinen, J. Orkas, and S. Devenyi, Fluid Flow Analysis for Designing Gating of Aluminum Castings, Proc. NADCA Conf., Rosemont, IL, Nov 6-8, 1999

14-00 X. Yang, M. Jolly, and J. Campbell, Reduction of Surface Turbulence during Filling of Sand Castings Using a Vortex-flow Runner, Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August 2000

13-00 H. S. H. Lo and J. Campbell, The Modeling of Ceramic Foam Filters, Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August 2000

12-00 M. R. Jolly, H. S. H. Lo, M. Turan and J. Campbell, Use of Simulation Tools in the Practical Development of a Method for Manufacture of Cast Iron Camshafts,” Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August, 2000

14-99 J Koke, and M Modigell, Time-Dependent Rheological Properties of Semi-solid Metal Alloys, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Aachen University of Technology, Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials 3: 15-30, 1999

12-99 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, Schneider, Wolfgang, Ray, Steven, Marthinusen, Jan-Olaf, Recent Improvements in Ceramic Foam Filter Design by Coupled Heat and Fluid Flow Modeling, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1999, pp. 1041-1047

10-99 Bongcheol Park and Jerald R. Brevick, Computer Flow Modeling of Cavity Pre-fill Effects in High Pressure Die Casting, NADCA Proceedings, Cleveland T99-011, November, 1999

8-99 Brad Guthrie, Simulation Reduces Aluminum Die Casting Cost by Reducing Volume, Die Casting Engineer Magazine, September/October 1999, pp. 78-81

7-99 Fred L. Church, Virtual Reality Predicts Cast Metal Flow, Modern Metals, September, 1999, pp. 67F-J

19-98 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, & Schneider, Wolfgang, Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow Phenomena in the Launder-integrated Tool Within Casting Unit Development, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1998, pp. 1175-1182

18-98 X. Yang & J. Campbell, Liquid Metal Flow in a Pouring Basin, Int. J. Cast Metals Res, 1998, 10, pp. 239-253

15-98 R. Van Tol, Mould Filling of Horizontal Thin-Wall Castings, Delft University Press, The Netherlands, 1998

14-98 J. Daughtery and K. A. Williams, Thermal Modeling of Mold Material Candidates for Copper Pressure Die Casting of the Induction Motor Rotor Structure, Proc. Int’l Workshop on Permanent Mold Casting of Copper-Based Alloys, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Oct. 15-16, 1998

10-98 C. W. Hirt, and M.R. Barkhudarov, Lost Foam Casting Simulation with Defect Prediction, Flow Science Inc, presented at Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes VIII Conference, June 7-12, 1998, Catamaran Hotel, San Diego, California

9-98 M. R. Barkhudarov and C. W. Hirt, Tracking Defects, Flow Science Inc, presented at the 1st International Aluminum Casting Technology Symposium, 12-14 October 1998, Rosemont, IL

5-98 J. Righi, Computer Simulation Helps Eliminate Porosity, Die Casting Management Magazine, pp. 36-38, January 1998

3-98 P. Kapranos, M. R. Barkhudarov, D. H. Kirkwood, Modeling of Structural Breakdown during Rapid Compression of Semi-Solid Alloy Slugs, Dept. Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, U.K. and Flow Science Inc, USA, Presented at the 5th International Conference Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, 23-25 June 1998

1-98 U. Jerichow, T. Altan, and P. R. Sahm, Semi Solid Metal Forming of Aluminum Alloys-The Effect of Process Variables Upon Material Flow, Cavity Fill and Mechanical Properties, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, published in Die Casting Engineer, p. 26, Jan/Feb 1998

8-97 Michael Barkhudarov, High Pressure Die Casting Simulation Using FLOW-3D, Die Casting Engineer, 1997

15-97 M. R. Barkhudarov, Advanced Simulation of the Flow and Heat Transfer Process in Simultaneous Engineering, Flow Science report, presented at the Casting 1997 – International ADI and Simulation Conference, Helsinki, Finland, May 28-30, 1997

14-97 M. Ranganathan and R. Shivpuri, Reducing Scrap and Increasing Die Life in Low Pressure Die Casting through Flow Simulation and Accelerated Testing, Dept. Welding and Systems Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, presented at 19th International Die Casting Congress & Exposition, November 3-6, 1997

13-97 J. Koke, Modellierung und Simulation der Fließeigenschaften teilerstarrter Metallegierungen, Livt Information, Institut für Verfahrenstechnik, RWTH Aachen, October 1997

10-97 J. P. Greene and J. O. Wilkes, Numerical Analysis of Injection Molding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics – Part 2 Fiber Orientation, Body-in-White Center, General Motors Corp. and Dept. Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 37, No. 6, June 1997

9-97 J. P. Greene and J. O. Wilkes, Numerical Analysis of Injection Molding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics. Part 1 – Injection Pressures and Flow, Manufacturing Center, General Motors Corp. and Dept. Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 37, No. 3, March 1997

8-97 H. Grazzini and D. Nesa, Thermophysical Properties, Casting Simulation and Experiments for a Stainless Steel, AT Systemes (Renault) report, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

7-97 R. Van Tol, L. Katgerman and H. E. A. Van den Akker, Horizontal Mould Filling of a Thin Wall Aluminum Casting, Laboratory of Materials report, Delft University, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

6-97 M. R. Barkhudarov, Is Fluid Flow Important for Predicting Solidification, Flow Science report, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

22-96 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich & Schneider, Wolfgang, 3-D Modeling of the Start-up Phase of DC Casting of Sheet Ingots, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1996, pp. 971-981

9-96 M. R. Barkhudarov and C. W. Hirt, Thixotropic Flow Effects under Conditions of Strong Shear, Flow Science report FSI96-00-2, to be presented at the “Materials Week ’96” TMS Conference, Cincinnati, OH, 7-10 October 1996

4-96 C. W. Hirt, A Computational Model for the Lost Foam Process, Flow Science final report, February 1996 (FSI-96-57-R2)

3-96 M. R. Barkhudarov, C. L. Bronisz, C. W. Hirt, Three-Dimensional Thixotropic Flow Model, Flow Science report, FSI-96-00-1, published in the proceedings of (pp. 110- 114) and presented at the 4th International Conference on Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites, The University of Sheffield, 19-21 June 1996

1-96 M. R. Barkhudarov, J. Beech, K. Chang, and S. B. Chin, Numerical Simulation of Metal/Mould Interfacial Heat Transfer in Casting, Dept. Mech. & Process Engineering, Dept. Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield and Flow Science Inc, 9th Int. Symposium on Transport Phenomena in Thermal-Fluid Engineering, June 25-28, 1996, Singapore

11-95 Barkhudarov, M. R., Hirt, C.W., Casting Simulation Mold Filling and Solidification-Benchmark Calculations Using FLOW-3D, Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes VII, pp 935-946

10-95 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, & Schneider, Wolfgang, Optimal Design of a Distribution Pan for Level Pour Casting, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1995, pp. 1061-1070

9-95 E. Masuda, I. Itoh, K. Haraguchi, Application of Mold Filling Simulation to Die Casting Processes, Honda Engineering Co., Ltd., Tochigi, Japan, presented at the Modelling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes VII, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 1995

6-95 K. Venkatesan, Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Process Parameters on the Erosive Wear of Die Casting Dies, presented for Ph.D. degree at Ohio State University, 1995

5-95 J. Righi, A. F. LaCamera, S. A. Jones, W. G. Truckner, T. N. Rouns, Integration of Experience and Simulation Based Understanding in the Die Design Process, Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA 15069, presented by the North American Die Casting Association, 1995

2-95 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Simulation and Comparison with Water Modeling Studies of the Inertia Dominated Cavity Filling in Die Casting, NUMIFORM, 1995

1-95 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Gate Velocity and Gate Size on the Quality of Die Casting Parts, NAMRC, 1995.

15-94 D. Liang, Y. Bayraktar, S. A. Moir, M. Barkhudarov, and H. Jones, Primary Silicon Segregation During Isothermal Holding of Hypereutectic AI-18.3%Si Alloy in the Freezing Range, Dept. of Engr. Materials, U. of Sheffield, Metals and Materials, February 1994

13-94 Deniece Korzekwa and Paul Dunn, A Combined Experimental and Modeling Approach to Uranium Casting, Materials Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, presented at the Symposium on Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, El Dorado Hotel, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1994

12-94 R. van Tol, H. E. A. van den Akker and L. Katgerman, CFD Study of the Mould Filling of a Horizontal Thin Wall Aluminum Casting, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, HTD-Vol. 284/AMD-Vol. 182, Transport Phenomena in Solidification, ASME 1994

11-94 M. R. Barkhudarov and K. A. Williams, Simulation of ‘Surface Turbulence’ Fluid Phenomena During the Mold Filling Phase of Gravity Castings, Flow Science Technical Note #41, November 1994 (FSI-94-TN41)

10-94 M. R. Barkhudarov and S. B. Chin, Stability of a Numerical Algorithm for Gas Bubble Modelling, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K., International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 19, 415-437 (1994)

16-93 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Simulation of Die Cavity Filling in Die Castings and an Evaluation of Process Parameters on Die Wear, Dept. of Industrial Systems Engineering, Presented by: N.A. Die Casting Association, Cleveland, Ohio, October 18-21, 1993

15-93 K. Venkatesen and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Modeling of Filling and Solidification for Improved Quality of Die Casting: A Literature Survey (Chapters II and III), Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, Report C-93-07, August 1993, Ohio State University

1-93 P-E Persson, Computer Simulation of the Solidification of a Hub Carrier for the Volvo 800 Series, AB Volvo Technological Development, Metals Laboratory, Technical Report No. LM 500014E, Jan. 1993

13-92 D. R. Korzekwa, M. A. K. Lewis, Experimentation and Simulation of Gravity Fed Lead Castings, in proceedings of a TMS Symposium on Concurrent Engineering Approach to Materials Processing, S. N. Dwivedi, A. J. Paul and F. R. Dax, eds., TMS-AIME Warrendale, p. 155 (1992)

12-92 M. A. K. Lewis, Near-Net-Shaiconpe Casting Simulation and Experimentation, MST 1992 Review, Los Alamos National Laboratory

2-92 M. R. Barkhudarov, H. You, J. Beech, S. B. Chin, D. H. Kirkwood, Validation and Development of FLOW-3D for Casting, School of Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, presented at the TMS/AIME Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 3, 1992

1-92 D. R. Korzekwa and L. A. Jacobson, Los Alamos National Laboratory and C.W. Hirt, Flow Science Inc, Modeling Planar Flow Casting with FLOW-3D, presented at the TMS/AIME Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 3, 1992

12-91 R. Shivpuri, M. Kuthirakulathu, and M. Mittal, Nonisothermal 3-D Finite Difference Simulation of Cavity Filling during the Die Casting Process, Dept. Industrial and Systems Engineering, Ohio State University, presented at the 1991 Winter Annual ASME Meeting, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1-6, 1991

3-91 C. W. Hirt, FLOW-3D Study of the Importance of Fluid Momentum in Mold Filling, presented at the 18th Annual Automotive Materials Symposium, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI, May 1-2, 1991 (FSI-91-00-2)

11-90 N. Saluja, O.J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, On the Calculation of the Electromagnetic Force Field in the Circular Stirring of Metallic Melts, accepted in J. Appl. Physics, 1990

10-90 N. Saluja, O. J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, On the Calculation of the Electromagnetic Force Field in the Circular Stirring of Metallic Molds in Continuous Castings, presented at the 6th Iron and Steel Congress of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Nagoya, Japan, October 1990

9-90 N. Saluja, O. J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, Fluid Flow in Phenomena in the Electromagnetic Stirring of Continuous Casting Systems, Part I. The Behavior of a Cylindrically Shaped, Laboratory Scale Installation, accepted for publication in Steel Research, 1990

8-89 C. W. Hirt, Gravity-Fed Casting, Flow Science Technical Note #20, July 1989 (FSI-89-TN20)

6-89 E. W. M. Hansen and F. Syvertsen, Numerical Simulation of Flow Behaviour in Moldfilling for Casting Analysis, SINTEF-Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway, Report No. STS20 A89001, June 1989

1-88 C. W. Hirt and R. P. Harper, Modeling Tests for Casting Processes, Flow Science report, Jan. 1988 (FSI-88-38-01)

2-87 C. W. Hirt, Addition of a Solidification/Melting Model to FLOW-3D, Flow Science report, April 1987 (FSI-87-33-1)

Additive Manufacturing & Welding Bibliography

Additive Manufacturing & Welding Bibliography

다음은 적층 제조 및 용접 참고 문헌의 기술 문서 모음입니다. 이 모든 논문에는 FLOW-3D AM 결과가 나와 있습니다. FLOW-3D AM을 사용하여 적층 제조, 레이저 용접 및 기타 용접 기술에서 발견되는 프로세스를 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

2024년 3월 20일 update

3-24 Kunjie Dai, Xing He, Decheng Kong, Chaofang Dong, Multi-physical field simulation to yield defect-free IN718 alloy fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, Materials Letters, 355; 135437, 2024. doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2023.135437

2-24 You Wang, Yinkai Xie, Huaixue Li, Caiyou Zeng, Ming Xu, Hongqiang Zhang, In-situ monitoring plume, spattering behavior and revealing their relationship with melt flow in laser powder bed fusion of nickel-based superalloy, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 177; pp. 44-58, 2024. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2023.07.068

1-24 Yukai Chen, Hongtu Xu, Yu Lu, Yin Wang, Shuangyuzhou Wang, Ke Huang, Qi Zhang, Prediction of microstructure for Inconel 718 laser welding process using multi-scale model, Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on the Technology of Plasticity – Current Trends in the Technology of Plasticity, pp. 713-722, 2024. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-41341-4_75

211-23 Giovanni Chianese, Qamar Hayat, Sharhid Jabar, Pasquale Franciosa, Darek Ceglarek, Stanislao Patalano, A multi-physics CFD study to investigate the impact of laser beam shaping on metal mixing and molten pool dynamics during laser welding of copper to steel for battery terminal-to-casing connections, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 322; 118202, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2023.118202

207-23 Dong Liu, Jiaqi Pei, Hua Hou, Xiaofeng Niu, Yuhong Zhao, Optimizing solidification dendrites and process parameters for laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of GH3536 superalloy by finite volume and phase-field method, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 27; pp. 3323-3338, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2023.10.188

206-23 Houshang Yin, Jingfan Yang, Ralf D. Fischer, Zilong Zhang, Bart Prorok, Lang Yuan, Xiaoyuan Lou, Pulsed laser additive manufacturing for 316L stainless steel: a new approach to control subgrain cellular structure, JOM, 75; pp. 5027-5036, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s11837-023-06177-8

205-23 Francis Ogoke, William Lee, Ning-Yu Kao, Alexander Myers, Jack Beuth, Jonathan Malen, Amir Barati Farimani, Convolutional neural networks for melt depth prediction and visualization in laser powder bed fusion, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 129; pp. 3047-3062, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-023-12384-z

202-23 Habib Hamed Zargari, Kazuhiro Ito, Abhay Sharma, Effect of workpiece vibration frequency on heat distribution and material flow in the molten pool in tandem-pulsed gas metal arc welding, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 129; pp. 2507-2522, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-023-12424-8

199-23 Yukai Chen, Yin Wang, Hao Li, Yu Lu, Bin Han, Qi Zhang, Effects of process parameters on the microstructure of Inconel 718 during powder bed fusion based on cellular automata approach, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 18.1; e2251032, 2023. doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2023.2251032

197-23 Qiong Wu, Chuang Qiao, Yuhang Wu, Zhe Liu, Xiaodan Li, Ju Wang, Xizhong An, Aijun Huang, Chao Voon Samuel Lim, Numerical investigation on the reuse of recycled powders in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing, 77; 103821, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2023.103821

196-23 Daicong Zhang, Chunhui Jing, Wei Guo, Yuan Xiao, Jun Luo, Lehua Qi, Microchannels formed using metal microdroplets, Micromachines, 14.10; 1922, 2023. doi.org/10.3390/mi14101922

195-23 Trong-Nhan Le, Santosh Rauniyar, V.H. Nismath, Kevin Chou, An investigation into the effects of contouring process parameters on the up-skin surface characteristics in laser powder-bed fusion process, Manufacturing Letters, 35; Supplement, pp. 707-716, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.mfglet.2023.08.085

194-23 Kyubok Lee, Teresa J. Rinker, Masoud M. Pour, Wayne Cai, Wenkang Huang, Wenda Tan, Jennifer Bracey, Jingjing Li, A study on cracks and IMCs in laser welding of Al and Cu, Manufacturing Letters, 35; Supplement, pp. 221-231, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.mfglet.2023.08.026

192-23 Kunjie Dai, Xing He, Wei Zhang, Decheng Kong, Rong Guo, Minlei Hu, Ketai He, Chaofang Dong, Tailoring the microstructure and mechanical properties for Hastelloy X alloy by laser powder bed fusion via scanning strategy, Materials & Design, 235; 112386, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2023.112386

191-23 Jun Du, Daqing Wang, Jimiao He, Yongheng Zhang, Zhike Peng, Influence of droplet size and ejection frequency on molten pool dynamics and deposition morphology in TIG-aided droplet deposition manufacturing, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 148; 107075, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2023.107075

188-23 Jin-Hyeong Park, Du-Song Kim, Dae-Won Cho, Jaewoong Kim, Changmin Pyo, Influence of thermal flow and predicting phase transformation on various welding positions, Heat and Mass Transfer, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s00231-023-03429-w

184-23 Lin Gao, Jishnu Bhattacharyya, Wenhao Lin, Zhongshu Ren, Andrew C. Chuang, Pavel D. Shevchenko, Viktor Nikitin, Ji Ma, Sean R. Agnew, Tao Sun, Tailoring material microstructure and property in wire-laser directed energy deposition through a wiggle deposition strategy, Additive Manufacturing, 77; 103801, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2023.103801

182-23 Liping Guo, Hanjie Liu, Hongze Wang, Qianglong Wei, Jiahui Zhang, Yingyan Chen, Chu Lun Alex Leung, Qing Lian, Yi Wu, Yu Zou, Haowei Wang, A high-fidelity comprehensive framework for the additive manufacturing printability assessment, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 105; pp. 219-231, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2023.09.041

172-23 Liping Guo, Hanjie Liu, Hongze Wang, Qianglong Wei, Yakai Xiao, Zijue Tang, Yi Wu, Haowei Wang, Identifying the keyhole stability and pore formation mechanisms in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 321; 118153, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2023.118153

171-23 Yuhang Wu, Qiong Wu, Meng Li, Ju Wang, Dengzhi Yao, Hao Luo, Xizhong An, Haitao Fu, Hao Zhang, Xiaohong Yang, Qingchuan Zou, Shujun Li, Haibin Ji, Xing Zhang, Numerical investigation on effects of operating conditions and final dimension predictions in laser powder bed fusion of molybdenum, Additive Manufacturing, 76; 103783, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2023.103783

158-23 K. El Abbaoui, I. Al Korachi, M.T. Mollah, J. Spangenberg, Numerical modelling of planned corner deposition in 3D concrete printing, Archives of Materials Science and Engineering, 121.2; pp. 71-79, 2023. doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0053.8488

156-23 Liping Guo, Hanjie Liu, Hongze Wang, Valentino A.M. Cristino, C.T. Kwok, Qianglong Wei, Zijue Tang, Yi Wu, Haowei Wang, Deepening the scientific understanding of different phenomenology in laser powder bed fusion by an integrated framework, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 216; 124596, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2023.124596

154-23 Zhiyong Li, Xiuli He, Shaoxia Li, Xinfeng Kan, Yanjun Yin, Gang Yu, Sulfur-induced transitions of thermal behavior and flow dynamics in laser powder bed fusion of 316L powders, Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 45; 102072, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.tsep.2023.102072

149-23 Shardul Kamat, Wayne Cai, Teresa J. Rinker, Jennifer Bracey, Liang Xi, Wenda Tan, A novel integrated process-performance model for laser welding of multi-layer battery foils and tabs, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 320; 118121, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2023.118121

148-23 Reza Ghomashchi, Shahrooz Nafisi, Solidification of Al12Si melt pool in laser powder bed fusion, Journal of Materials En gineering and Performance, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s11665-023-08502-3

133-23 Hesam Moghadasi, Md Tusher Mollah, Deepak Marla, Hamid Saffari, Jon Spangenberg, Computational fluid dynamics modeling of top-down digital light processing additive manufacturing, Polymers, 15.11; 2459, 2023. doi.org/10.3390/polym15112459

131-23 Luca Santoro, Raffaella Sesana, Rosario Molica Nardo, Francesca Curà, In line defect detection in steel welding process by means of thermography, Experimental Mechanics in Engineering and Biomechanics – Proceedings ICEM20, 19981, 2023.

128-23 Md Tusher Mollah, Raphaël Comminal, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Berin Šeta, Jon Spangenberg, Computational fluid dynamics modelling and experimental analysis of reinforcement bar integration in 3D concrete printing, Cement and Concrete Research, 173; 107263, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2023.107263

123-23 Arash Samaei, Zhongsheng Sang, Jennifer A. Glerum, Jon-Erik Mogonye, Gregory J. Wagner, Multiphysics modeling of mixing and material transport in additive manufacturing with multicomponent powder beds, Additive Manufacturing, 67; 103481, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2023.103481

122-23 Chu Han, Ping Jiang, Shaoning Geng, Lingyu Guo, Kun Liu, Inhomogeneous microstructure distribution and its formation mechanism in deep penetration laser welding of medium-thick aluminum-lithium alloy plates, Optics & Laser Technology, 167; 109783, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2023.109783

111-23 Alexander J. Myers, Guadalupe Quirarte, Francis Ogoke, Brandon M. Lane, Syed Zia Uddin, Amir Barati Farimani, Jack L. Beuth, Jonathan A. Malen, High-resolution melt pool thermal imaging for metals additive manufacturing using the two-color method with a color camera, Additive Manufacturing, 73; 103663, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2023.103663

107-23 M. Mohsin Raza, Yu-Lung Lo, Hua-Bin Lee, Chang Yu-Tsung, Computational modeling of laser welding for aluminum–copper joints using a circular strategy, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 25; pp. 3350-3364, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2023.06.122

106-23 H.Z. Lu, L.H. Liu, X. Luo, H.W. Ma, W.S. Cai, R. Lupoi, S. Yin, C. Yang, Formation mechanism of heterogeneous microstructures and shape memory effect in NiTi shape memory alloy fabricated via laser powder bed fusion, Materials & Design, 232; 112107, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2023.112107

105-23 Harun Kahya, Hakan Gurun, Gokhan Kucukturk, Experimental and analytical investigation of the re-melting effect in the manufacturing of 316L by direct energy deposition (DED) method, Metals, 13.6; 1144, 2023. doi.org/10.3390/met13061144

100-23 Dongju Chen, Gang Li, Peng Wang, Zhiqiang Zeng, Yuhang Tang, Numerical simulation of melt pool size and flow evolution for laser powder bed fusion of powder grade Ti6Al4V, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 223; 103971, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.finel.2023.103971

97-23 Mahyar Khorasani, Martin Leary, David Downing, Jason Rogers, Amirhossein Ghasemi, Ian Gibson, Simon Brudler, Bernard Rolfe, Milan Brandt, Stuart Bateman, Numerical and experimental investigations on manufacturability of Al–Si–10Mg thin wall structures made by LB-PBF, Thin-Walled Structures, 188; 110814, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2023.110814

95-23 M.S. Serdeczny, Laser welding of dissimilar materials – simulation driven optimization of process parameters, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 1281; 012018, 2023. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/1281/1/012018

90-23 Lin Liu, Tubin Liu, Xi Dong, Min Huang, Fusheng Cao, Mingli Qin, Numerical simulation of thermal dynamic behavior and morphology evolution of the molten pool of selective laser melting BN/316L stainless steel composite, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s11665-023-08210-y

89-23 M. P. Serdeczny, A. Jackman, High fidelity modelling of bead geometry in directed energy deposition – simulation driven optimization, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, NOLAMP19, 2023.

88-23 Lu Wang, Shuhao Wang, Yanming Zhang, Wentao Yan, Multi-phase flow simulation of powder streaming in laser-based directed energy deposition, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 212; 124240, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2023.124240

80-23 Mahyar Khorasani, AmirHossein Ghasemi, Martin Leary, David Downing, Ian Gibson, Elmira G. Sharabian, Jithin Kozuthala Veetil, Milan Brandt, Stuart Batement, Bernard Rolfe, Benchmark models for conduction and keyhole modes in laser-based powder bed fusion of Inconel 718, Optics & Laser Technology, 164; 109509, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2023.109509

78-23   Md. Tusher Mollah, Raphaël Comminal, Marcin P. Serdeczny, Berin Šeta, Jon Spangenberg, Computational analysis of yield stress buildup and stability of deposited layers in material extrusion additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing, 71; 103605, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2023.103605

76-23   Asif Ur Rehman, Kashif Azher, Abid Ullah, Celal Sami Tüfekci, Metin Uymaz Salamci, Binder jetting of SS316L: a computational approach for droplet-powder interaction, Rapid Prototyping Journal, 2023. doi.org/10.1108/RPJ-08-2022-0264

75-23   Dengzhi Yao, Ju Wang, Hao Luo, Yuhang Wu, Xizhong An, Thermal behavior and control during multi-track laser powder bed fusion of 316 L stainless steel, Additive Manufacturing, 70; 103562, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2023.103562

61-23   Yaqing Hou, Hang Su, Hao Zhang, Fafa Li, Xuandong Wang, Yazhou He, Dupeng He, An integrated simulation model towards laser powder bed fusion in-situ alloying technology, Materials & Design, 228; 111795, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2023.111795

56-23   Maohong Yang, Guiyi Wu, Xiangwei Li, Shuyan Zhang, Honghong Wang, Jiankang Huang, Influence of heat source model on the behavior of laser cladding pool, Journal of Laser Applications, 35.2; 2023. doi.org/10.2351/7.0000963

45-23   Daniel Martinez, Philip King, Santosh Reddy Sama, Jay Sim, Hakan Toykoc, Guha Manogharan, Effect of freezing range on reducing casting defects through 3D sand-printed mold designs, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-023-11112-x

39-23   Peter S. Cook, David J. Ritchie, Determining the laser absorptivity of Ti-6Al-4V during laser powder bed fusion by calibrated melt pool simulation, Optics & Laser Technology, 162; 109247. 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2023.109247

36-23   Yixuan Chen, Weihao Wang, Yao Ou, Yingna Wu, Zirong Zhai, Rui Yang, Impact of laser power and scanning velocity on microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 738LC alloys fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, TMS 2023 152nd Annual Meeting & Exhibition Supplemental Proceedings, pp. 138-149, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-22524-6_15

34-23   Chao Kang, Ikki Ikeda, Motoki Sakaguchi, Recoil and solidification of a paraffin droplet impacted on a metal substrate: Numerical study and experimental verification, Journal of Fluids and Structures, 118; 103839, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2023.103839

30-23   Fei Wang, Tiechui Yuan, Ruidi Li, Shiqi Lin, Zhonghao Xie, Lanbo Li, Valentino Cristino, Rong Xu, Bing liu, Comparative study on microstructures and mechanical properties of ultra ductility single-phase Nb40Ti40Ta20 refractory medium entropy alloy by selective laser melting and vacuum arc melting, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 942; 169065, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2023.169065

29-23   Haejin Lee, Yeonghwan Song, Seungkyun Yim, Kenta Aoyagi, Akihiko Chiba, Byoungsoo Lee, Influence of linear energy on side surface roughness in powder bed fusion electron beam melting process: Coupled experimental and simulation study, Powder Technology, 418; 118292, 2023.

27-23   Yinan Chen, Bo Li, Double-phase refractory medium entropy alloy NbMoTi via selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2419; 012074, 2023. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/2419/1/012074

23-23   Yunwei Gui, Kenta Aoyagi, Akihiko Chiba, Development of macro-defect-free PBF-EB-processed Ti–6Al–4V alloys with superior plasticity using PREP-synthesized powder and machine learning-assisted process optimization, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 864; 144595, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2023.144595

21-23   Tatsuhiko Sakai, Yasuhiro Okamoto, Nozomi Taura, Riku Saito, Akira Okada, Effect of scanning speed on molten metal behaviour under angled irradiation with a continuous-wave laser, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 313; 117866, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2023.117866

19-23   Gianna M. Valentino, Arunima Banerjee, Alexander lark, Christopher M. Barr, Seth H. Myers, Ian D. McCue, Influence of laser processing parameters on the density-ductility tradeoff in additively manufactured pure tantalum, Additive Manufacturing Letters, 4; 100117, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.addlet.2022.100117

15-23   Runbo Jiang, Zhongshu Ren, Joseph Aroh, Amir Mostafaei, Benjamin Gould, Tao Sun, Anthony D. Rollett, Quantifying equiaxed vs epitaxial solidification in laser melting of CMSX-4 single crystal superalloy, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 54; pp. 808-822, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s11661-022-06929-2

14-23   Nguyen Thi Tien, Yu-Lung Lo, M. Mohsin Raza, Cheng-Yen Chen, Chi-Pin Chiu, Optimization of processing parameters for pulsed laser welding of dissimilar metal interconnects, Optics & Laser Technology, 159; 109022, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2022.109022

9-23 Hou Yi Chia, Wentao Yan, High-fidelity modeling of metal additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing Technology: Design, Optimization, and Modeling, Ed. Kun Zhou, 2023.

8-23 Akash Aggarwal, Yung C. Shin, Arvind Kumar, Investigation of the transient coupling between the dynamic laser beam absorptance and the melt pool – vapor depression morphology in laser powder bed fusion process, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 201.2; 123663, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2022.123663

199-22 Md. Tusher Mollah, Raphaël Comminal, Marcin P. Serdeczny, David B. Pedersen, Jon Spangenberg, Numerical predictions of bottom layer stability in material extrusion additive manufacturing, JOM, 74; pp. 1096-1101, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s11837-021-05035-9

198-22 Md. Tusher Mollah, Amirpasha Moetazedian, Andy Gleadall, Jiongyi Yan, Wayne Edgar Alphonso, Raphael Comminal, Berin Seta, Tony Lock, Jon Spangenberg, Investigation on corner precision at different corner angles in material extrusion additive manufacturing: An experimental and computational fluid dynamics analysis, Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, 2022.

197-22 Md. Tusher Mollah, Marcin P. Serdeczny, Raphaël Comminal, Berin Šeta, Marco Brander, David B. Pedersen, Jon Spangenberg, A numerical investigation of the inter-layer bond and surface roughness during the yield stress buildup in wet-on-wet material extrusion additive manufacturing, ASPE and euspen Summer Topical Meeting, 77, 2022.

182-22   Chan Kyu Kim, Dae-Won Cho, Seok Kim, Sang Woo Song, Kang Myung Seo, Young Tae Cho, High-throughput metal 3D printing pen enabled by a continuous molten droplet transfer, Advanced Science, 2205085, 2022. doi.org/10.1002/advs.202205085

180-22 Xu Kaikai, Gong Yadong, Zhang Qiang, Numerical simulation of dynamic analysis of molten pool in the process of direct energy deposition, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-022-10271-7

179-22 Yasuhiro Okamoto, Nozomi Taura, Akira Okada, Study on laser drilling process of solid metal on its liquid, International Journal of Electrical Machining, 27; 2022. doi.org/10.2526/ijem.27.35

175-22 Lu Min, Xhi Xiaojie, Lu Peipei, Wu Meiping, Forming quality and wettability of surface texture on CuSn10 fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, AIP Advances, 12.12; 125114, 2022. doi.org/10.1063/5.0122076

174-22 Thinus Van Rhijn, Willie Du Preez, Maina Maringa, Dean Kouprianoff, An investigation into the optimization of the selective laser melting process parameters for Ti6Al4V through numerical modelling, JOM, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s11837-022-05608-2

171-22 Jonathan Yoshioka, Mohsen Eshraghi, Temporal evolution of temperature gradient and solidification rate in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Heat and Mass Transfer, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s00231-022-03318-8

170-22 Subin Shrestha and Kevin Chou, Residual heat effect on the melt pool geometry during the laser powder bed fusion process, Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, 6.6; 153, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/jmmp6060153

169-22 Aryan Aryan, Obinna Chukwubuzo, Desmond Bourgeois, Wei Zhang, Hardness prediction by incorporating heat transfer and molten pool fluid flow in a mult-pass, multi-layer weld for onsite repair of Grade 91 steel, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information, DOE-OSU-0032067, 2022. doi.org/10.2172/1898594

158-22 Dafan Du, Lu Wang, Anping Dong, Wentao Yan, Guoliang Zhu, Baode Sun, Promoting the densification and grain refinement with assistance of static magnetic field in laser powder bed fusion, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 183; 103965, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2022.103965

157-22 Han Chu, Jiang Ping, Geng Shaoning, Liu Kun, Nucleation mechanism in oscillating laser welds of 2024 aluminium alloy: A combined experimental and numerical study, Optics & Laser Technology, 158.A; 108812, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2022.108812

153-22 Zixiang Li, Yinan Cui, Baohua Chang, Guan Liu, Ze Pu, Haoyu Zhang, Zhiyue Liang, Changmeng Liu, Li Wang, Dong Du, Manipulating molten pool in in-situ additive manufacturing of Ti-22Al-25 Nb through alternating dual-electron beams, Additive Manufacturing, 60.A; 103230, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2022.103230

149-22   Qian Chen, Yao Fu, Albert C. To, Multiphysics modeling of particle spattering and induced defect formation mechanism in Inconel 718 laser powder bed fusion, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 123; pp. 783-791, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-022-10201-7

146-22   Zixuan Wan, Hui-ping Wang, Jingjing Li, Baixuan Yang, Joshua Solomon, Blair Carlson, Effect of welding mode on remote laser stitch welding of zinc-coated steel with different sheet thickness combinations, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, MANU-21-1598, 2022. doi.org/10.1115/1.4055792

143-22   Du-Rim Eo, Seong-Gyu Chung, JeongHo Yang, Won Tae Cho, Sun-Hong Park, Jung-Wook Cho, Surface modification of high-Mn steel via laser-DED: Microstructural characterization and hot crack susceptibility of clad layer, Materials & Design, 223; 111188, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2022.111188

142-22   Zichuan Fu, Xiangman Zhou, Bin Luo, Qihua Tian, Numerical simulation study of the effect of weld current on WAAM welding pool dynamic and weld bead morphology, International Conference on Mechanical Design and Simulation, Proceedings, 12261; 122614G, 2022. doi.org/10.1117/12.2639074

132-22   Yiyu Huang, Zhonghao Xie, Wenshu Li, Haoyu Chen, Bin Liu, Bingfeng Wang, Dynamic mechanical properties of the selective laser melting NiCrFeCoMo0.2 high entropy alloy and the microstructure of molten pool, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 927; 167011, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2022.167011

126-22   Jingqi Zhang, Yingang Liu, Gang Sha, Shenbao Jin, Ziyong Hou, Mohamad Bayat, Nan Yang, Qiyang Tan, Yu Yin, Shiyang Liu, Jesper Henri Hattel, Matthew Dargusch, Xiaoxu Huang, Ming-Xing Zhang, Designing against phase and property heterogeneities in additively manufactured titanium alloys, Nature Communications, 13; 4660, 2022. doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32446-2

119-22   Xu Kaikai, Gong Yadong, Zhao Qiang, Numerical simulation on molten pool flow of Inconel718 alloy based on VOF during additive manufacturing, Materials Today Communications, 33; 104147, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.mtcomm.2022.104147

118-22   AmirPouya Hemmasian, Francis Ogoke, Parand Akbari, Jonathan Malen, Jack Beuth, Amir Barati Farimani, Surrogate modeling of melt pool thermal field using deep learning, SSRN, 2022. doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4190835

117-22   Chiara Ransenigo, Marialaura Tocci, Filippo Palo, Paola Ginestra, Elisabetta Ceretti, Marcello Gelfi, Annalisa Pola, Evolution of melt pool and porosity during laser powder bed fusion of Ti6Al4V alloy: Numerical modelling and experimental validation, Lasers in Manufacturing and Materials Processing, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s40516-022-00185-3

112-22   Chris Jasien, Alec Saville, Chandler Gus Becker, Jonah Klemm-Toole, Kamel Fezzaa, Tao Sun, Tresa Pollock, Amy J. Clarke, In situ x-ray radiography and computational modeling to predict grain morphology in β-titanium during simulated additive manufacturing, Metals, 12.7; 1217, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/met12071217

110-22   Haotian Zhou, Haijun Su, Yinuo Guo, Peixin Yang, Yuan Liu, Zhonglin Shen, Di Zhao, Haifang Liu, Taiwen Huang, Min Guo, Jun Zhang, Lin Liu, Hengzhi Fu, Formation and evolution mechanisms of pores in Inconel 718 during selective laser melting: Meso-scale modeling and experimental investigations, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 81; pp. 202-213, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2022.06.072

109-22   Yufan Zhao, Huakang Bian, Hao Wang, Aoyagi Kenta, Yamanaka Kenta, Akihiko Chiba, Non-equilibrium solidification behavior associated with powder characteristics during electron beam additive manufacturing, Materials & Design, 221; 110915, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2022.110915

107-22   Dan Lönn, David Spångberg, Study of process parameters in laser beam welding of copper hairpins, Thesis, University of Skövde, 2022.

106-22   Liping Guo, Hongze Wang, Qianglong Wei, Hanjie Liu, An Wang, Yi Wu, Haowei Wang, A comprehensive model to quantify the effects of additional nano-particles on the printability in laser powder bed fusion of aluminum alloy and composite, Additive Manufacturing, 58; 103011, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2022.103011

104-22   Hongjiang Pan, Thomas Dahmen, Mohamad Bayat, Kang Lin, Xiaodan Zhang, Independent effects of laser power and scanning speed on IN718’s precipitation and mechanical properties produced by LBPF plus heat treatment, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 849; 143530, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2022.143530

101-22   Yufan Zhao, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka, Akihiko Chiba, A survey on basic influencing factors of solidified grain morphology during electron beam melting, Materials & Design, 221; 110927, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2022.110927

98-22   Jon Spangenberg, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Md. Tusher Mollah, Raphaël Comminal, Thomas Juul Andersen, Henrik Stang, Integrating reinforcement with 3D concrete printing: Experiments and numerical modelling, Third RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication, Eds. Ana Blanco, Peter Kinnell, Richard Buswell, Sergio Cavalaro, pp. 379-384, 2022.

93-22   Minglei Qu, Qilin Guo, Luis I. Escano, Samuel J. Clark Kamel Fezzaa, Lianyi Chen, Mitigating keyhole pore formation by nanoparticles during laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing Letters, 100068, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.addlet.2022.100068

86-22   Patiparn Ninpetch, Prasert Chalermkarnnon, Pruet Kowitwarangkul, Multiphysics simulation of thermal-fluid behavior in laser powder bed fusion of H13 steel: Influence of layer thickness and energy input, Metals and Materials International, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s12540-022-01239-z

85-22   Merve Biyikli, Taner Karagoz, Metin Calli, Talha Muslim, A. Alper Ozalp, Ali Bayram, Single track geometry prediction of laser metal deposited 316L-Si via multi-physics modelling and regression analysis with experimental validation, Metals and Materials International, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s12540-022-01243-3

76-22   Zhichao Yang, Shuhao Wang, Lida Zhu, Jinsheng Ning, Bo Xin, Yichao Dun, Wentao Yan, Manipulating molten pool dynamics during metal 3D printing by ultrasound, Applied Physics Reviews, 9; 021416, 2022. doi.org/10.1063/5.0082461

73-22   Yu Sun, Liqun Li, Yu Hao, Sanbao Lin, Xinhua Tang, Fenggui Lu, Numerical modeling on formation of periodic chain-like pores in high power laser welding of thick steel plate, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 306; 117638, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2022.117638

67-22   Yu Hao, Hiu-Ping Wang, Yu Sun, Liqun Li, Yihan Wu, Fenggui Lu, The evaporation behavior of zince and its effect on spattering in laser overlap welding of galvanized steels, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 306; 117625, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2022.117625

65-22   Yanhua Zhao, Chuanbin Du, Peifu Wang, Wei Meng, Changming Li, The mechanism of in-situ laser polishing and its effect on the surface quality of nickel-based alloy fabricated by selective laser melting, Metals, 12.5; 778, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/met12050778

58-22   W.E. Alphonso, M. Bayat, M. Baier, S. Carmignato, J.H. Hattel, Multi-physics numerical modelling of 316L Austenitic stainless steel in laser powder bed fusion process at meso-scale, 17th UK Heat Transfer Conference (UKHTC2021), Manchester, UK, April 4-6, 2022.

57-22   Brandon Hayes, Travis Hainsworth, Robert MacCurdy, Liquid-solid co-printing of multi-material 3D fluidic devices via material jetting, Additive Manufacturing, in press, 102785, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2022.102785

55-22   Xiang Wang, Lin-Jie Zhang, Jie Ning, Suck-joo Na, Fluid thermodynamic simulation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in laser wire deposition, 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing, 2022. doi.org/10.1089/3dp.2021.0159

54-22   Junhao Zhao, Binbin Wang, Tong Liu, Liangshu Luo, Yanan Wang, Xiaonan Zheng, Liang Wang, Yanqing Su, Jingjie Guo, Hengzhi Fu, Dayong Chen, Study of in situ formed quasicrystals in Al-Mn based alloys fabricated by SLM, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 909; 164847, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2022.164847

48-22   Yueming Sun, Jianxing Ma, Fei Peng, Konstantin G. Kornev, Making droplets from highly viscous liquids by pushing a wire through a tube, Physics of Fluids, 34; 032119, 2022. doi.org/10.1063/5.0082003

46-22   H.Z. Lu, T. Chen, H. Liu, H. Wang, X. Luo, C.H. Song, Constructing function domains in NiTi shape memory alloys by additive manufacturing, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 17.3; 2022. doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2022.2053821

42-22   Islam Hassan, P. Ravi Selvaganapathy, Microfluidic printheads for highly switchable multimaterial 3D printing of soft materials, Advanced Materials Technologies, 2101709, 2022. doi.org/10.1002/admt.202101709

41-22   Nan Yang, Youping Gong, Honghao Chen, Wenxin Li, Chuanping Zhou, Rougang Zhou, Huifeng Shao, Personalized artificial tibia bone structure design and processing based on laser powder bed fusion, Machines, 10.3; 205, 2022. doi.org/10.3390/machines10030205

31-22   Bo Shen, Raghav Gnanasambandam, Rongxuan Wang, Zhenyu (James) Kong, Multi-Task Gaussian process upper confidence bound for hyperparameter tuning and its application for simulation studies of additive manufacturing, IISE Transactions, 2022. doi.org/10.1080/24725854.2022.2039813

27-22   Lida Zhu, Shuhao Wang, Hao Lu, Dongxing Qi, Dan Wang, Zhichao Yang, Investigation on synergism between additive and subtractive manufacturing for curved thin-walled structure, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 17.2; 2022. doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2022.2029009

24-22   Hoon Sohn, Peipei Liu, Hansol Yoon, Kiyoon Yi, Liu Yang, Sangjun Kim, Real-time porosity reduction during metal directed energy deposition using a pulse laser, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 116; pp. 214-223. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2021.12.013

18-22   Yaohong Xiao, Zixuan Wan, Pengwei Liu, Zhuo Wang, Jingjing Li, Lei Chen, Quantitative simulations of grain nucleation and growth at additively manufactured bimetallic interfaces of SS316L and IN625, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 302; 117506, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2022.117506

06-22   Amal Charles, Mohamad Bayat, Ahmed Elkaseer, Lore Thijs, Jesper Henri Hattel, Steffen Scholz, Elucidation of dross formation in laser powder bed fusion at down-facing surfaces: Phenomenon-oriented multiphysics simulation and experimental validation, Additive Manufacturing, 50; 102551, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102551

05-22   Feilong Ji, Xunpeng Qin, Zeqi Hu, Xiaochen Xiong, Mao Ni, Mengwu Wu, Influence of ultrasonic vibration on molten pool behavior and deposition layer forming morphology for wire and arc additive manufacturing, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 130; 105789, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2021.105789

150-21   Daniel Knüttel, Stefano Baraldo, Anna Valente, Konrad Wegener, Emanuele Carpanzano, Model based learning for efficient modelling of heat transfer dynamics, Procedia CIRP, 102; pp. 252-257, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2021.09.043

149-21   T. van Rhijn, W. du Preez, M. Maringa, D. Kouprianoff, Towards predicting process parameters for selective laser melting of titanium alloys through the modelling of melt pool characteristics, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Natuurwetenskap en Tegnologie, 40.1; 2021. 

148-21   Qian Chen, Multiscale process modeling of residual deformation and defect formation for laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA USA, 2021. 

147-21   Pareekshith Allu, Developing process parameters through CFD simulations, Lasers in Manufacturing Conference, 2021.

143-21   Asif Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif Mahmood, Fatih Pitir, Metin Uymaz Salamci, Andrei C. Popescu, Ion N. Mihailescu, Spatter formation and splashing induced defects in laser-based powder bed fusion of AlSi10Mg alloy: A novel hydrodynamics modelling with empirical testing, Metals, 11.12; 2023, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/met11122023

142-21   Islam Hassan, Ponnambalam Ravi Selvaganapathy, A microfluidic printhead with integrated hybrid mixing by sequential injection for multimaterial 3D printing, Additive Manufacturing, 102559, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102559

137-21   Ting-Yu Cheng, Ying-Chih Liao, Enhancing drop mixing in powder bed by alternative particle arrangements with contradictory hydrophilicity, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 104160, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2021.104160

134-21   Asif Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif Mahmood, Fatih Pitir, Metin Uymaz Salamci, Andrei C. Popescu, Ion N. Mihailescu, Keyhole formation by laser drilling in laser powder bed fusion of Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy: Mesoscopic computational fluid dynamics simulation versus mathematical modelling using empirical validation, Nanomaterials, 11.2; 3284, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/nano11123284

128-21   Sang-Woo Han, Won-Ik Cho, Lin-Jie Zhang, Suck-Joo Na, Coupled simulation of thermal-metallurgical-mechanical behavior in laser keyhole welding of AH36 steel, Materials & Design, 212; 110275, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2021.110275

127-21   Jiankang Huang, Zhuoxuan Li, Shurong Yu, Xiaoquan Yu, Ding Fan, Real-time observation and numerical simulation of the molten pool flow and mass transfer behavior during wire arc additive manufacturing, Welding in the World, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s40194-021-01214-z

123-21   Boxue Song, Tianbiao Yu, Xingyu Jiang, Wenchao Xi, Xiaoli Lin, Zhelun Ma, ZhaoWang, Development of the molten pool and solidification characterization in single bead multilayer direct energy deposition, Additive Manufacturing, 102479, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102479

112-21   Kathryn Small, Ian D. McCue, Katrina Johnston, Ian Donaldson, Mitra L. Taheri, Precision modification of microstructure and properties through laser engraving, JOM, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s11837-021-04959-6

111-21   Yongki Lee, Jason Cheon, Byung-Kwon Min, Cheolhee Kim, Modelling of fume particle behaviour and coupling glass contamination during vacuum laser beam welding, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 2021. doi.org/10.1080/13621718.2021.1990658

110-21   Menglin Liu, Hao Yi, Huajun Cao, Rufeng Huang, Le Jia, Heat accumulation effect in metal droplet-based 3D printing: Evolution mechanism and elimination strategy, Additive Manufacturing, 48.A; 102413, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102413

108-21   Nozomi Taura, Akiya Mitsunobu, Tatsuhiko Sakai, Yasuhiro Okamoto, Akira Okada, Formation and its mechanism of high-speed micro-grooving on metal surface by angled CW laser irradiation, Journal of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering, 16.2, 2021. doi.org/10.2961/jlmn.2021.02.2006

105-21   Jon Spangenberg, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Raphaël Comminal, Md. Tusher Mollah, Thomas Juul Andersen, Henrik Stang, Numerical simulation of multi-layer 3D concrete printing, RILEM Technical Letters, 6; pp. 119-123, 2021. doi.org/10.21809/rilemtechlett.2021.142

104-21   Lin Chen, Chunming Wang, Gaoyang Mi, Xiong Zhang, Effects of laser oscillating frequency on energy distribution, molten pool morphology and grain structure of AA6061/AA5182 aluminum alloys lap welding, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 15; pp. 3133-3148, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2021.09.141

101-21   R.J.M. Wolfs, T.A.M. Salet, N. Roussel, Filament geometry control in extrusion-based additive manufacturing of concrete: The good, the bad and the ugly, Cement and Concrete Research, 150; 106615, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2021.106615

89-21   Wenlin Ye, Jin Bao, Jie Lei, Yichang Huang, Zhihao Li, Peisheng Li, Ying Zhang, Multiphysics modeling of thermal behavior of commercial pure titanium powder during selective laser melting, Metals and Materials International, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s12540-021-01019-1

81-21   Lin Chen, Gaoyang Mi, Xiong Zhang, Chunming Wang, Effects of sinusoidal oscillating laser beam on weld formation, melt flow and grain structure during aluminum alloys lap welding, Journals of Materials Processing Technology, 298; 117314, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2021.117314

77-21   Yujie Cui, Yufan Zhao, Haruko Numata, Kenta Yamanaka, Huakang Bian, Kenta Aoyagi, Akihiko Chiba, Effects of process parameters and cooling gas on powder formation during the plasma rotating electrode process, Powder Technology, 393; pp. 301-311, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2021.07.062

76-21   Md Tusher Mollah, Raphaël Comminal, Marcin P. Serdeczny, David B. Pedersen, Jon Spangenberg, Stability and deformations of deposited layers in material extrusion additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing, 46; 102193, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102193

72-21   S. Sabooni, A. Chabok, S.C. Feng, H. Blaauw, T.C. Pijper, H.J. Yang, Y.T. Pei, Laser powder bed fusion of 17–4 PH stainless steel: A comparative study on the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties, Additive Manufacturing, 46; 102176, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102176

71-21   Yu Hao, Nannan Chena, Hui-Ping Wang, Blair E. Carlson, Fenggui Lu, Effect of zinc vapor forces on spattering in partial penetration laser welding of zinc-coated steels, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 298; 117282, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2021.117282

67-21   Lu Wang, Wentao Yan, Thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic model for laser-based metal additive manufacturing, Physical Review Applied, 15.6; 064051, 2021. doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.15.064051

61-21   Ian D. McCue, Gianna M. Valentino, Douglas B. Trigg, Andrew M. Lennon, Chuck E. Hebert, Drew P. Seker, Salahudin M. Nimer, James P. Mastrandrea, Morgana M. Trexler, Steven M. Storck, Controlled shape-morphing metallic components for deployable structures, Materials & Design, 208; 109935, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2021.109935

60-21   Mahyar Khorasani, AmirHossein Ghasemi, Martin Leary, William O’Neil, Ian Gibson, Laura Cordova, Bernard Rolfe, Numerical and analytical investigation on meltpool temperature of laser-based powder bed fusion of IN718, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 177; 121477, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2021.121477

57-21   Dae-Won Cho, Yeong-Do Park, Muralimohan Cheepu, Numerical simulation of slag movement from Marangoni flow for GMAW with computational fluid dynamics, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 125; 105243, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2021.105243

55-21   Won-Sang Shin, Dae-Won Cho, Donghyuck Jung, Heeshin Kang, Jeng O Kim, Yoon-Jun Kim, Changkyoo Park, Investigation on laser welding of Al ribbon to Cu sheet: Weldability, microstructure and mechanical and electrical properties, Metals, 11.5; 831, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/met11050831

50-21   Mohamad Bayat, Venkata K. Nadimpalli, Francesco G. Biondani, Sina Jafarzadeh, Jesper Thorborg, Niels S. Tiedje, Giuliano Bissacco, David B. Pedersen, Jesper H. Hattel, On the role of the powder stream on the heat and fluid flow conditions during directed energy deposition of maraging steel—Multiphysics modeling and experimental validation, Additive Manufacturing, 43;102021, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2021.102021

47-21   Subin Shrestha, Kevin Chou, An investigation into melting modes in selective laser melting of Inconel 625 powder: single track geometry and porosity, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-021-07105-3

34-21   Haokun Sun, Xin Chu, Cheng Luo, Haoxiu Chen, Zhiying Liu, Yansong Zhang, Yu Zou, Selective laser melting for joining dissimilar materials: Investigations ofiInterfacial characteristics and in situ alloying, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 52; pp. 1540-1550, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s11661-021-06178-9

32-21   Shanshan Zhang, Subin Shrestha, Kevin Chou, On mesoscopic surface formation in metal laser powder-bed fusion process, Supplimental Proceedings, TMS 150th Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Virtual), pp. 149-161, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-65261-6_14

22-21   Patiparn Ninpetch, Pruet Kowitwarangkul, Sitthipong Mahathanabodee, Prasert Chalermkarnnon, Phadungsak Rattanadecho, Computational investigation of thermal behavior and molten metal flow with moving laser heat source for selective laser melting process, Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 24; 100860, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2021.100860

19-21   M.B. Abrami, C. Ransenigo, M. Tocci, A. Pola, M. Obeidi, D. Brabazon, Numerical simulation of laser powder bed fusion processes, La Metallurgia Italiana, February; pp. 81-89, 2021.

16-21   Wenjun Ge, Jerry Y.H. Fuh, Suck Joo Na, Numerical modelling of keyhole formation in selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 62; pp. 646-654, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2021.01.005

11-21   Mohamad Bayat, Venkata K. Nadimpalli, David B. Pedersen, Jesper H. Hattel, A fundamental investigation of thermo-capillarity in laser powder bed fusion of metals and alloys, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 166; 120766, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.120766

10-21   Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka, Akihiko Chiba, Thermal properties of powder beds in energy absorption and heat transfer during additive manufacturing with electron beam, Powder Technology, 381; pp. 44-54, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2020.11.082

9-21   Subin Shrestha, Kevin Chou, A study of transient and steady-state regions from single-track deposition in laser powder bed fusion, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 61; pp. 226-235, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2020.11.023

6-21   Qian Chen, Yunhao Zhao, Seth Strayer, Yufan Zhao, Kenta Aoyagi, Yuichiro Koizumi, Akihiko Chiba, Wei Xiong, Albert C. To, Elucidating the effect of preheating temperature on melt pool morphology variation in Inconel 718 laser powder bed fusion via simulation and experiment, Additive Manufacturing, 37; 101642, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101642

04-21   Won-Ik Cho, Peer Woizeschke, Analysis of molten pool dynamics in laser welding with beam oscillation and filler wire feeding, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 164; 120623, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.120623

128-20   Mahmood Al Bashir, Rajeev Nair, Martina M. Sanchez, Anil Mahapatro, Improving fluid retention properties of 316L stainless steel using nanosecond pulsed laser surface texturing, Journal of Laser Applications, 32.4, 2020. doi.org/10.2351/7.0000199

127-20   Eric Riedel, Niklas Bergedieck, Stefan Scharf, CFD simulation based investigation of cavitation cynamics during high intensity ultrasonic treatment of A356, Metals, 10.11; 1529, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10111529

126-20   Benjamin Himmel, Material jetting of aluminium: Analysis of a novel additive manufacturing process, Thesis, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany, 2020. 

121-20   Yufan Zhao, Yujie Cui, Haruko Numata, Huakang Bian, Kimio Wako, Kenta Yamanaka, Kenta Aoyagi, Akihiko Chiba, Centrifugal granulation behavior in metallic powder fabrication by plasma rotating electrode process, Scientific Reports, 10; 18446, 2020. doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75503-w

116-20   Raphael Comminal, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Thomas Juul Andersen, Henrik Stang, Jon Spangenberg, Modelling of 3D concrete printing based on computational fluid dynamics, Cement and Concrete Research, 138; 106256, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2020.106256

112-20   Peng Liu, Lijin Huan, Yu Gan, Yuyu Lei, Effect of plate thickness on weld pool dynamics and keyhole-induced porosity formation in laser welding of Al alloy, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 111; pp. 735-747, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-05818-5

108-20   Fan Chen, Wentao Yan, High-fidelity modelling of thermal stress for additive manufacturing by linking thermal-fluid and mechanical models, Materials & Design, 196; 109185, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2020.109185

104-20   Yunfu Tian, Lijun Yang, Dejin Zhao, Yiming Huang, Jiajing Pan, Numerical analysis of powder bed generation and single track forming for selective laser melting of SS316L stainless steel, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 58; pp. 964-974, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2020.09.002

100-20   Raphaël Comminal, Sina Jafarzadeh, Marcin Serdeczny, Jon Spangenberg, Estimations of interlayer contacts in extrusion additive manufacturing using a CFD model, International Conference on Additive Manufacturing in Products and Applications (AMPA), Zurich, Switzerland, September 1-3: Industrializing Additive Manufacturing, pp. 241-250, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-54334-1_17

97-20   Paree Allu, CFD simulation for metal Additive Manufacturing: Applications in laser- and sinter-based processes, Metal AM, 6.4; pp. 151-158, 2020.

95-20   Yufan Zhao, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka, Akihiko Chiba, Role of operating and environmental conditions in determining molten pool dynamics during electron beam melting and selective laser melting, Additive Manufacturing, 36; 101559, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101559

94-20   Yan Zeng, David Himmler, Peter Randelzhofer, Carolin Körner, Processing of in situ Al3Ti/Al composites by advanced high shear technology: influence of mixing speed, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 110; pp. 1589-1599, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-05956-w

93-20   H. Hamed Zargari, K. Ito, M. Kumar, A. Sharma, Visualizing the vibration effect on the tandem-pulsed gas metal arc welding in the presence of surface tension active elements, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 161; 120310, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.120310

90-20   Guangxi Zhao, Jun Du, Zhengying Wei, Siyuan Xu, Ruwei Geng, Numerical analysis of aluminum alloy fused coating process, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Science and Engineering, 42; 483, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s40430-020-02569-y

85-20   Wenkang Huang, Hongliang Wang, Teresa Rinker, Wenda Tan, Investigation of metal mixing in laser keyhold welding of dissimilar metals, Materials & Design, 195; 109056, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2020.109056

82-20   Pan Lu, Zhang Cheng-Lin, Wang Liang, Liu Tong, Liu Jiang-lin, Molten pool structure, temperature and velocity flow in selective laser melting AlCu5MnCdVA alloy, Materials Research Express, 7; 086516, 2020. doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/abadcf

80-20   Yujie Cui, Yufan Zhao, Haruko Numata, Huakang Bian, Kimio Wako, Kento Yamanaka, Kenta Aoyagi, Chen Zhang, Akihiko Chiba, Effects of plasma rotating electrode process parameters on the particle size distribution and microstructure of Ti-6Al-4 V alloy powder, Powder Technology, 376; pp. 363-372, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2020.08.027

78-20   F.Q. Liu, L. Wei, S.Q. Shi, H.L. Wei, On the varieties of build features during multi-layer laser directed energy deposition, Additive Manufacturing, 36; 101491, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101491

75-20   Nannan Chen, Zixuan Wan, Hui-Ping Wang, Jingjing Li, Joshua Solomon, Blair E. Carlson, Effect of Al single bond Si coating on laser spot welding of press hardened steel and process improvement with annular stirring, Materials & Design, 195; 108986, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2020.108986

72-20   Yujie Cui, Kenta Aoyagi, Yufan Zhao, Kenta Yamanaka, Yuichiro Hayasaka, Yuichiro Koizumi, Tadashi Fujieda, Akihiko Chiba, Manufacturing of a nanosized TiB strengthened Ti-based alloy via electron beam powder bed fusion, Additive Manufacturing, 36; 101472, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101472

64-20   Dong-Rong Liu, Shuhao Wang, Wentao Yan, Grain structure evolution in transition-mode melting in direct energy deposition, Materials & Design, 194; 108919, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2020.108919

61-20   Raphael Comminal, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Thomas Juul Andersen, Henrik Stang, Jon Spangenberg, Influence of processing parameters on the layer geometry in 3D concrete printing: Experiments and modelling, 2nd RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication, RILEM Bookseries, 28; pp. 852-862, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-49916-7_83

60-20   Marcin P. Serdeczny, Raphaël Comminal, Md. Tusher Mollah, David B. Pedersen, Jon Spangenberg, Numerical modeling of the polymer flow through the hot-end in filament-based material extrusion additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing, 36; 101454, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101454

58-20   H.L. Wei, T. Mukherjee, W. Zhang, J.S. Zuback, G.L. Knapp, A. De, T. DebRoy, Mechanistic models for additive manufacturing of metallic components, Progress in Materials Science, 116; 100703, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2020.100703

55-20   Masoud Mohammadpour, Experimental study and numerical simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow in laser welded and brazed joints, Thesis, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, US; Available in Mechanical Engineering Research Theses and Dissertations, 24, 2020.

48-20   Masoud Mohammadpour, Baixuan Yang, Hui-Ping Wang, John Forrest, Michael Poss, Blair Carlson, Radovan Kovacevica, Influence of laser beam inclination angle on galvanized steel laser braze quality, Optics and Laser Technology, 129; 106303, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2020.106303

34-20   Binqi Liu, Gang Fang, Liping Lei, Wei Liu, A new ray tracing heat source model for mesoscale CFD simulation of selective laser melting (SLM), Applied Mathematical Modeling, 79; pp. 506-520, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2019.10.049

27-20   Xuesong Gao, Guilherme Abreu Farira, Wei Zhang and Kevin Wheeler, Numerical analysis of non-spherical particle effect on molten pool dynamics in laser-powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Computational Materials Science, 179, art. no. 109648, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2020.109648

26-20   Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka and Akihiko Chiba, Isothermal γ → ε phase transformation behavior in a Co-Cr-Mo alloy depending on thermal history during electron beam powder-bed additive manufacturing, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 50, pp. 162-170, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2019.11.040

21-20   Won-Ik Cho and Peer Woizeschke, Analysis of molten pool behavior with buttonhole formation in laser keyhole welding of sheet metal, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 152, art. no. 119528, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.119528

06-20  Wei Xing, Di Ouyang, Zhen Chen and Lin Liu, Effect of energy density on defect evolution in 3D printed Zr-based metallic glasses by selective laser melting, Science China Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 63, art. no. 226111, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s11433-019-1485-8

04-20   Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch and Guha Manogharan, Novel sprue designs in metal casting via 3D sand-printing, Additive Manufacturing, 25, pp. 563-578, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.009

02-20   Dongsheng Wu, Shinichi Tashiro, Ziang Wu, Kazufumi Nomura, Xueming Hua, and Manabu Tanaka, Analysis of heat transfer and material flow in hybrid KPAW-GMAW process based on the novel three dimensional CFD simulation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 147, art. no. 118921, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.118921

01-20   Xiang Huang, Siying Lin, Zhenxiang Bu, Xiaolong Lin, Weijin Yi, Zhihong Lin, Peiqin Xie, and Lingyun Wang, Research on nozzle and needle combination for high frequency piezostack-driven dispenser, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 96, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2019.102453

88-19   Bo Cheng and Charles Tuffile, Numerical study of porosity formation with implementation of laser multiple reflection in selective laser melting, Proceedings Volume 1: Additive Manufacturing; Manufacturing Equipment and Systems; Bio and Sustainable Manufacturing, ASME 2019 14th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, Erie, Pennsylvania, USA, June 10-14, 2019. doi.org/10.1115/MSEC2019-2891

87-19   Shuhao Wang, Lida Zhu, Jerry Ying His Fuh, Haiquan Zhang, and Wentao Yan, Multi-physics modeling and Gaussian process regression analysis of cladding track geometry for direct energy deposition, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 127:105950, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2019.105950

78-19   Bo Cheng, Lukas Loeber, Hannes Willeck, Udo Hartel, and Charles Tuffile, Computational investigation of melt pool process dynamics and pore formation in laser powder bed fusion, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 28:11, 6565-6578, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s11665-019-04435-y

77-19   David Souders, Pareekshith Allu, Anurag Chandorkar, and Ruendy Castillo, Application of computational fluid dynamics in developing process parameters for additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing Journal, 9th International Conference on 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing Technologies (AM 2019), Bangalore, India, September 7-9, 2019.

75-19   Raphaël Comminal, Marcin Piotr Serdeczny, Navid Ranjbar, Mehdi Mehrali, David Bue Pedersen, Henrik Stang, Jon Spangenberg, Modelling of material deposition in big area additive manufacturing and 3D concrete printing, Proceedings, Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing, Nantes, France, September 16-18, 2019.

73-19   Baohua Chang, Zhang Yuan, Hao Cheng, Haigang Li, Dong Du 1, and Jiguo Shan, A study on the influences of welding position on the keyhole and molten pool behavior in laser welding of a titanium alloy, Metals, 9:1082, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/met9101082

57-19     Shengjie Deng, Hui-Ping Wang, Fenggui Lu, Joshua Solomon, and Blair E. Carlson, Investigation of spatter occurrence in remote laser spiral welding of zinc-coated steels, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 140, pp. 269-280, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.06.009

53-19     Mohamad Bayat, Aditi Thanki, Sankhya Mohanty, Ann Witvrouw, Shoufeng Yang, Jesper Thorborg, Niels Skat Tieldje, and Jesper Henri Hattel, Keyhole-induced porosities in Laser-based Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) of Ti6Al4V: High-fidelity modelling and experimental validation, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 30, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2019.100835

51-19     P. Ninpetch, P. Kowitwarangkul, S. Mahathanabodee, R. Tongsri, and P. Ratanadecho, Thermal and melting track simulations of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF), International Conference on Materials Research and Innovation (ICMARI), Bangkok, Thailand, December 17-21, 2018. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 526, 2019. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/526/1/012030

46-19     Hongze Wang and Yu Zou, Microscale interaction between laser and metal powder in powder-bed additive manufacturing: Conduction mode versus keyhole mode, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 142, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.118473

45-19     Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Kenta Yamanaka, and Akihiko Chiba, Manipulating local heat accumulation towards controlled quality and microstructure of a Co-Cr-Mo alloy in powder bed fusion with electron beam, Materials Letters, Vol. 254, pp. 269-272, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2019.07.078

44-19     Guoxiang Xu, Lin Li, Houxiao Wang, Pengfei Li, Qinghu Guo, Qingxian Hu, and Baoshuai Du, Simulation and experimental studies of keyhole induced porosity in laser-MIG hybrid fillet welding of aluminum alloy in the horizontal position, Optics & Laser Technology, Vol. 119, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2019.105667

38-19     Subin Shrestha and Y. Kevin Chou, A numerical study on the keyhole formation during laser powder bed fusion process, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 141, No. 10, 2019. doi.org/10.1115/1.4044100

34-19     Dae-Won Cho, Jin-Hyeong Park, and Hyeong-Soon Moon, A study on molten pool behavior in the one pulse one drop GMAW process using computational fluid dynamics, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 139, pp. 848-859, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.05.038

30-19     Mohamad Bayat, Sankhya Mohanty, and Jesper Henri Hattel, Multiphysics modelling of lack-of-fusion voids formation and evolution in IN718 made by multi-track/multi-layer L-PBF, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 139, pp. 95-114, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.05.003

29-19     Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Daixiu Wei, Kenta Yamanaka, and Akihiko Chiba, Comprehensive study on mechanisms for grain morphology evolution and texture development in powder bed fusion with electron beam of Co–Cr–Mo alloy, Materialia, Vol. 6, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.mtla.2019.100346

28-19     Pareekshith Allu, Computational fluid dynamics modeling in additive manufacturing processes, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) 148th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, March 10-14, 2019.

24-19     Simulation Software: Use, Advantages & Limitations, The Additive Manufacturing and Welding Magazine, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2019

22-19     Hunchul Jeong, Kyungbae Park, Sungjin Baek, and Jungho Cho, Thermal efficiency decision of variable polarity aluminum arc welding through molten pool analysis, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 138, pp. 729-737, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.04.089

07-19   Guangxi Zhao, Jun Du, Zhengying Wei, Ruwei Geng and Siyuan Xu, Numerical analysis of arc driving forces and temperature distribution in pulsed TIG welding, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 41, No. 60, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/s40430-018-1563-0

04-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch and Guha Manogharan, Novel sprue designs in metal casting via 3D sand-printing, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 25, pp. 563-578, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.009

03-19   Dongsheng Wu, Anh Van Nguyen, Shinichi Tashiro, Xueming Hua and Manabu Tanaka, Elucidation of the weld pool convection and keyhole formation mechanism in the keyhold plasma arc welding, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 131, pp. 920-931, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.11.108

97-18   Wentao Yan, Ya Qian, Wenjun Ge, Stephen Lin, Wing Kam Liu, Feng Lin, Gregory J. Wagner, Meso-scale modeling of multiple-layer fabrication process in Selective Electron Beam Melting: Inter-layer/track voids formation, Materials & Design, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.12.031

84-18   Bo Cheng, Xiaobai Li, Charles Tuffile, Alexander Ilin, Hannes Willeck and Udo Hartel, Multi-physics modeling of single track scanning in selective laser melting: Powder compaction effect, Proceedings of the 29th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, pp. 1887-1902, 2018.

81-18 Yufan Zhao, Yuichiro Koizumi, Kenta Aoyagi, Daixiu Wei, Kenta Yamanaka and Akihiko Chiba, Molten pool behavior and effect of fluid flow on solidification conditions in selective electron beam melting (SEBM) of a biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloy, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 26, pp. 202-214, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.002

77-18   Jun Du and Zhengying Wei, Numerical investigation of thermocapillary-induced deposited shape in fused-coating additive manufacturing process of aluminum alloy, Journal of Physics Communications, Vol. 2, No. 11, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/2399-6528/aaedc7

76-18   Yu Xiang, Shuzhe Zhang, Zhengying We, Junfeng Li, Pei Wei, Zhen Chen, Lixiang Yang and Lihao Jiang, Forming and defect analysis for single track scanning in selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V, Applied Physics A, 124:685, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s00339-018-2056-9

74-18   Paree Allu, CFD simulations for laser welding of Al Alloys, Proceedings, Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 15-17, 2018.

72-18   Hunchul Jeong, Kyungbae Park, Sungjin Baek, Dong-Yoon Kim, Moon-Jin Kang and Jungho Cho, Three-dimensional numerical analysis of weld pool in GMAW with fillet joint, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol. 19, No. 8, pp. 1171-1177, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s12541-018-0138-4

60-18   R.W. Geng, J. Du, Z.Y. Wei and G.X. Zhao, An adaptive-domain-growth method for phase field simulation of dendrite growth in arc preheated fused-coating additive manufacturing, IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1063, 012077, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012077

59-18   Guangxi Zhao, Jun Du, Zhengying Wei, Ruwei Geng and Siyuan Xu, Coupling analysis of molten pool during fused coating process with arc preheating, IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1063, 012076, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012076 (Available at http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012076/pdf and in shared drive)

58-18   Siyuan Xu, Zhengying Wei, Jun Du, Guangxi Zhao and Wei Liu, Numerical simulation and analysis of metal fused coating forming, IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1063, 012075, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1063/1/012075

55-18   Jason Cheon, Jin-Young Yoon, Cheolhee Kim and Suck-Joo Na, A study on transient flow characteristic in friction stir welding with realtime interface tracking by direct surface calculation, Journal of Materials Processing Tech., vol. 255, pp. 621-634, 2018.

54-18   V. Sukhotskiy, P. Vishnoi, I. H. Karampelas, S. Vader, Z. Vader, and E. P. Furlani, Magnetohydrodynamic drop-on-demand liquid metal additive manufacturing: System overview and modeling, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of Fluid Flow, Heat and Mass Transfer, Niagara Falls, Canada, June 7 – 9, 2018; Paper no. 155, 2018. doi.org/10.11159/ffhmt18.155

52-18   Michael Hilbinger, Claudia Stadelmann, Matthias List and Robert F. Singer, Temconex® – Kontinuierliche Pulverextrusion: Verbessertes Verständnis mit Hilfe der numerischen Simulation, Hochleistungsmetalle und Prozesse für den Leichtbau der Zukunft, Tagungsband 10. Ranshofener Leichtmetalltage, 13-14 Juni 2018, Linz, pp. 175-186, 2018.

38-18   Zhen Chen, Yu Xiang, Zhengying Wei, Pei Wei, Bingheng Lu, Lijuan Zhang and Jun Du, Thermal dynamic behavior during selective laser melting of K418 superalloy: numerical simulation and experimental verification, Applied Physics A, vol. 124, pp. 313, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s00339-018-1737-8

19-18   Chenxiao Zhu, Jason Cheon, Xinhua Tang, Suck-Joo Na, and Haichao Cui, Molten pool behaviors and their influences on welding defects in narrow gap GMAW of 5083 Al-alloy, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 126:A, pp.1206-1221, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.05.132

16-18   P. Schneider, V. Sukhotskiy, T. Siskar, L. Christie and I.H. Karampelas, Additive Manufacturing of Microfluidic Components via Wax Extrusion, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, vol. 3, pp. 162 – 165, 2018.

09-18   The Furlani Research Group, Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal 3D Printing, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, © University at Buffalo, May 2018.

08-18   Benjamin Himmel, Dominik Rumschöttel and Wolfram Volk, Thermal process simulation of droplet based metal printing with aluminium, Production Engineering, March 2018 © German Academic Society for Production Engineering (WGP) 2018.

07-18   Yu-Che Wu, Cheng-Hung San, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Huey-Jiuan Lin, Raed Marwan, Shuhei Baba and Weng-Sing Hwang, Numerical modeling of melt-pool behavior in selective laser melting with random powder distribution and experimental validation, Journal of Materials Processing Tech. 254 (2018) 72–78.

60-17   Pei Wei, Zhengying Wei, Zhen Chen, Yuyang He and Jun Du, Thermal behavior in single track during selective laser melting of AlSi10Mg powder, Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 123:604, 2017. doi.org/10.1007/z00339-017-1194-9

51-17   Koichi Ishizaka, Keijiro Saitoh, Eisaku Ito, Masanori Yuri, and Junichiro Masada, Key Technologies for 1700°C Class Ultra High Temperature Gas Turbine, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Technical Review, vol. 54, no. 3, 2017.

49-17   Yu-Che Wu, Weng-Sing Hwang, Cheng-Hung San, Chih-Hsiang Chang and Huey-Jiuan Lin, Parametric study of surface morphology for selective laser melting on Ti6Al4V powder bed with numerical and experimental methods, International Journal of Material Forming, © Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2017. doi.org/10.1007/s12289-017-1391-2.

37-17   V. Sukhotskiy, I. H. Karampelas, G. Garg, A. Verma, M. Tong, S. Vader, Z. Vader, and E. P. Furlani, Magnetohydrodynamic Drop-on-Demand Liquid Metal 3D Printing, Solid Freeform Fabrication 2017: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference

15-17   I.H. Karampelas, S. Vader, Z. Vader, V. Sukhotskiy, A. Verma, G. Garg, M. Tong and E.P. Furlani, Drop-on-Demand 3D Metal Printing, Informatics, Electronics and Microsystems TechConnect Briefs 2017, Vol. 4

14-17   Jason Cheon and Suck-Joo Na, Prediction of welding residual stress with real-time phase transformation by CFD thermal analysis, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 131–132 (2017) 37–51.

91-16   Y. S. Lee and D. F. Farson, Surface tension-powered build dimension control in laser additive manufacturing process, Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2016) 85:1035–1044, doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7974-5.

84-16   Runqi Lin, Hui-ping Wang, Fenggui Lu, Joshua Solomon, Blair E. Carlson, Numerical study of keyhole dynamics and keyhole-induced porosity formation in remote laser welding of Al alloys, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 108 (2017) 244–256, Available online December 2016.

68-16   Dongsheng Wu, Xueming Hua, Dingjian Ye and Fang Li, Understanding of humping formation and suppression mechanisms using the numerical simulation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 104, January 2017, Pages 634–643, Published online 2016.

39-16   Chien-Hsun Wang, Ho-Lin Tsai, Yu-Che Wu and Weng-Sing Hwang, Investigation of molten metal droplet deposition and solidification for 3D printing techniques, IOP Publishing, J. Micromech. Microeng. 26 (2016) 095012 (14pp), doi: 10.1088/0960-1317/26/9/095012, July 8, 2016

29-16   Scott Vader, Zachary Vader, Ioannis H. Karampelas and Edward P. Furlani, Advances in Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Jet Printing, Nanotech 2016 Conference & Expo, May 22-25, Washington, DC.

26-16   Y.S. Lee and W. Zhang, Modeling of heat transfer, fluid flow and solidification microstructure of nickel-base superalloy fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, S2214-8604(16)30087-2, doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2016.05.003, ADDMA 86.

123-15   Koji Tsukimoto, Masashi Kitamura, Shuji Tanigawa, Sachio Shimohata, and Masahiko Mega, Laser welding repair for single crystal blades, Proceedings of International Gas Turbine Congress, pp. 1354-1358, 2015.

122-15   Y.S. Lee, W. Zhang, Mesoscopic simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow in laser powder bed additive manufacturing, Proceedings, 26th Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, Texas, 2015. 

116-15   Yousub Lee, Simulation of Laser Additive Manufacturing and its Applications, Ph.D. Thesis: Graduate Program in Welding Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2015, Copyright by Yousub Lee 2015

103-15   Ligang Wu, Jason Cheon, Degala Venkata Kiran, and Suck-Joo Na, CFD Simulations of GMA Welding of Horizontal Fillet Joints based on Coordinate Rotation of Arc Models, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Available online December 29, 2015

96-15   Jason Cheon, Degala Venkata Kiran, and Suck-Joo Na, Thermal metallurgical analysis of GMA welded AH36 steel using CFD – FEM framework, Materials & Design, Volume 91, February 5 2016, Pages 230-241, published online November 2015

86-15   Yousub Lee and Dave F. Farson, Simulation of transport phenomena and melt pool shape for multiple layer additive manufacturing, J. Laser Appl. 28, 012006 (2016). doi: 10.2351/1.4935711, published online 2015.

63-15   Scott Vader, Zachary Vader, Ioannis H. Karampelas and Edward P. Furlani, Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Jet Printing, TechConnect World Innovation Conference & Expo, Washington, D.C., June 14-17, 2015

46-15   Adwaith Gupta, 3D Printing Multi-Material, Single Printhead Simulation, Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop, July 20 – 21, 2015, Santa Fe, NM

25-15   Dae-Won Cho and Suck-Joo Na, Molten pool behaviors for second pass V-groove GMAW, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 88 (2015) 945–956.

21-15   Jungho Cho, Dave F. Farson, Kendall J. Hollis and John O. Milewski, Numerical analysis of weld pool oscillation in laser welding, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 29 (4) (2015) 1715~1722, www.springerlink.com/content/1738-494x, doi.org/10.1007/s12206-015-0344-2.

82-14  Yousub Lee, Mark Nordin, Sudarsanam Suresh Babu, and Dave F. Farson, Effect of Fluid Convection on Dendrite Arm Spacing in Laser Deposition, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, August 2014, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 1520-1529

59-14   Y.S. Lee, M. Nordin, S.S. Babu, and D.F. Farson, Influence of Fluid Convection on Weld Pool Formation in Laser Cladding, Welding Research/ August 2014, VOL. 93

18-14  L.J. Zhang, J.X. Zhang, A. Gumenyuk, M. Rethmeier, and S.J. Na, Numerical simulation of full penetration laser welding of thick steel plate with high power high brightness laser, Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2014), doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.03.016.

36-13  Dae-Won Cho,Woo-Hyun Song, Min-Hyun Cho, and Suck-Joo Na, Analysis of Submerged Arc Welding Process by Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2013. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.06.017

12-13 D.W. Cho, S.J. Na, M.H. Cho, J.S. Lee, A study on V-groove GMAW for various welding positions, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, April 2013, doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.02.015.

01-13  Dae-Won Cho & Suck-Joo Na & Min-Hyun Cho & Jong-Sub Lee, Simulations of weld pool dynamics in V-groove GTA and GMA welding, Weld World, doi.org/10.1007/s40194-012-0017-z, © International Institute of Welding 2013.

63-12  D.W. Cho, S.H. Lee, S.J. Na, Characterization of welding arc and weld pool formation in vacuum gas hollow tungsten arc welding, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2012.09.024, September 2012.

77-10  Lim, Y. C.; Yu, X.; Cho, J. H.; et al., Effect of magnetic stirring on grain structure refinement Part 1-Autogenous nickel alloy welds, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Volume: 15 Issue: 7, Pages: 583-589, doi.org/10.1179/136217110X12720264008277, October 2010

18-10 K Saida, H Ohnishi, K Nishimoto, Fluxless laser brazing of aluminium alloy to galvanized steel using a tandem beam–dissimilar laser brazing of aluminium alloy and steels, Welding International, 2010

58-09  Cho, Jung-Ho; Farson, Dave F.; Milewski, John O.; et al., Weld pool flows during initial stages of keyhole formation in laser welding, Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics, Volume: 42 Issue: 17 Article Number: 175502 ; doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/42/17/175502, September 2009

57-09  Lim, Y. C.; Farson, D. F.; Cho, M. H.; et al., Stationary GMAW-P weld metal deposit spreading, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Volume: 14 Issue: 7 ;Pages: 626-635, doi.org/10.1179/136217109X441173, October 2009

1-09 J.-H. Cho and S.-J. Na, Three-Dimensional Analysis of Molten Pool in GMA-Laser Hybrid Welding, Welding Journal, February 2009, Vol. 88

52-07   Huey-Jiuan Lin and Wei-Kuo Chang, Design of a sheet forming apparatus for overflow fusion process by numerical simulation, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 353 (2007) 2817–2825.

50-07  Cho, Min Hyun; Farson, Dave F., Understanding bead hump formation in gas metal arc welding using a numerical simulation, Metallurgical and Mateials Transactions B-Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science, Volume: 38, Issue: 2, Pages: 305-319, doi.org/10.1007/s11663-007-9034-5, April 2007

49-07  Cho, M. H.; Farson, D. F., Simulation study of a hybrid process for the prevention of weld bead hump formation, Welding Journal Volume: 86, Issue: 9, Pages: 253S-262S, September 2007

48-07  Cho, M. H.; Farson, D. F.; Lim, Y. C.; et al., Hybrid laser/arc welding process for controlling bead profile, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Volume: 12 Issue: 8, Pages: 677-688, doi.org/10.1179/174329307X236878, November 2007

47-07   Min Hyun Cho, Dave F. Farson, Understanding Bead Hump Formation in Gas Metal Arc Welding Using a Numerical Simulation, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 305-319, April 2007

36-06  Cho, M. H.; Lim, Y. C.; Farson, D. F., Simulation of weld pool dynamics in the stationary pulsed gas metal arc welding process and final weld shape, Welding Journal, Volume: 85 Issue: 12, Pages: 271S-283S, December 2006

Microfluidics Bibliography

Microfluidics Bibliography

다음은 Microfluidics Bibliography의 기술 문서 모음입니다.
이 모든 논문은 FLOW-3D  결과를 특징으로  합니다. 미세 유체 공정 및 장치 를 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하기 위해 FLOW-3D 를 사용 하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오  .

2024년 3월 20일 Update

196-23 Daicong Zhang, Chunhui Jing, Wei Guo, Yuan Xiao, Jun Luo, Lehua Qi, Microchannels formed using metal microdroplets, Micromachines, 14.10; 1922, 2023. doi.org/10.3390/mi14101922

121-23 Feng Lin Ng, Zhanhong Cen, Yi-Chin Toh, Lay Poh Tan, A 3D-printed micro-perfused culture device with embedded 3D fibrous scaffold for enhanced biomimicry, International Journal of Bioprinting, 2023. doi.org/10.36922/ijb.0226

104-23 Cristina González-Fernández, Jenifer Gómez-Pastora, Eugenio Bringas, Inmaculada Ortiz, Computer-aided design of magnetophoretic microfluidic systems for enhanced recovery of target products, 33rd European Symposium on Computer-Aided Engineering (ESCAPE), 2023.

64-23   Tihomir Tjankov, Dimitar Trifonov, Conceptual design and 3D modeling of a microfluidic device for liver cells investigation, Industry 4.0, 8.2; pp. 39-41, 2023.

34-23   Chao Kang, Ikki Ikeda, Motoki Sakaguchi, Recoil and solidification of a paraffin droplet impacted on a metal substrate: Numerical study and experimental verification, Journal of Fluids and Structures, 118; 103839, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2023.103839

64-22   Babatunde Aramide, Computational modelling of electrohydrodynamic jetting (Taylor cone formation, dripping & jet evolution): Case study of electrospinning, Thesis, University College London, 2022.

42-22   Islam Hassan, P. Ravi Selvaganapathy, Microfluidic printheads for highly switchable multimaterial 3D printing of soft materials, Advanced Materials Technologies, 2101709, 2022. doi.org/10.1002/admt.202101709

138-21   Enver Guler, Mine Eti, Aydin Cihanoglu, Esra Altiok, Kadriye Ozlem Hamaloglu, Burcu Gokcal, Ali Tuncel, Nalan Kabay, Ion exchange membranes with enhanced antifouling properties to produce energy from renewable sources, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Green and Smart Technologies for a Sustainable Society, Santander, Cantabria, Spain, December 9-10, 2021.

45-21   Navid Tonekaboni, Mahdi Feizbahr, Nima Tonekaboni, Guang-Jun Jiang, Hong-Xia Chen, Optimization of solar CCHP systems with collector enhanced by porous media and nanofluid, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2021; 9984940, 2021. doi.org/10.1155/2021/9984840

40-21   B. Hayes, G.L. Whiting, R. MacCurdy, Modeling of contactless bubble–bubble interactions in microchannels with integrated inertial pumps, Physics of Fluids, 33.4; 042002, 2021. doi.org/10.1063/5.0041924

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Microfluidics Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate microfluidic processes and devices.

14-21   Jian-Chiun Liou, Chih-Wei Peng, Philippe Basset, Zhen-Xi Chen, DNA printing integrated multiplexer driver microelectronic mechanical system head (IDMH) and microfluidic flow estimation, Micromachines, 12.1; 25, 2021. doi.org/10.3390/mi12010025

08-20   Li Yong-Qiang, Dong Jun-Yan and Rui Wei, Numerical simulation for capillary driven flow in capsule-type vane tank with clearances under microgravity, Microgravity Science and Technology, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s12217-019-09773-z

89-19   Tim Dreckmann, Julien Boeuf, Imke-Sonja Ludwig, Jorg Lumkemann, and Jorg Huwyler, Low volume aseptic filling: impact of pump systems on shear stress, European Journal of Pharmeceutics and Biopharmeceutics, in press, 2019. doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2019.12.006

88-19   V. Amiri Roodan, J. Gomez-Pastora, C. Gonzalez-Fernandez, I.H. Karampelas, E. Bringas, E.P. Furlani, and I. Ortiz, CFD analysis of the generation and manipulation of ferrofluid droplets, TechConnect Briefs, pp. 182-185, 2019. TechConnect World Innovation Conference & Expo, Boston, Massachussetts, USA, June 17-19, 2019.

55-19     Julio Aleman, Sunil K. George, Samuel Herberg, Mahesh Devarasetty, Christopher D. Porada, Aleksander Skardal, and Graça Almeida‐Porada, Deconstructed microfluidic bone marrow on‐a‐chip to study normal and malignant hemopoietic cell–niche interactions, Small, 2019. doi: 10.1002/smll.201902971

37-19     Feng Lin Ng, Miniaturized 3D fibrous scaffold on stereolithography-printed microfluidic perfusion culture, Doctoral Thesis, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 2019.

32-19     Jenifer Gómez-Pastora, Ioannis H. Karampelas, Eugenio Bringas, Edward P. Furlani, and Inmaculada Ortiz, Numerical analysis of bead magnetophoresis from flowing blood in a continuous-flow microchannel: Implications to the bead-fluid interactions, Nature: Scientific Reports, Vol. 9, No. 7265, 2019. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-43827-x

01-19  Jelena Dinic and Vivek Sharma, Computational analysis of self-similar capillary-driven thinning and pinch-off dynamics during dripping using the volume-of-fluid method, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 31, 2019. doi: 10.1063/1.5061715

75-18   Tobias Ladner, Sebastian Odenwald, Kevin Kerls, Gerald Zieres, Adeline Boillon and Julien Bœuf, CFD supported investigation of shear induced by bottom-mounted magnetic stirrer in monoclonal antibody formulation, Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 35, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11095-018-2492-4

53-18   Venoos Amiri Roodan, Jenifer Gómez-Pastora, Aditi Verma, Eugenio Bringas, Inmaculada Ortiz and Edward P. Furlani, Computational analysis of magnetic droplet generation and manipulation in microfluidic devices, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of Fluid Flow, Heat and Mass Transfer, Niagara Falls, Canada, June 7 – 9, 2018; Paper no. 154, 2018.  doi: 10.11159/ffhmt18.154

35-18   Jenifer Gómez-Pastora, Cristina González Fernández, Marcos Fallanza, Eugenio Bringas and Inmaculada Ortiz, Flow patterns and mass transfer performance of miscible liquid-liquid flows in various microchannels: Numerical and experimental studies, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 344, pp. 487-497, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2018.03.110

16-18   P. Schneider, V. Sukhotskiy, T. Siskar, L. Christie and I.H. Karampelas, Additive Manufacturing of Microfluidic Components via Wax Extrusion, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, vol. 3, pp. 162 – 165, 2018.

15-18   J. Gómez-Pastora, I.H. Karampelas, A.Q. Alorabi, M.D. Tarn, E. Bringas, A. Iles, V.N. Paunov, N. Pamme, E.P. Furlani, I. Ortiz, CFD analysis and experimental validation of magnetic droplet generation and deflection across multilaminar flow streams, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, vol. 3, pp. 182-185, 2018.

14-18   J. Gómez-Pastora, C. González-Fernández, I.H. Karampelas, E. Bringas, E.P. Furlani, and I. Ortiz, Design of Magnetic Blood Cleansing Microdevices through Experimentally Validated CFD Modeling, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, vol. 3, pp. 170-173, 2018.

10-18   A. Gupta, I.H. Karampelas, J. Kitting, Numerical modeling of the formation of dynamically configurable L2 lens in a microchannel, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs, Vol. 3, pp. 186 – 189, 2018.

17-17   I.H. Karampelas, J. Gómez-Pastora, M.J. Cowan, E. Bringas, I. Ortiz and E.P. Furlani, Numerical Analysis of Acoustophoretic Discrete Particle Focusing in Microchannels, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs 2017, Vol. 3

16-17   J. Gómez-Pastora, I.H. Karampelas, E. Bringas, E.P. Furlani and I. Ortiz, CFD analysis of particle magnetophoresis in multiphase continuous-flow bioseparators, Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs 2017, Vol. 3

15-17   I.H. Karampelas, S. Vader, Z. Vader, V. Sukhotskiy, A. Verma, G. Garg, M. Tong and E.P. Furlani, Drop-on-Demand 3D Metal Printing, Informatics, Electronics and Microsystems TechConnect Briefs 2017, Vol. 4

102-16   J. Brindha, RA.G. Privita Edwina, P.K. Rajesh and P.Rani, “Influence of rheological properties of protein bio-inks on printability: A simulation and validation study,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 3, no.10, pp. 3285-3295, 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2016.10.010

99-16   Ioannis H. Karampelas, Kai Liu, Fatema Alali, and Edward P. Furlani, Plasmonic Nanoframes for Photothermal Energy Conversion, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2016, 120 (13), pp 7256–7264

98-16   Jelena Dinic and Vivek Sharma, Drop formation, pinch-off dynamics and liquid transfer of simple and complex fluidshttp://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2016.MAR.B53.12, APS March Meeting 2016, Volume 61, Number 2, March 14–18, 2016, Baltimore, Maryland

67-16  Vahid Bazargan and Boris Stoeber, Effect of substrate conductivity on the evaporation of small sessile droplets, PHYSICAL REVIEW E 94, 033103 (2016), doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.94.033103

57-16   Ioannis Karampelas, Computational analysis of pulsed-laser plasmon-enhanced photothermal energy conversion and nanobubble generation in the nanoscale, PhD Dissertation: Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, July 2016

44-16   Takeshi Sawada et al., Prognostic impact of circulating tumor cell detected using a novel fluidic cell microarray chip system in patients with breast cancer, EBioMedicine, Available online 27 July 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.07.027.

39-16   Chien-Hsun Wang, Ho-Lin Tsai, Yu-Che Wu and Weng-Sing Hwang, Investigation of molten metal droplet deposition and solidification for 3D printing techniques, IOP Publishing, J. Micromech. Microeng. 26 (2016) 095012 (14pp), doi: 10.1088/0960-1317/26/9/095012, July 8, 2016

30-16   Ioannis H. Karampelas, Kai Liu and Edward P. Furlani, Plasmonic Nanocages as Photothermal Transducers for Nanobubble Cancer Therapy, Nanotech 2016 Conference & Expo, May 22-25, Washington, DC.

29-16   Scott Vader, Zachary Vader, Ioannis H. Karampelas and Edward P. Furlani, Advances in Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Jet Printing, Nanotech 2016 Conference & Expo, May 22-25, Washington, DC.

02-16  Stephen D. Hoath (Editor), Fundamentals of Inkjet Printing: The Science of Inkjet and Droplets, ISBN: 978-3-527-33785-9, 472 pages, February 2016 (see chapters 2 and 3 for FLOW-3D results)

125-15   J. Berthier, K.A. Brakke, E.P. Furlani, I.H. Karampelas, V. Poher, D. Gosselin, M. Cubinzolles and P. Pouteau, Whole blood spontaneous capillary flow in narrow V-groove microchannels, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 206, pp. 258-267, 2015.

86-15   Yousub Lee and Dave F. Farson, Simulation of transport phenomena and melt pool shape for multiple layer additive manufacturing, J. Laser Appl. 28, 012006 (2016). doi: 10.2351/1.4935711, published online 2015.

77-15   Ho-Lin Tsai, Weng-Sing Hwang, Jhih-Kai Wang, Wen-Chih Peng and Shin-Hau Chen, Fabrication of Microdots Using Piezoelectric Dispensing Technique for Viscous Fluids, Materials 2015, 8(10), 7006-7016. doi: 10.3390/ma8105355

63-15   Scott Vader, Zachary Vader, Ioannis H. Karampelas and Edward P. Furlani, Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Jet Printing, TechConnect World Innovation Conference & Expo, Washington, D.C., June 14-17, 2015

46-15   Adwaith Gupta, 3D Printing Multi-Material, Single Printhead Simulation, Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop, July 20 – 21, 2015, Santa Fe, NM

28-15   Yongqiang Li, Mingzhu Hu, Ling Liu, Yin-Yin Su, Li Duan, and Qi Kang, Study of Capillary Driven Flow in an Interior Corner of Rounded Wall Under MicrogravityMicrogravity Science and Technology, June 2015

20-15   Pamela J. Waterman, Diversity in Medical Simulation Applications, Desktop Engineering, May 2015, pp 22-26,

16-15   Saurabh Singh, Ann Junghans, Erik Watkins, Yash Kapoor, Ryan Toomey, and Jaroslaw Majewski, Effects of Fluid Shear Stress on Polyelectrolyte Multilayers by Neutron Scattering Studies, © 2015 American Chemical Society, DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b00037, Langmuir 2015, 31, 2870−2878, February 17, 2015

11-15   Cheng-Han Wu and Weng-Sing Hwang, The effect of process condition of the ink-jet printing process on the molten metallic droplet formation through the analysis of fluid propagation direction, Canadian Journal of Physics, 2015. doi: 10.1139/cjp-2014-0259

03-15 Hanchul Cho, Sivasubramanian Somu, Jin Young Lee, Hobin Jeong and Ahmed Busnaina, High-Rate Nanoscale Offset Printing Process Using Directed Assembly and Transfer of Nanomaterials, Adv. Materials, doi: 10.1002/adma.201404769, February 2015

122-14  Albert Chi, Sebastian Curi, Kevin Clayton, David Luciano, Kameron Klauber, Alfredo Alexander-Katz, Sebastián D’hers and Noel M Elman, Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) implemented by integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 3D printed microfluidics, Research Gate, doi: 10.1007/s13346-014-0198-7, July 2014

113-14 Cihan Yilmaz, Arif E. Cetin, Georgia Goutzamanidis, Jun Huang, Sivasubramanian Somu, Hatice Altug, Dongguang Wei and Ahmed Busnaina, Three-Dimensional Crystalline and Homogeneous Metallic Nanostructures Using Directed Assembly of Nanoparticles, 10.1021/nn500084g, © 2014 American Chemical Society, April 2014

110-14 Koushik Ponnuru, Jincheng Wu, Preeti Ashok, Emmanuel S. Tzanakakis and Edward P. Furlani, Analysis of Stem Cell Culture Performance in a Microcarrier Bioreactor System, Nanotech, Washington, D.C., June 15-18, 2014

109-14   Ioannis H. Karampelas, Young Hwa Kim and Edward P. Furlani, Numerical Analysis of Laser Induced Photothermal Effects using Colloidal Plasmonic Nanostructures, Nanotech, Washington, D.C., June 15-18, 2014

108-14   Chenxu Liu, Xiaozheng Xue and Edward P. Furlani, Numerical Analysis of Fully-Coupled Particle-Fluid Transport and Free-Flow Magnetophoretic Sorting in Microfluidic Systems, Nanotech, Washington, D.C., June 15-18, 2014

95-14   Cheng-Han Wu, Weng-Sing Hwang, The effect of the echo-time of a bipolar pulse waveform on molten metallic droplet formation by squeeze mode piezoelectric inkjet printing, Accepted November 2014, Microelectronics Reliability (2014) , © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

85-14   Sudhir Srivastava, Lattice Boltzmann method for contact line dynamics, ISBN: 978-90-386-3608-5, Copyright © 2014 S. Srivastava

61-14   Chenxu Liu, A Computational Model for Predicting Fully-Coupled Particle-Fluid Dynamics and Self-Assembly for Magnetic Particle Applications, Master’s Thesis: State University of New York at Buffalo, 2014, 75 pages; 1561583, http://gradworks.umi.com/15/61/1561583.html

41-14 Albert Chi, Sebastian Curi, Kevin Clayton, David Luciano, Kameron Klauber, Alfredo Alexander-Katz, Sebastian D’hers, and Noel M. Elman, Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) implemented by integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 3D printed microfluidics, Drug Deliv. and Transl. Res., DOI 10.1007/s13346-014-0198-7, # Controlled Release Society 2014. Available for purchase online at SpringerLink.

21-14  Suk-Hee Park, Ung Hyun Koh, Mina Kim, Dong-Yol Yang, Kahp-Yang Suh and Jennifer Hyunjong Shin, Hierarchical multilayer assembly of an ordered nanofibrous scaffold via thermal fusion bonding, Biofabrication 6 (2014) 024107 (10pp), doi:10.1088/1758-5082/6/2/024107, IOP Publishing, 2014. Available for purchase online at IOP.

17-14   Vahid Bazargan, Effect of substrate cooling and droplet shape and composition on the droplet evaporation and the deposition of particles, Ph.D. Thesis: Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, March 2014, © Vahid Bazargan, 2014

73-13  Oliver G. Harlen, J. Rafael Castrejón-Pita, and Arturo Castrejon-Pita, Asymmetric Detachment from Angled Nozzles Plates in Drop-on Demand Inkjet Printing, NIP & Digital Fabrication Conference, 2013 International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies. Pages 253-549, pp. 277-280(4)

63-13  Fatema Alali, Ioannis H. Karampelas, Young Hwa Kim, and Edward P. Furlani, Photonic and Thermofluidic Analysis of Colloidal Plasmonic Nanorings and Nanotori for Pulsed-Laser Photothermal ApplicationsJ. Phys. Chem. C, Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/jp406986y, Copyright © 2013 American Chemical Society, September 2013.

25-13  Sudhir Srivastava, Theo Driessen, Roger Jeurissen, Herma Wijshoff, and Federico Toschi, Lattice Boltzmann Method to Study the Contraction of a Viscous Ligament, International Journal of Modern Physics © World Scientific Publishing Company, May 2013.

11-13  Li-Chieh Hsu, Yong-Jhih Chen, Jia-Huang Liou, Numerical Investigation in the Factors on the Pool Boiling, Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 311 (2013) pp 456-461, © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.311.456. Available for purchase online at Scientific.Net.

10-13 Pamela J. Waterman, CFD: Shaping the Medical World, Desktop Engineering, April 2013. Full article available online at Desktop Engineering.

90-12 Charles R. Ortloff and Martin Vogel, Spray Cooling Heat Transfer- Test and CFD Analysis, Electronics Cooling, June 2012. Available online at Electronics Cooling.

79-12    Daniel Parsaoran Siregar, Numerical simulation of evaporation and absorption of inkjet printed droplets, Ph.D. Thesis: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, September 18, 2012, Copyright 2012 by D.P. Siregar, ISBN: 978-90-386-3190-5.

71-12   Jong-hyeon Chang, Kyu-Dong Jung, Eunsung Lee, Minseog Choi, Seungwan Lee, and Woonbae Kim, Varifocal liquid lens based on microelectrofluidic technology, Optics Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 21, pp. 4377-4379 (2012) http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.37.004377

70-12   Jong-hyeon Chang, Kyu-Dong Jung, Eunsung Lee, Minseog Choi, and Seunwan Lee, Microelectrofluidic Iris for Variable ApertureProc. SPIE 8252, MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems XI, 82520O (February 9, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.906587

69-12   Jong-hyeon Chang, Eunsung Lee, Kyu-Dong Jung, Seungwan Lee, Minseog Choi, and  Woonbae Kim, Microelectrofluidic Lens for Variable CurvatureProc. SPIE 8486, Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Engineering XIII, 84860X (October 11, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.925852.

61-12  Biddut Bhattacharjee, Study of Droplet Splitting in an Electrowetting Based Digital Microfluidic System, Thesis: Doctor of Philosophy in the College of Graduate Studies (Applied Sciences), The University of British Columbia, September 2012, © Biddut Bhattacharjee.

55-12 Hejun Li, Pengyun Wang, Lehua Qi, Hansong Zuo, Songyi Zhong, Xianghui Hou, 3D numerical simulation of successive deposition of uniform molten Al droplets on a moving substrate and experimental validation, Computational Materials Science, Volume 65, December 2012, Pages 291–301. Available for purchase online at SciVerse.

54-12   Edward P. Furlani, Anthony Nunez, Gianmarco Vizzeri, Modeling Fluid Structure-Interactions for Biomechanical Analysis of the Human Eye, Nanotech Conference & Expo, June 18-21, 2012, Santa Clara, CA.

53-12   Xinyun Wu, Richard D. Oleschuk and Natalie M. Cann, Characterization of microstructured fibre emitters in pursuit of improved nano electrospray ionization performance, The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012, http://pubs.rsc.org, DOI: 10.1039/c2an35249d, May 2012

25-12    Edward P. Furlani, Ioannis H. Karampelas and Qian Xie, Analysis of Pulsed Laser Plasmon-assisted Photothermal Heating and Bubble Generation at the Nanoscale, Lab on a Chip, 10.1039/C2LC40495H, Received 01 May 2012, Accepted 07 Jun 2012. First published on the web 13 Jun 2012.

22-12  R.A. Sultanov, D. Guster, Numerical Modeling and Simulations of Pulsatile Human Blood Flow in Different 3D-Geometries, Book chapter #21 in Fluid Dynamics, Computational Modeling and Applications (2012), ISBN: 978-953-51-0052-2, p. 475 [18 pages]. Available online at INTECH.

21-12  Guo-Wei Huang, Tzu-Yi Hung, and Chin-Tai Chen, Design, Simulation, and Verification of Fluidic Light-Guide Chips with Various Geometries of Micro Polymer Channels, NEMS 2012, Kyoto, Japan, March 5-8, 2012. Available for purchase online at IEEE.

103-11   Suk-Hee Park, Development of Three-Dimensional Scaffolds containing Electrospun Nanofibers and their Applications to Tissue Regeneration, Ph.D. Thesis: School of Mechanical, Aersospace and Systems Engineering, Division of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 2011.

81-11   Xinyun Wu, Modeling and Characterization of Microfabricated Emitters-In Pursuit of Improved ESI-MS Performance, thesis: Department of Chemistry, Queen’s University, December 2011, Copyright © Xinyun Wu, 2011

79-11  Cong Lu, A Cell Preparation Stage for Automatic Cell Injection, thesis: Graduate Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Copyright © Cong Lu, 2011

77-11 Ge Bai, W. Thomas Leach, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) insights into agitation stress methods in biopharmaceutical development, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Available online 8 December 2011, ISSN 0378-5173, 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2011.11.044. Available online at SciVerse.

72-11  M.R. Barkhudarov, C.W. Hirt, D. Milano, and G. Wei, Comments on a Comparison of CFD Software for Microfluidic Applications, Flow Science Technical Note #93, FSI-11-TN93, December 2011

45-11  Chang-Wei Kang, Jiak Kwang Tan, Lunsheng Pan, Cheng Yee Low and Ahmed Jaffar, Numerical and experimental investigations of splat geometric characteristics during oblique impact of plasma spraying, Applied Surface Science, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 20 July 2011, ISSN 0169-4332, DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2011.06.081. Available to purchase online at SciVers

33-11  Edward P. Furlani, Mark T. Swihart, Natalia Litchinitser, Christopher N. Delametter and Melissa Carter, Modeling Nanoscale Plasmon-assisted Bubble Nucleation and Applications, Nanotech Conference and Expo 2011, Boston, MA, June 13-16, 2011

32-11  Lu, Cong and Mills, James K., Three cell separation design for realizing automatic cell injection, Complex Medical Engineering (CME), 2011 IEEE/ICME, pp: 599 – 603, Harbin, China, 10.1109/ICCME.2011.5876811, June 2011. Available online at IEEEXplore.

25-11 Issam M. Bahadur, James K. Mills, Fluidic vacuum-based biological cell holding device with piezoelectrically induced vibration, Complex Medical Engineering (CME), 2011 IEEE/ICME International Conference on, 22-25 May 2011, pp: 85 – 90, Harbin, China. Available online at: IEEE Xplore.

14-11  Edward P. Furlani, Roshni Biswas, Alexander N. Cartwright and Natalia M. Litchinitser, Antiresonant guiding optofluidic biosensor, doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2011.04.014, Optics Communication, April 2011

05-11 Hyeju Eom and Keun Park, Integrated numerical analysis to evaluate replication characteristics of micro channels in a locally heated mold by selective induction, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Volume 12, Number 1, 53-60, DOI: 10.1007/s12541-011-0007-x, 2011. Available online at: SpringerLink.

70-10  I.N. Volnov, V.S. Nagornyi, Modeling Processes for Generation of Streams of Monodispersed Fluid Droplets in Electro-inkjet Applications, Science and Technology News, St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, 4, pp 294-300, 2010. In Russian.

62-10  F. Mobadersani, M. Eskandarzade, S. Azizi and S. Abbasnezhad, Effect of Ambient Pressure on Bubble Growth in Micro-Channel and Its Pumping Effect, ESDA2010-24436, pp. 577-584, doi:10.1115/ESDA2010-24436, ASME 2010 10th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis (ESDA2010), Istanbul, Turkey, July 12–14, 2010. Available online at the ASME Digital Library.

58-10 Tsung-Yi Ho, Jun Zeng, and Chakrabarty, K, Digital microfluidic biochips: A vision for functional diversity and more than moore, Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), 2010 IEEE/ACM International Conference on, DOI: 10.1109/ICCAD.2010.5654199, © IEEE, November 2010. Available online at IEEE Explore.

51-10  Regina Bleul, Marion Ritzi-Lehnert, Julian Höth, Nico Scharpfenecker, Ines Frese, Dominik Düchs, Sabine Brunklaus, Thomas E. Hansen-Hagge, Franz-Josef Meyer-Almes, Klaus S. Drese, Compact, cost-efficient microfluidics-based stopped-flow device, Anal Bioanal Chem, DOI 10.1007/s00216-010-4446-5, Available online at Springer, November 2010

22-10    Krishendu Chakrabarty, Richard B. Fair and Jun Zeng, Design Tools for Digital Microfluidic Biochips Toward Functional Diversification and More than Moore, IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, Vol. 29, No. 7, July 2010

14-10 E. P. Furlani and M. S. Hanchak, Nonlinear analysis of the deformation and breakup of viscous microjets using the method of lines, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids (2010), © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Published online in Wiley InterScience. DOI: 10.1002/fld.2205

55-09 R.A. Sultanov, and D. Guster, Computer simulations of  pulsatile human blood flow through 3D models of the human aortic arch, vessels of simple geometry and a bifurcated artery, Proceedings of the 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society), Minneapolis, September 2-6, 2009, p.p. 4704-4710.

30-09 Anurag Chandorkar and Shayan Palit, Simulation of Droplet Dynamics and Mixing in Microfluidic Devices using a VOF-Based Method, Sensors & Transducers journal, ISSN 1726-5479 © 2009 by IFSA, Vol.7, Special Issue “MEMS: From Micro Devices to Wireless Systems,” October 2009, pp. 136-149.

13-09 E.P. Furlani, M.C. Carter, Analysis of an Electrostatically Actuated MEMS Drop Ejector, Presented at Nanotech Conference & Expo 2009, Houston, Texas, USA, May 3-7, 2009

12-09 A. Chandorkar, S. Palit, Simulation of Droplet-Based Microfluidics Devices Using a Volume-of-Fluid Approach, Presented at Nanotech Conference & Expo 2009, Houston, Texas, USA, May 3-7, 2009

3-09 Christopher N. Delametter, FLOW-3D Speeds MEMS Inkjet Development, Desktop Engineering, January 2009

42-08  Tien-Li Chang, Jung-Chang Wang, Chun-Chi Chen, Ya-Wei Lee, Ta-Hsin Chou, A non-fluorine mold release agent for Ni stamp in nanoimprint process, Microelectronic Engineering 85 (2008) 1608–1612

26-08 Pamela J. Waterman, First-Pass CFD Analyses – Part 2, Desktop Engineering, November 2008

09-08 M. Ren and H. Wijshoff, Thermal effect on the penetration of an ink droplet onto a porous medium, Proc. Eurotherm2008 MNH, 1 (2008)

04-08 Delametter, Christopher N., MEMS development in less than half the time, Small Times, Online Edition, May 2008

02-08 Renat A. Sultanov, Dennis Guster, Brent Engelbrekt and Richard Blankenbecler, 3D Computer Simulations of Pulsatile Human Blood Flows in Vessels and in the Aortic Arch – Investigation of Non-Newtonian Characteristics of Human Blood, The Journal of Computational Physics, arXiv:0802.2362v1 [physics.comp-ph], February 2008

01-08 Herman Wijshoff, thesis: University of Twente, Structure- and fluid dynamics in piezo inkjet printheads, ISBN 978-90-365-2582-4, Venlo, The Netherlands January 2008.

30-07 A. K. Sen, J. Darabi, and D. R. Knapp, Simulation and parametric study of a novel multi-spray emitter for ESI–MS applications, Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, Volume 3, Number 3, June 2007, pp. 283-298(16)

28-07 Dan Soltman and Vivek Subramanian, Inkjet-Printed Line Morphologies and Temperature Control of the Coffee Ring Effect, Langmuir; 2008; ASAP Web Release Date: 16-Jan-2008; (Research Article) DOI: 10.1021/la7026847

23-07 A K Sen and J Darabi, Droplet ejection performance of a monolithic thermal inkjet print head, Journal of Micromechanical and Microengineering,vol.17, pp.1420-1427 (2007) doi:10.1088/0960-1317/17/8/002; Abstract only.

18-07 Herman Wisjhoff, Better Printheads Via Simulation, Desktop Engineering, October 2007, Vol. 13, Issue 2

17-07 Jos de Jong, Ph.D. Thesis: University of Twente, Air entrapment in piezo inkjet printing, ISBN 978-90-365-2483-4, April 2007

15-07 Krishnendu Chakrabarty and Jun Zeng, (Ed.), Design Automation Methods and Tools for Microfluidics-Based Biochips, Springer, September 2006.

14-07 Fei Su and Jun Zeng, Computer-aided design and test for digital microfluidics, IEEE Design & Test of Computers, 24(1), 2007, 60-70.

13-07 Jun Zeng, Modeling and simulation of electrified droplets and its application to computer-aided design of digital microfluidics, IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 25(2), 2006, 224-233.

12-07 Krishnendu Chakrabarty and Jun Zeng, (2005), Automated top-down design for microfluidic biochips, ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems, 1(3), 2005, 186–223.

01-07 Wijshoff, Herman, Drop formation mechanisms in piezo-acoustic inkjet, NSTI-Nanotech 2007, ISBN 1420061844 Vol. 3, 2007)

23-06 John J. Uebbing, Stephan Hengstler, Dale Schroeder, Shalini Venkatesh, and Rick Haven, Heat and Fluid Flow in an Optical Switch Bubble, Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 15, No. 6, December 2006

21-06 Wijshoff, Herman, Manipulating Drop Formation in Piezo Acoustic Inkjet, Proc. IS&T’s NIP22, 79 (2006)

20-06 J. de Jong, H. Reinten, M. van den Berg, H. Wijshoff, M. Versluis, G. de Bruin, A. Prosperetti and D. Lohse, Air entrapment in piezo-driven inkjet printheads, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120(3), 1257 (2006)

11-06 A. K. Sen, J. Darabi, D. R. Knapp and J. Liu, Modeling and Characterization of a Carbon Fiber Emitter for Electrospray Ionization, 1 MEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208, USA, 2 Department of Pharmacology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC

5-06 E. P. Furlani, B. G. Price, G. Hawkins, and A. G. Lopez, Thermally Induced Marangoni Instability of Liquid Microjets with Application to Continuous Inkjet Printing, Proceedings of NSTI Nanotech Conference 2006, Vol. 2, pp 534-537.

28-05 O B Fawehinmi, P H Gaskell, P K Jimack, N Kapur, and H M Thompson, A combined experimental and computational fluid dynamics analysis of the dynamics of drop formation, May 2005. DOI: 10.1243/095440605X31788

5-05 E. P. Furlani, Thermal Modulation and Instability of Newtonian Liquid Microjets, presented at Nanotech 2005, Anaheim, CA, May 8-12, 2005.

1-05 C.W. Hirt, Electro-Hydrodynamics of Semi-Conductive Fluids: With Application to Electro-Spraying, Flow Science Technical Note #70, FSI-05-TN70

19-04 G. F. Yao, Modeling of Electroosmosis Without Resolving Physics Inside a Electric Double Layer, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-04-TN69)

12-04 Jun Zeng and Tom Korsmeyer, Principles of Droplet Electrohydrodynamics for Lab-on-a-Chip, Lab. Chip. Journal, 2004, 4(4), 265-277

9-04 Constantine N. Anagnostopoulos, James M. Chwalek, Christopher N. Delametter, Gilbert A. Hawkins, David L. Jeanmaire, John A. Lebens, Ali Lopez, and David P. Trauernicht, Micro-Jet Nozzle Array for Precise Droplet Metering and Steering Having Increased Droplet Deflection, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Solid State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, sponsored by IEEE, Boston, June 8-12, 2003, pp. 368-71

8-04 Christopher N. Delametter, David P. Trauernicht, James M. Chwalek, Novel Microfluidic Jet Deflection – Significant Modeling Challenge with Great Application Potential, Technical Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems sponsored by NSTI, San Juan, Puerto Rico, April 21-25, 2002, pp. 44-47

6-04 D. Vadillo*, G. Desie**, A Soucemarianadin*, Spreading Behavior of Single and Multiple Drops, *Laboratoire des Ecoulements Geophysiques et Industriels (LEGI), and **AGFA-Gevaert Group N.V., XXI ICTAM, 15-21 August 2004, Warsaw, Poland

2-04 Herman Wijshoff, Free Surface Flow and Acousto-Elastic Interaction in Piezo Inkjet, Nanotech 2004, sponsored by the Nano Science & Technology Institute, Boston, MA, March 2004

30-03 D Souders, I Khan and GF Yao, Alessandro Incognito, and Matteo Corrado, A Numerical Model for Simulation of Combined Electroosmotic and Pressure Driven Flow in Microdevices, 7th International Symposium on Fluid Control, Measurement and Visualization

27-03 Jun Zeng, Daniel Sobek and Tom Korsmeyer, Electro-Hydrodynamic Modeling of Electrospray Ionization – CAD for a µFluidic Device-Mass Spectrometer Interface, Agilent Technologies Inc, paper presented at Transducers 2003, June 03 Boston (note: Reference #10 is to FLOW-3D)

17-03 John Uebbing, Switching Fiber-optic Circuits with Microscopic Bubbles, Sensors Magazine, May 2003, Vol 20, No 5, p 36-42

16-03 CFD Speeds Development of MEMS-based Printing Technology, MicroNano Magazine, June 2003, Vol 8, No 6, p 16

3-03 Simulation Speeds Design of Microfluidic Medical Devices, R&D Magazine, March 2003, pp 18-19

1-03 Simulations Help Microscopic Bubbles Switch Fiber-Optic Circuits, Agilent Technologies, Fiberoptic Product News, January 2003, pp 22-23

27-02 Feng, James Q., A General Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Drop Ejection in Drop-on-Demand Ink Jet Devices, Journal of Imaging Science and Technology®, Volume 46, Number 5, September/October 2002

1-02 Feixia Pan, Joel Kubby, and Jingkuang Chen, Numerical Simulation of Fluid Structure Interaction in a MEMS Diaphragm Drop Ejector, Xerox Wilson Research Center, Institute of Physics Publishing, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 12 (2002), PII: SO960-1317(02)27439-2, pp. 70-76

48-01   Rainer Gruber, Radial Mass Transfer Enhancement in Bubble-Train Flow, PhD thesis in Engineering Sciences, Rheinisch- Westf alischen Technische Hochschule Aachen, December 2001.

34-01 Furlani, E.P., Delametter, C.N., Chwalek, J.M., and Trauernicht, D., Surface Tension Induced Instability of Viscous Liquid Jets, Fourth International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems, April 2001

12-01 C. N. Delametter, Eastman Kodak Company, Micro Resolution, Mechanical Engineering, Col 123/No 7, July 2001, pp 70-72

11-01 C. N. Delametter, Eastman Kodak Company, Surface Tension Induced Instability of Viscous Liquid Jets, Technical Proceeding of the Fourth International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems, April 2001

9-01 Aman Khan, Unipath Limited Research and Development, Effects of Reynolds Number on Surface Rolling in Small Drops, PVP-Col 431, Emerging Technologies for Fluids, Structures and Fluids, Structures and Fluid Structure Interaction — 2001

2-00 Narayan V. Deshpande, Significance of Inertance and Resistance in Fluidics of Thermal Ink-Jet Transducers, Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, Volume 40, Number 5, Sept./Oct. 1996, pp.457-461

4-98 D. Deitz, Connecting the Dots with CFD, Mechanical Engineering Magazine, pp. 90-91, March 1998

14-94 M. P. O’Hare, N. V. Deshpande, and D. J. Drake, Drop Generation Processes in TIJ Printheads, Xerox Corporation, Adv. Imaging Business Unit, IS&T’s Tenth International Congress on Advances in Non-Impact Printing, Tech. 1994

14-92 Asai, A.,Three-Dimensional Calculation of Bubble Growth and Drop Ejection in a Bubble Jet Printer, Journal of Fluids Engineering Vol. 114 December 1992:638-641

Coating Bibliography

아래는 코팅 참고 문헌의 기술 문서 모음입니다. 
이 모든 논문은 FLOW-3D  결과를 포함하고 있습니다. FLOW-3D를 사용하여 코팅 공정을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션  하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

Coating Bibliography

2024년 3월 20일 Update

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Coating Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate coating processes.

130-22   Md Didarul Islam, Himendra Perera, Benjamin Black, Matthew Phillips, Muh-Jang Chen, Greyson Hodges, Allyce Jackman, Yuxuan Liu, Chang-Jin Kim, Mohammed Zikry, Saad Khan, Yong Zhu, Mark Pankow, Jong Eun Ryu, Template-free scalable fabrication of linearly periodic microstructures by controlling ribbing defects phenomenon in forward roll coating for multifunctional applications, Advanced Materials Interfaces, 9.27; 2201237, 2022. doi.org/10.1002/admi.202201237

03-21   Delong Jia, Peng Yi, Yancong Liu, Jiawei Sun, Shengbo Yue, Qi Zhao, Effect of laser­ textured groove wall interface on molybdenum coating diffusion and metallurgical bonding, Surface and Coatings Technology, 405; 126561, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2020.126561

50-19     Peng Yi, Delong Jia, Xianghua Zhan, Pengun Xu, and Javad Mostaghimi, Coating solidification mechanism during plasma-sprayed filling the laser textured grooves, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 142, 2019. doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.118451

01-19   Jelena Dinic and Vivek Sharma, Computational analysis of self-similar capillary-driven thinning and pinch-off dynamics during dripping using the volume-of-fluid method, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 31, 2019. doi: 10.1063/1.5061715

85-18   Zia Jang, Oliver Litfin and Antonio Delgado, A semi-analytical approach for prediction of volume flow rate in nip-fed reverse roll coating process, Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Vol. 18, no. 1, Special Issue: 89th Annual Meeting of the International Association of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 2018. doi: 10.1002/pamm.201800317

80-14   Hiroaki Koyama, Kazuhiro Fukada, Yoshitaka Murakami, Satoshi Inoue, and Tatsuya Shimoda, Investigation of Roll-to-Sheet Imprinting for the Fabrication of Thin-film Transistor Electrodes, IEICE TRAN, ELECTRON, VOL.E97-C, NO.11, November 2014

46-14   Isabell Vogeler, Andreas Olbers, Bettina Willinger and Antonio Delgado, Numerical investigation of the onset of air entrainment in forward roll coating, 17th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium September 7-10, 2014 San Diego, CA, USA

17-12  Chi-Feng Lin, Bo-Kai Wang, Carlos Tiu and Ta-Jo Liu, On the Pinning of Downstream Meniscus for Slot Die Coating, Advances in Polymer Technology, Vol. 00, No. 0, 1-9 (2012) © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Available online at Wiley.

01-11  Reid Chesterfield, Andrew Johnson, Charlie Lang, Matthew Stainer, and Jonathan Ziebarth, Solution-Coating Technology for AMOLED Displays, Information Display Magazine, 1/11 0362-0972/01/2011-024 © SID 2011.

61-09 Yi-Rong Chang, Chi-Feng Lin and Ta-Jo Liu, Start-up of slot die coating, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 49, pp. 1158-1167, 2009. doi:10.1002/pen.21360

26-06  James M. Brethour, 3-D transient simulation of viscoelastic coating flows, 13th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium, September 2006, Denver, Colorado

19-06  Ivosevic, M., Cairncross, R. A., and Knight, R., 3D Predictions of Thermally Sprayed Polymer Splats Modeling Particle Acceleration, Heating and Deformation on Impact with a Flat Substrate, Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer, 49, pp. 3285 – 3297, 2006

9-06  M. Ivosevic, R. A. Cairncross, R. Knight, T. E. Twardowski, V. Gupta, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA; J. A. Baldoni, Duke University, Durham, NC, Effect of Substrate Roughness on Splatting Behavior of HVOF Sprayed Polymer Particles Modeling and Experiments, International Thermal Spray Conference, Seattle, WA, May 2006.

26-05  Ivosevic, M., Cairncross, R. A., Knight, R., Impact Modeling of Thermally Sprayed Polymer Particles, Proc. International Thermal Spray Conference [ITSC-2005], Eds., DVS/IIW/ASM-TSS, Basel, Switzerland, May 2005.

11-05  Brethour, J., Simulation of Viscoelastic Coating Flows with a Volume-of-fluid Technique, in Proceedings of the 6th European Coating Symposium, Bradford, UK, 2005

1-05 C.W. Hirt, Electro-Hydrodynamics of Semi-Conductive Fluids: With Application to Electro-Spraying, Flow Science Technical Note #70, FSI-05-TN70

38-04 K.H. Ho and Y.Y. Zhao, Modelling thermal development of liquid metal flow on rotating disc in centrifugal atomisation, Materials Science and Engineering, A365, pp. 336-340, 2004. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2003.09.044

30-04  M. Ivosevic, R.A. Cairncross, and R. Knight, Impact Modeling of HVOF Sprayed Polymer Particles, Presented at the 12th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium, Rochester, New York, September 23-25, 2004

29-04  J.M. Brethour and C.W. Hirt, Stains Arising from Dried Liquid Drops, Presented at the 12th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium, Rochester, New York, September 23-25, 2004

20-03  James Brethour, Filling and Emptying of Gravure Cells–A CFD Analysis, Convertech Pacific October 2002, Vol. 10, No 4, p 34-37

4-03   M. Toivakka, Numerical Investigation of Droplet Impact Spreading in Spray Coating of Paper, In Proceedings of 2003 TAPPI 8th Advanced Coating Fundamentals Symposium, TAPPI Press, Atlanta, 2003

28-02  J.M. Brethour and H. Benkreira, Filling and Emptying of Gravure Cells—Experiment and CFD Comparison, 11th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium, September 23-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota

22-02  Hirt, C.W., and Brethour, J.M., Contact Line on Rough Surfaces with Application to Air Entrainment, Presented at the 11th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium, September 23-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Unpublished.

17-01  J. M. Brethour, C. W. Hirt, Moving Contact Lines on Rough Surfaces, 4th European Coating Symposium, 2001, Belgium

16-01  J. M. Brethour, Filling and Emptying of Gravure Cells–-A CFD Analysis, proceedings of the 4th European Coating Symposium 2001, October 1-4, 2001, Brussels, Belgium

26-00 Ronald H. Miller and Gary S. Strumolo, A Self-Consistent Transient Paint Simulation, Proceedings of IMEC2000: 2000 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, November 2000, Orlando, Florida

6-99  C. W. Hirt, Direct Computation of Dynamic Contact Angles and Contact Lines, ECC99 Coating Conference, Erlangen, Germany (FSI-99-00-2), Sept. 1999

7-98 J. E. Richardson and Y. Becker, Three-Dimensional Simulation of Slot Coating Edge Effects, Flow Science Inc, and Polaroid Corporation, presented at the 9th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium, Newark, DE, May 18-20, 1998

6-98  C. W. Hirt and E. Choinski, Simulation of the Wet-Start Process in Slot Coating, Flow Science Inc, and Polaroid Corporation, presented at the 9th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium, Newark, DE, May 18-20, 1998

3-97  C. W. Hirt and J. E. Richardson of Flow Science Inc, and K.S. Chen, Sandia National Laboratory, Simulation of Transient and Three-Dimensional Coating Flows Using a Volume-of-Fluid Technique, presented at the 50th Annual Conference of the Society for Imaging and Science Technology, Boston, MA 18-23 May 1997

2-96 C. W. Hirt, K. S. Chen, Simulation of Slide-Coating Flows Using a Fixed Grid and a Volume-of-Fluid Front-Tracking Technique, presented a the 8th International Coating Process Science & Technology Symposium, February 25-29, 1996, New Orleans, LA

General Applications Bibliography

다음은 일반 응용 분야의 기술 문서 모음입니다.
이 모든 논문은 FLOW-3D  결과를 포함하고 있습니다. 복잡한 다중 물리와 관련된 문제를 성공적으로 시뮬레이션하기 위해 FLOW-3D를 사용 하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

Below is a collection of technical papers in our General Applications Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate problems that involve complex multiphysics.

2024년 3월 20일 Upate

204-23   Togo Shinonaga, Hibiki Tajima, Yasuhiro Okamoto, Akira Okada, Application of large-area electron beam irradiation to micro-edge filleting, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 107; pp. 65-73, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2023.10.039

167-23   Xiaoyong Cheng, Zhixian Cao, Ji Li, Alistair Borthwick, A numerical study of the settling of non-spherical particles in quiescent water, Physics of Fluids, 35.9; 2023. doi.org/10.1063/5.0165555

109-23 Dileep Karnam, Yu-Lung Lo, Chia-Hua Yang, Simulation study and parameter optimization of laser TSV using artificial neural networks, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 25; pp. 3712-3727, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2023.06.199

66-23   Erik Holmen Olofsson, Michael Roland, Jon Spangenberg, Ninna Halberg Jokil, Jesper Henri Hattel, A CFD model with free surface tracking: predicting fill level and residence time in a starve-fed single-screw extruder, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 126; pp. 3579-3591, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-023-11329-w

20-23   Giampiero Sciortino, Valentina Lombardi, Pietro Prestininzi, Modelling of cantilever-based flow energy harvesters featuring C-shaped vibration inducers: The role of the fluid/beam interaction, Applied Sciences, 13.1; 416, 2023. doi.org/10.3390/app13010416

134-22   Guozheng Ma, Shuying Chen, Haidou Wang, Impact spread behavior of flying droplets and properties of splats, Micro Process and Quality Control of Plasma Spraying, pp. 87-202, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-2742-3_3

111-22   Chia-Lin Chiu, Chia-Ming Fan, Chia-Ren Chu, Numerical analysis of two spheres falling side by side, Physics of Fluids, 34; 072112, 2022. doi.org/10.1063/5.0096534

58-21   Ruizhe Liu, Haidong Zhao, Experimental study and numerical simulation of infiltration of AlSi12 alloys into Si porous preforms with micro-computed tomography inspection characteristics, Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, 129.6; pp. 315-322, 2021. doi.org/10.2109/jcersj2.21018

56-20   Nils Steinau, CFD modeling of ascending Strombolian gas slugs through a constricted volcanic conduit considering a non-linear rheology, Thesis, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 2020.

30-20   Bita Bayatsarmadi, Mike Horne, Theo Rodopoulos and Dayalan Gunasegaram, Intensifying diffusion-limited reactions by using static mixer electrodes in a novel electrochemical flow cell, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 167.6, 2020. doi.org/10.1149/1945-7111/ab7e8f

75-19   Raphaël Comminal, Marcin Piotr Serdeczny, Navid Ranjbar, Mehdi Mehrali, David Bue Pedersen, Henrik Stang, Jon Spangenberg, Modelling of material deposition in big area additive manufacturing and 3D concrete printing, Proceedings, Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing, Nantes, France, September 16-18, 2019.

35-19     Sung-Won Ha, Tae-Won Kim, Joo-Hwan Choi, and Young-Jin Park, Study for flow phenomenon in the circulation water pump chamber using the Flow-3D model, Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 580-589, 2019. doi: 10.5762/KAIS.2019.20.4.580

27-19     Rolands Cepuritis, Elisabeth L. Skare, Evgeny Ramenskiy, Ernst Mørtsell, Sverre Smeplass, Shizhao Li, Stefan Jacobsen, and Jon Spangeberg, Analysing limitations of the FlowCyl as a one-point viscometer test for cement paste, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 218, pp. 333-340, 2019. doi: 10.1016.j.conbuildmat.2019.05.127

26-19     Shanshan Hu, Lunliang Duan, Qianbing Wan, and Jian Wang, Evaluation of needle movement effect on root canal irrigation using a computational fluid dynamics model, BioMedical Engineering OnLine, Vol. 18, No. 52, 2019. doi: 10.1186/s12938-019-0679-5

83-18   Elisabeth Leite Skare, Stefan Jacobsen, Rolands Cepuritis, Sverre Smeplass and Jon Spangenberg, Decreasing the magnitude of shear rates in the FlowCyl, Proceedings of the 12th fib International PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic, August 29-31, 2018.

71-18   Marc Bascompta, Jordi Vives, Lluís Sanmiqeul and José Juan de Felipe, CFD friction factors verification in an underground mine, Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Mechanical, Chemical, and Material Engineering, August 16 – 18, 2018, Madrid, Spain, Paper No. MMME 105, 2018. doi.org/10.11159/mmme18.105

56-18   J. Spangenberg, A. Uzala, M.W. Nielsen and J.H. Hattel, A robustness analysis of the bonding process of joints in wind turbine blades, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, vol. 85, pp. 281-285, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2018.06.009

21-18   Zhang Weikang and Gong Hongwei, Numerical Simulation Study on Characteristics of Airtight Water Film with Flow Deflectors, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science vol. 153, no. 3, pp. 032025, 2018. doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/153/3/032025

59-17  Han Eol Park and In Cheol Bang, Design study on mixing performance of rotational vanes in subchannel with fuel rod bundles, Transactions of the Korean Nuclear Society Autumn Meeting, Gyeongju, Korea, October 26-27, 2017.

58-17  Jian Zhou, Claudia Cenedese, Tim Williams and Megan Ball, On the propagation of gravity currents over and through a submerged array of circular cylinders, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 831, pp. 394-417, 2017. doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2017.604

24-17   Zhiyuan Ge, Wojciech Nemec, Rob L. Gawthorpe, Atle Rotevatn and Ernst W.M. Hansen, Response of unconfined turbidity current to relay-ramp topography: insights from process-based numerical modelling, doi: 10.1111/bre.12255 This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

06-17   Masoud Hosseinpoor, Kamal H. Khayat, Ammar Yahia, Numerical simulation of self-consolidating concrete flow as a heterogeneous material in L-Box set-up: coupled effect of reinforcing bars and aggregate content on flow characteristics, A. Mater Struct (2017) 50: 163. doi:10.1617/s11527-017-1032-8

94-16   Mehran Seyed Ahmadi, Markus Bussmann and Stavros A. Argyropoulos, Mass transfer correlations for dissolution of cylindrical additions in liquid metals with gas agitation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 97, June 2016, Pages 767-778

83-16   Masoud Hosseinpoor, Numerical simulation of fresh SCC flow in wall and beam elements using flow dynamics models, Ph.D. Thesis: University of Sherbrooke, September 2016.

51-16   Aditi Verma, Application of computational transport analysis – Oil spill dynamics, Master Thesis: State University of New York at Buffalo, 2016, 56 pages; 1012775

37-16   Hannah Dietterich, Einat Lev, and Jiangzhi Chen, Benchmarking computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow simulation, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 18, EGU2016-2202, 2016, EGU General Assembly 2016, © Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

 19-16   A.J. Vellinga, M.J.B. Cartigny, E.W.M. Hansen, P.J. Tallinga, M.A. Clare, E.J. Sumner and J.T. Eggenhuisen, Process-based Modelling of Turbidity Currents – From Computational Fluid-dynamics to Depositional Signature, Second Conference on Forward Modelling of Sedimentary Systems, 25 April 2016, DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.201600374

106-15    Hidetaka Oguma, Koji Tsukimoto, Saneyuki Goya, Yoshifumi Okajima, Kouichi Ishizaka, and Eisaku Ito, Development of Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for High-efficiency Gas Turbines, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Technical Review Vol. 52 No. 4, December 2015

93-15   James M. Brethour, Modelling of Cavitation within Highly Transient Flows with the Volume of Fluid Method, 1st Pan-American Congress on Computational Mechanics, April 27-29, 2015

90-15   Troy Shinbrot, Matthew Rutala, Andrea Montessori, Pietro Prestininzi and Sauro Succi, Paradoxical ratcheting in cornstarch, Phys. Fluids 27, 103101 (2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4934709

84-15   Nicolas Roussel, Annika Gram, Massimiliano Cremonesi, Liberato Ferrara, Knut Krenzer, Viktor Mechtcherine, Sergiy Shyshko, Jan Skocec, Jon Spangenberg, Oldrich Svec, Lars Nyholm Thrane and Ksenija Vasilic, Numerical simulations of concrete flow: A benchmark comparison, Cem. Concr. Res. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2015.09.022

02-15   David Souders, FLOW-3D Version 11 Enhances CFD Simulation, Desktop Engineering, January 2015

125-14   Herbert Obame Mve, Romuald Rullière, Rémi Goulet and Phillippe Haberschill, Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer of a Flow Confined by Wire Screen in Lithium Bromide Absorption Process, Defect and Diffusion Forum, ISSN: 1662-9507, Vol. 348, pp 40-50, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/DDF.348.40, © 2014 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland

55-14   Agni Arumugam Selvi, Effect of Linear Direction Oscillation on Grain Refinement, Master’s Thesis: The Ohio State University, Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering, Copyright by Agni Arumugam Selvi, 2014

99-13   R. C. Givler and M. J. Martinez, Computational Model of Miniature Pulsating Heat Pipes, SANDIA REPORT, SAND2012-4750, Unlimited Release, Printed January 2013.

82-13    Shizhao Li, Jon Spangenberg, Jesper Hattel, A CFD Approach for Prediction of Unintended Porosities in Aluminum Syntactic Foam A Preliminary Study, 8th International Conference on Porous Metals and Metallic Foams (METFOAM 2013), Raleigh, NC, June 2013

81-13   S. Li, J. Spangenberg, J. H. Hattel, A CFD Model for Prediction of Unintended Porosities in Metal Matrix Composites A Preliminary Study, 19th International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM 2013), Montreal, Canada, July 2013

78-13   Haitham A. Hussein, Rozi Abdullah, Sobri, Harun and Mohammed Abdulkhaleq, Numerical Model of Baffle Location Effect on Flow Pattern in Oil and Water Gravity Separator Tanks, World Applied Sciences Journal 26 (10): 1351-1356, 2013, ISSN 1818-4952, DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.26.10.1239, © IDOSI Publications, 2013

74-13  Laetitia Martinie, Jean-Francois Lataste, and Nicolas Roussel, Fiber orientation during casting of UHPFRC: electrical resistivity measurements, image analysis and numerical simulations, Materials and Structures, DOI 10.1617/s11527-013-0205-3, November 2013. Available for purchase online at SpringerLink.

67-13 Stefan Jacobsen, Rolands Cepuritis, Ya Peng, Mette R. Geiker, and Jon Spangenberg, Visualizing and simulating flow conditions in concrete form filling using Pigments, Construction and Building Materials 49 (2013) 328–342, © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Available for purchase at ScienceDirect.

60-13 Huey-Jiuan Lin, Fu-Yuan Hsu, Chun-Yu Chiu, Chien-Kuo Liu, Ruey-Yi Lee, Simulation of Glass Molding Process for Planar Type SOFC Sealing Devices, Key Engineering Materials, 573, 131, September 2013. Available for purchase at Scientific.net.

32-13 M A Rashid, I Abustan and M O Hamzah, Numerical simulation of a 3-D flow within a storage area hexagonal modular pavement systems, 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (ICEE 2013), IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 16 (2013) 012056 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/16/1/012056. Full paper available at IOP.

105-12 Jon Spangenberg, Numerisk modellering af formfyldning ved støbning i selvkompakterende beton, Ph.D. Thesis: Technical University of Denmark, ID: 0eeede98-fb07-4800-86e2-0a6baeb1e7a3, 2012.

100-12 Nurul Hasan, Validation of CFD models using FLOW-3D for a Submerged Liquid Jet, Ninth International Conference on CFD in the Minerals and Process Industries, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia, 10-12 December 2012.

87-12  Abustan, Ismail, Hamzah, Meor Othman and Rashid, Mohd Aminur, A 3-Dimensional Numerical Study of a Flow within a Permeable Pavement, OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 04, No. 02, pp. 37-44, April 2012.

86-12 Abustan, Ismail, Hamzah, Meor Othman and Rashid, Mohd Aminur, Review of Permeable Pavement Systems in Malaysia Conditions, OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 04, No. 02, pp. 27-36, April 2012.

85-12  Mohd Aminur Rashid, Ismail Abustan, Meor Othman Hamzah, Infiltration Characteristic Modeling Using FLOW-3D within a Modular Pavement, Procedia Engineering, Volume 50, 2012, Pages 658-667, ISSN 1877-7058, 10.1016/j.proeng.2012.10.072.

73-12  Mohd Aminur Rashid, Ismail Abustan, Meor Othman Hamzah, Infiltration Characteristic Modeling Using FLOW-3D within a Modular Pavement, Procedia Engineering, Volume 50, 2012, Pages 658-667, ISSN 1877-7058, 10.1016/j.proeng.2012.10.072.

65-12  X.H. Yang, T.J. Lu, T. Kim, Influence of non-conducting pore inclusions on phase change behavior of porous media with constant heat flux boundaryInternational Journal of Thermal Sciences, Available online 10 October 2012. Available online at SciVerse.

56-12  Giancarlo Alfonsi, Agostino Lauria, Leonardo Primavera, Flow structures around large-diameter circular cylinder, Journal of Flow Visualization and Image Processing, DOI: 10.1615/JFlowVisImageProc.2012005088, 2012. Available for purchase online at Begell Digital Library.

49-12  M. Janocko, M.B.J. Cartigny, W. Nemec, E.W.M. Hansen, Turbidity current hydraulics and sediment deposition in erodible sinuous channels: laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, Marine and Petroleum Geology, Available online 17 September 2012. Available for purchase online at SciVerse.

32-12  Fatih Karadagli, Bruce E. Rittmann, Drew C. McAvoy, and John E. Richardson, Effect of Turbulence on the Disintegration Rate of Flushable Consumer Products, Water Environment Research, Volume 84, Number 5, May 2012

31-12    D. Valero Huerta and R. García-Bartual, Optimization of Air Conditioning Diffusers Location in Large Agricultural Warehouses Using CFD Techniques, International Conference of Agricultural Engineering (CIGR-AgEng2012) Valencia, Spain, July 8-12, 2012

16-12 Yi Fan Fu, Wei Dong, Ying Li, Yi Tan, Ming Hui Yi, Akira Kawasaki, Simulation of the Effects of the Physical Properties on Particle Formation of Pulsated Orifice Ejection Method (POEM), 2012, Advanced Materials Research, 509, 161. Available for purchase online at Scientific.Net.

92-11  Giancarlo Alfonsi, Agostino Lauria, Leonardo Primavera, The lower vertical structure past the Ahmed car model, International Conference on Computational Science, ICCS 2011. Available for purchase online at Begell Digital Library.

80-11  Ismail Abustan, Meor Othman Hamzah, Mohd Aminur Rashid, A 3-Dimensional Numerical Study of a Flow within a Permeable Pavement, OIDA International Conference on Sustainable Development, ISSN 1923-6670, Putrajaya, Malaysia, 5-7th December 2011

66-11   H. Kondo, T. Furukawa, Y. Hirakawa, K. Nakamura, M. Ida, K.Watanabe, T. Kanemura, E. Wakai, H. Horiike, N. Yamaoka, H. Sugiura, T. Terai, A. Suzuki, J. Yagi, S. Fukada, H. Nakamura, I. Matsushita, F. Groeschel, K. Fujishiro, P. Garin and H. Kimura, IFMIF-EVEDA lithium test loop design and fabrication technology of target assembly as a key componentNuclear Fusion Volume 51 Number 12, doi:10.1088/0029-5515/51/12/123008

49-11     N.I. Vatin, A.A. Girgidov, K.I. Strelets, Numerical modelling the three-dimensional velocity field in the cyclone, Inzhenerno-Stroitel’nyi Zhurnal, No. 4, 2011. In Russian.

41-11    Maiko Hosoda, Taichi Hirano, and Keiji Sakai, Low-Viscosity Measurement by Capillary Electromagnetically Spinning Technique, © 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, July 20, 2011.

18-11  Ortloff, C.R., Vogel, M., Spray cooling heat transfer — Test and CFD analysis, Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM), 2011 27th Annual IEEE, 20-24 March 2011, pp 245 – 252, San Jose, CA, 10.1109/STHERM.2011.5767208.

82-10   Dr. John Abbott, Two problems on the flow of viscous sheets of molten glass, 26th Annual Workshop on Mathematical Problems in Industry, Rensselear Polytechnic Institute, June 14-18, 2010

57-10  Chouet, B. A., Dawson, P. B., James, M. R. and Lane, S. J., Seismic source mechanism of degassing bursts at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: Results from waveform inversion in the 10–50 s band, J. Geophys. Res., 115, B09311, doi:10.1029/2009JB006661, September 2010. Available online at JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH.

55-10 Pamela Waterman, FEA and CFD: Getting Better All the Time, Desktop Engineering, December 2010.

53-10  Nicolas Fries, Capillary transport processes in porous materials – experiment and model, Cuvillier Verlag Göttingen; 2010; ISBN 978-3-86955-507-2. Available at www.cuvillier.de  and www.amazon.de.

45-10  Meiring Beyers, Thomas Harms, and Johan Stander, Mitigating snowdrift at the elevated SANAE IV research station in Antarctica CFD simulation and field application, The Fifth International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering (CWE2010), Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, May 23-27, 2010.

31-10 J. Spangenberg, N. Roussel, J.H. Hattel, J. Thorborg, M.R. Geiker, H. Stang and J. Skocek, Prediction of the Impact of Flow-Induced Inhomogeneities in Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC), Ch. 25 of “Design, Production and Placement of Self-Consolidating Concrete,” RILEM Bookseries, 2010, Volume 1, Part 5, 209-215, DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-9664-7_18. Available online at Springer Link.

28-10 Sirisha Burra, Daniel P. Nicolella, W. Loren Francis, Christopher J. Freitas, Nicholas J. Mueschke, Kristin Poole, and Jean X. Jiang, Dendritic processes of osteocytes are mechanotransducers that induce the opening of hemichannels, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jul 19. [Epub ahead of print], Available for purchase at PNAS.

19-10 Michael T. Tolley, Michael Kalontarov, Jonas Neubert, David Erickson and Hod Lipson, Stochastic Modular Robotic Systems A Study of Fluidic Assembly Strategies, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Vol. 26, NO. 3, June 2010

59-17   Han Eol Park and In Cheol Bang, Design study on mixing performance of rotational vanes in subchannel with fuel rod bundles, Transactions of the Korean Nuclear Society Autumn Meeting, Gyeongju, Korea, October 26-27, 2017.

44-09 Micah Fuller, Fabian Bombardelli, Deb Niemeier, Particulate Matter Modeling in Near-Road Vegetation Environments, Contract AQ-04-01: Developing Effective and Quantifiable Air Quality Mitigation Measures, UC Davis, Caltrans, September 2009

28-09 D. C. Lo, Dong-Taur Su and Jan-Ming Chen (2009), Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations to the Analysis of Bank Effects in Restricted Waters, Journal of Navigation, 62, pp 477-491, doi:10.1017/S037346330900527X; Purchase the article online (clicking on this link will take you to the Cambridge Journals website).

24-09 Richard C. Givler and Mario J. Martinez, Modeling of Pulsating Heat Pipes, Sandia Report, SAND2009-4520, Sandia National Laboratories, August 2009.

45-08  J. Saeki, Seikei Kakou, Three-Dimensional Flow Analysis of a Thermosetting Compound in a Motor Stator, 20, 750-754 (2008) [in Japanese] (Zipped file contains paper and appendices)

38-08 Yoshifumi Kuriyama, Ken’ichi Yano and Masafumi Hamaguchi, Trajectory Planning for Meal Assist Robot Considering Spilling Avoidance, 17th IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, Part of 2008 1EEE Multi-conference on Systems and Control, San Antonio, Texas, September 3-5, 2008

29-08 Ernst W.M. Hansen, Wojciech Nemec and Snorre Heimsund, Numerical CFD simulations — a new tool for the modelling of turbidity currents and sand dispersal in deep-water basins, Production Geoscience 2008 in Stavanger, Norway, © 2008

17-08 James, M. R., Lane, S. J. & Corder, S. B., Modelling the rapid near-surface expansion of gas slugs in low-viscosity magmas, In Lane S. J., Gilbert J. S. (eds) Fluid Motion in Volcanic Conduits: A Source of Seismic and Acoustic Signals. Geol. Soc., London, Spec. Pub., 307, 147-167, doi: 10.1144/SP307.9. 2008

16-08 Stefano Malavasi, Nicola Trabucchi, Numerical Investigation of the Flow Around a Rectangular Cylinder Near a Solid Wall, BBAA VI International Colloquium on: Bluff Bodies Aerodynamics & Applications, Milano, Italy, July 2008

41-07 Nicolas Roussel, Mette R. Geiker, Frederic Dufour, Lars N. Thrane and Peter Szabo, Computational modeling of concrete flow General Overview, Cement and Concrete Research 37 (2007) 1298-1307, © 2007 Elsevier Ltd.

40-07 Nemec, W., Heimsund, S., Xu, J. & Hansen, E.W.M., Numerical CFD simulation of turbidity currents, British Sedimentological Research Group (BSRG) Annual Meeting, Birmingham, 17-18 December 2007

39-07 Heimsund, S, Xu, J. & Nemec, W., Numerical Simulation of Recent Turbidity Currents in the Monterey Canyon System, Offshore California, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, 10-14 December 2007

32-07 James, M. R., Lane, S. J. & Corder, S. B., Modeling the near-surface expansion of gas slugs in basaltic magmaEos Trans. A.G.U., 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl.. Abs. V12B-03. 2007

31-07 James, M. R., Lane, S. J. and Corder, S. B., Degassing low-viscosity magma: Quantifying the transition between passive bubble-burst and explosive activityE.G.U. Geophys. Res. Abstr., 905336, SRef-ID: 1607-7962/gra/EGU2007-A-05336. 2007

35-06  S. Green and C. Manepally, Software Validation Report for FLOW-3D Version 9.0, Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, August 2006

33-06 N. Roussel, Correlation between yield stress and slump: Comparison between numerical simulations and concrete rheometers results, © RILEM 2006, Materials and Structures (2006) 39:501-509, Purchase online at Springer Link.

32-06 Heimsund, S., Möller, N. and Guargena, C., FLOW-3D simulation of the Ormen Lange field, mid-Norway, In: Hoyanagi, K., Takano, O. and Kano, K. (Ed.), Abstracts, International Association of Sedimentologists 17th International Sedimentological Congress, Fukuoka, Vol. B, p. 107, 2006

10-06 Gengsheng Wei, An Implicit Method to Solve Problems of Rigid Body Motion Coupled with Fluid Flow, Flow Science Technical Note #76, FSI-05-TN76.

8-06 Gengsheng Wei, Three-Dimensional Collision Modeling for Rigid Bodies and its Coupling with Fluid Flow Computation, Flow Science Technical Note #75, FSI-06-TN75.

34-05  Young Bae Kim, Kyung Do Kim, Sang Eui Hong, Jong Goo Kim, Man Ho Park, and Ju Hyun Kim, and Jae Keun Kweon, 3D Simulation of PU Foaming Flow in a Refrigerator Cabinet, Appliance Magazine.com, January 2005.

33-05 N. Roussel, Fifty-cent rheo-meter for yield stress measurements From slump to spreading flow, @2005 by The Society of Rheolgoy, Inc., J. Rheol. 49(3), 705-718 May/June (2005)

32-05 Heimsund, S., Möller, N., Guargena, C. and Thompson, L., Field-scale modeling of turbidity currents by FLOW-3D simulations, In: Workshop Abstracts, Modeling of Turbidity Currents and Related Gravity Currents, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2 p., (2005)

15-05 Gengsheng Wei, A Fixed-Mesh Method for General Moving Objects, Flow Science Technical Note #73, FSI-05-TN73

14-05 James M. Brethour, Incremental Thermoelastic Stress Model, Flow Science Technical Note #72, FSI-05-TN72

9-05 Gengsheng Wei, A Fixed-Mesh Method for General Moving Objects in Fluid Flow, Modern Physics Letters B, Vol. 19, Nos. 28-29 (2005) 1719-1722

1-05 C.W. Hirt, Electro-Hydrodynamics of Semi-Conductive Fluids: With Application to Electro-Spraying Flow Science Technical Note #70, FSI-05-TN70

35-04  J. Saeki, T. Kono and T. Teramae, Seikei Kakou, Formulation of Mathematical Models for Estimating Residual Stress and Strain Components Correlated with 3-D Flow of Thermosetting Compounds, 16, 5, 309-316 (2004) [in Japanese]. (Zipped file contains paper and appendices)

31-04 Heimsund, S., Möller, N., Guargena, C. and Thompson, L., The control of seafloor topography on turbidite sand dispersal in the Ormen Lange field: a large-scale application of FLOW-3D simulations, In: Martinsen, O.J. (Ed.), Abstracts and Proceedings of the Geological Society of Norway (NGF), Deep Water Sedimentary Systems of Arctic and North Atlantic Margins, Stavanger, 3, p. 25, (2004)

26-04 Beyers, J.H.M., Harms, T.M. and Sundsbø, P.A., 2004, Numerical simulation of three dimensional, transient snow drifting around a cube, Journal of wind engineering and industrial aerodynamics, vol. 92, pp. 725-747, ISSN 0167-6105

25-04 Beyers, J.H.M, Harms, T.M. and Sundsbø, P.A., 2004, Numerical simulation of snow drifting around an elevated obstacle, Proceedings of the 5th conference on snow engineering, Davos, Switzerland, pp.185-191

17-04 Michael Barkhudarov, Multi-Block Gridding Technique for FLOW-3D (Revised), Flow Science Technical Note #59-R2, FSI-00-TN59-R2

36-03 Heimsund, S., Hansen, E.W.M. and Nemec, W., Numerical CFD simulation of turbidity currents and comparison with laboratory data, In: Hodgetts, D., Hodgson, D. and Smith, R. (Ed.), Slope Modelling Workshop Abstracts, Experimental, Reservoir and Forward Modelling of Turbidity Currents and Deep-Water Sedimentary Systems, Liverpool Univ., p. 13., (2003b)

35-03 Heimsund, S., Hansen, E.W.M. and Nemec, W. Computational 3-D fluid-dynamics model for sediment transport, erosion and deposition by turbidity currents, In: Nakrem, H.A. (Ed.), Abstracts and Proceedings of the Geological Society of Norway (NGF), Den 18. Vinterkonferansen, Oslo, 1, p. 39., (2003a)

33-03 Beyers, J.H.M., Sundsbø, P.A. and Harms, T.M., 2003, Numerical simulation and verification of drifting snow around a cube, Proceedings of the 11th international conference on wind engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA, pp. 1886-1893

27-03 Jun Zeng, Daniel Sobek and Tom Korsmeyer, Electro-Hydrodynamic Modeling of Electrospray Ionization CAD for a µFluidic Device-Mass Spectrometer Interface, Agilent Technologies Inc, paper presented at Transducers 2003, June 03 Boston (note: Reference #10 is to FLOW-3D)

25-03 J. M Brethour, Moving Boundaries an Eularian Approach, Moving Boundaries VII, Computational Modelling of Free and Moving Boundary Problems, A. A. Mammoli & C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press

19-03 James Brethour, Incremental Elastic Stress Model, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-03-TN64)

18-03 Michael Barkhudarov, Semi-Lagrangian VOF Advection Method for FLOW-3D, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-03-TN63)

11-02 Junichi Saeki and Tsutomu Kono, Three-Dimensional Flow Analysis of a Thermosetting Compound during Mold Filling, Polymer Processing Society 18th Annual Meeting, June 2002, Guimares, Portugal.

46-01 Yasunori Iwai, Takumi Hayashi, Toshihiko Yamanishi, Kazuhiro Kobayashi and Masataka Nishi, Simulation of Tritium Behavior after Intended Tritium Release in Ventilated Room, Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Vol. 38, No. 1, p. 63-75, January 2001

23-01 Borre Bang, Dag Lukkassen, Application of Homogenization Theory Related to Stokes Flow in Porous Media, Applications of Mathematics, Narvik, Norway, No 4, pp. 309-319.

15-01 Ernst Hansen, SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway, Computer Simulation Helps Increase Flow Rate in Three-Phase Separator, Drilling Marketplace, Vol 55, No 10, May 15, 2001, pp.14

10-01 Ernst Hansen, SINTEF Energy Research, Phenomeological Modeling and Simulation of Fluid Flow and Separation Behaviour in Offshore Gravity Separators, PVP-Col 431, Emerging Technologies for Fluids, Structures and Fluids, Structures and Fluid Structure Interaction — 2001, ASME 2001, pp. 23-29

7-01 C. Bohm, D. A. Weiss, and C. Tropea, Multi-droplet Impact onto Solid Walls Droplet-droplet Interaction and Collision of Kinemeatic Discontinuities, DaimlerChrysler Research and Technology, ILASS-Europe 2000, September 11-13, 2000

6-01 Ernst Hansen, Simulation Raises Separator Flow RateEngineering Talk, March 21, 2001

3-01 M. Sick, H. Keck, G. Vullioud, and E. Parkinson, New Challenges in Pelton Research

1-01 Y. Darsht, K. Kuvanov, A. Puzanov, I. Kholkin, FLOW-3D in Designing Hydraulic Systems for Heavy Machinery  (in Russian), SAPR I Grafika (CAD and Graphics), August 2000, pp. 50-55.

22-00 A. K. Temu, O. K. Sønju and E. W. M. Hansen, Criteria for Minimum Particle Deposition onto a Cylinder in Crossflow, International Symposium on Multiphase Flow and Transport Phenomena, November 2000, Tekirova, Antalya, Turkey

21-00 Claus Maier, Stefan aus der Wiesche and Eberhard P. Hofer, Impact of Microdrops on Solid Surfaces for DNA-Synthesis, Department of Measurement, Control and Microtechnology, University of Ulm, Technical Proceedings of the 2000 International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems, pp. 586-589

11-00 Thomas K. Thiis, A Comparison of Numerical Simulations and Full-scale Measurements of Snowdrifts around Buildings, Wind and Structures – ISSN: 1226-6116,Vol. 3, nr. 2 (2000), pp. 73-81

10-00 P.A. Sundsbo and B. Bang, Snow drift control in residential areas-Field measurements and numerical simulations, Fourth International Conference on Snow Engineering, pp. 377-382

9-00 Thomas K. Thiis and Christian Jaedicke, The Snowdrift Pattern Around Two Cubical Obstacles with Varying Distance—Measurement and Numerical Simulations, Snow Engineering, edited by Hjorth-Hansen, et al, Balkema, Rotterdam, 2000, pp.369-375.

8-00 Thomas K. Thiis and Christian Jaedicke, Changes in the Snowdrift Pattern Caused by a Building Extension—Investigations Through Scale Modeling and Numerical Simulations, Snow Engineering, edited by Hjorth-Hansen, et al, Balkema, Rotterdam, 2000, pp. 363-368

7-00 Bruce Letellier, Louis Restrepo, and Clinton Shaffer, Near-Field Dispersion of Fission Products in Complex Terrain Using a 3-D Turbulent Fluid-Flow Model, CCPS International Conference, San Francisco, CA, September 28-October 1, 1999

6-00 Bruce Letellier, Patrick McClure, and Louis Restrepo, Source-Term and Building-Wake Consequence Modeling for the GODIVA IV Reactor at Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1999 Safety Analysis Workshop, Portland, Oregon, June 13-18, 1999

11-99 Thomas K. Thiis and Yngvar Gjessing, Large-scale Measurements of Snowdrifts Around Flat-roofed and Single-pitch-roofed Buildings, Cold Regions Science and Technology 30, Narvik, Norway, May 17, 1999, pp. 175-181

3-99 A. A. Gubaidullin, Jr., T. N. Dinh, and B. R. Sehgal, Analysis of Natural Convection Heat Transfer and Flows in Internally Heated Stratified Liquid, accepted for publication 33rd Natl. Heat Transfer Conf. CD proceedings, Albuquerque, NM, August 15-17, 1999

20-98 Mark W. Silva, A Computational Study of Highly Viscous Impinging Jets, published by the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, ANRCP-1998-18, November 1998

17-98 P. A. Sundsbo and B. Bang, 1998, Calculation of Snowdrift Around Roadside Safety Barriers, Proc of the International Snow Science Workshop, Sept. 1998, Sunriver, Oregon, USA 279-283

11-98 P-A Sundsbo, Numerical simulations of wind deflection fins to control snow accumulation in building steps, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 74-76 (1998) 543-552

23-97  P.E. O’Donoghue, M.F. Kanninen, C.P. Leung, G. Demofonti, and S. Venzi, The development and validation of a dynamic propagation model for gas transmission pipelines, Intl J. Pres. Ves. & Piping 70 (1997) 11-25, P11 : S0308 – 0161 (96) 00012 – 9.

22-97  Christopher J. Matice, Simulation of High Speed Filling, Presented at High Speed Processing & Filling of Plastic Containers, SME, Chicago, Illinois, November 11, 1997.

12-97 B. Entezam and W. K. Van Moorhem, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT and J. Majdalani, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, Modeling of a Rijke-Tube Pulse Combustor Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, presented at 33rd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, Seattle, WA, July 6-9, 1997.

11-97 B. Entezam, Computational and Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Flowfield Inside the Rijke Tube, doctoral thesis submitted to University of Utah, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, Salt Lake City, UT, June 1997

2-97 K. Fujisaki, T. Ueyama, and K. Okazawa, Magnetohydrodynamic Calculation of In-Mold Electromagnetic Stirring, Nippon Steel Corp., IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 33, No. 2, March 1997

1-97 P. A. Sundsbo, Four Layer Modelling and Numerical Simulations of Snow Drift, to be submitted to the Journal of Glaciology, 1997

23-96 Andy K Palmer, Computational Fluid Dynamic Software Comparison and Electrostatic Precipitator Modeling, Presented to the Faculty of California State University, Summer 1996

21-96 P. A. Sundsbo, Computer Simulation of Snow-Drift around Structures, Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Building Physics in the Nordic Countries, Vol. 2, 533-539, Finland, 9-10 Sep. 1996

20-96 P. A. Sundsbo and E.W.M. Hansen, Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Snow-Drift around Snow Fences, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Snow Engineering, Sendai, Japan, 26-31 May 1996

19-96 P. A. Sundsbo, Numerical Modelling and Simulation of Snow Accumulations around Porous FencesProceedings of the International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 6-10 Oct. 1996

18-96 T. Iverson, Editor, Applied Modelling and Simulation, Proceedings of the 38th SIMS Simulation Conference, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, June 11-13, 1996

17-96 C. L. Parish, Modeling Compressible Flow Through an Orifice Stack Using Numerical Methods, thesis submitted for M.S. Mech. Engineering, NM State University, Las Cruces, NM, December 1996

15-96 T. Wiik and R. K. Calay, A Study of Balcony on Flow-Field and Wind Loads for Low-Rise Buildings, Fourth Symposium on Building Physics in the Nordic Countries, Dipoli, Espoo, Finland, September 1996

14-96 T. Wiik, E.W.M. Hansen, The Assessment of Wind Loads on Roof Overhang of Low-Rise Buildings, Second International Symposium Wind Engineering, Fort Collins, CO, September 1996

13-96 T. Wiik, R. K. Calay, and A. Holdo, A Study of Effects of Eaves on Flow-Field and Wind Loads for Low-Rise Houses, Third International Colloquium on Bluff Body Aerodynamics and Applications, Blacksburg, Virginia, August 1996

11-96 Y. Miyamoto and M. Harada, A Flow Analysis accompanied by Formation of the Liquid Droplets shown with an Animation Display Technique, SEA Corporation, presented at Visualization Information Conference, Tokyo, Japan, July 17, 1996

8-96 J. Bakken, E. Naess, T. Engebretsen, and E. W. M. Hansen, Fluid Flow in Porous Media, proceedings of the 38th SIMS Simulations Conference, Norwegian Univ. of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway, June 11-13, 1996

7-96E. W. M. Hansen, Performance of Oil/Water Gravity Separators Imposed to Motion, proceedings of the 38th SIMS Simulations Conference, Norwegian Univ. of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway, June 11-13, 1996

8-95 J. J. Francis, Computational Hydrodynamic Study of Flow through a Vertical Slurry Heat Exchanger, NSF Summer Research Program, Dept. Mech. Engineering, Univ. of Nevada Las Vegas, August 9, 1995

4-94 J. L. Ditter and C. W. Hirt, A Scalable Model for Mixing Vessels, Flow Science report, FSI-94-00-1, presented at the 1994 ASME Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting, Incline Village, NV, June 1994

3-94 A. Nielsen, B. Bang, P. A. Sundsbo and T. Wiik, Computer Simulation of Windspeed, Windpressure and Snow Accumulation around Buildings (SNOW-SIM), 1st International Conference on HVAC in Cold Climate, Rovaniemi, Finland, from Narvik Institute of Technology, Narvik, Norway, March 1994

2-94 J. M. Sicilian, Addition of an Extended Bubble Model to FLOW-3D, Flow Science report, FSI-94-58-1, March 1994

1-94 T. Hong, C. Zhu, P. Cal and L-S Fan, Numerical Modeling of Basic Modes of Formation and Interactions of Bubbles in Liquids, Dept. Chem. Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, March 1994

14-93 J. L. Ditter and C. W. Hirt, A Scalable Model for Stir Tanks, Flow Science Technical Note #38, December 1993 (FSI-93-TN38)

13-93 J. Partinen, N. Saluja and J. K. Kirtley, Jr., Experimental and Computational Investigation of Rotary Electromagnetic Stirring in a Woods Metal System, Dept. of Math, Science and Engr. and Dept. of Electrical Engr. and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307

12-93 J. Partinen, N. Saluja and J. K. Kirtley, Jr., Modeling of Surface Deformation in an Electromagnetically Stirred Metallic Melt, Dept. of Math, Science, and Engr. and Dept. of Electrical Engr. and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307

10-93 C. Philippe, Summary Report on Test Calculations with FLOW-3D/CAST93, (coupled-rigid-body dynamics model), ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, September 17, 1993

5-93 J. M. Sicilian, J. L. Ditter and C. L. Bronisz, FLOW-3D Analyses of CFD Triathlon Benchmark, Flow Science report, presented at the ASME Fluids Engineering Conference, Washington DC, June 20-24, 1993

4-93 T. Wiik, Ventilation of the Attic due to Wind Loads on Low-Rise Buildings, paper for 3rd Symposium of Building Physics in Nordic Countries, Narvik Institute of Technology, Narvik, Norway, summer 1993

3-93 E. W. M. Hansen, Modelling and Simulation of Separation Effects and Fluid Flow Behaviour in Process-Units, SIMS’93 – 35th Simulation Conference, Kongsberg, Norway, June 9-11, 1993

2-93 M. A. Briones, R. S. Brodsky and J. J. Chalmers, Computer Simulation of the Rupture of a Gas Bubble at a Gas-Liquid Interface and its Implications in Animal Cell Damage, Dept. Chemical Engineering, Ohio State University, Manuscript No. RB68, April 1993

11-92 G. Trapaga, E. F. Matthys, J. J. Valencia and J. Szekely, Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer, and Solidification of Molten Metal Droplets Impinging on Substrates: Comparison of Numerical and Experimental Results, Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 23B, pp. 701-718, December 1992

10-92 J. B. Dalin, J. M. Le Guilly, P. Le Roy and E. Maas, Numerical Simulations Applied to the Production of Automotive Foundry Components, Numerical Methods in Industrial Forming Processes, Wood & Zienkiewicz (eds), Balkema, Rotterdam, 1992

5-92 C. W. Hirt, Volume-Fraction Techniques: Powerful Tools for Flow Modeling, Flow Science report (FSI-92-00-02), presented at the Computational Wind Engineering Conference, University of Tokyo, August 1992

3-92 C. L. Bronisz and C.W. Hirt, Lubricant Flow in a Rotary Lip Seal, Flow Science Technical Note #33, February 1992 (FSI-92-TN33)

16-91 A. Nielsen, SNOW-SIM – Computer Model for Simulation of Wind and Snow Loads on Buildings and Structures, Building Science, Narvik Institute of Technology, Narvik, Norway, (not dated)

15-91 E. W. M. Hansen, H. Heitmann, B. Laska, A. Ellingsen, O. Ostby, T. B. Morrow and F. T. Dodge, Fluid Flow Modelling of Gravity Separators, SINTEF, Norway and Southwest Research Institute, Texas, Elsevier Science Publishers, 1991

14-91 E. W. M. Hansen, H. Heitmann, B. Laska and M. Loes, Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow Behaviour Inside, and Redesign of a Field Separator, SINTEF, Norway and STATOIL, Norway (not dated)

13-91 G. Trapaga and J. Szekely, Mathematical Modeling of the Isothermal Impingement of Liquid Droplets in Spraying Processes, Metallurgical Transactions, Vol. 22B, pp. 901-914, December 1991

11-91 N. Saluja and J. Szekely, Velocity Fields and Free Surface Phenomena in an Inductively Stirred Mercury Pool, European Journal of Mechanics, B/Fluids, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 563-572, Oct. 1991

4-90 J. M. Sicilian, A Note on Implementing Specified Velocities and Momentum Sources, Flow Science report, September 1990 (FSI-90-00-5)

13-90 P. Jonsson, N. Saluja, O. J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, Fluid Flow Phenomena in the Filling of Cylindrical Molds Using Newtonian (Turbulent) and Non-Newtonian (Power Law) Fluids, submitted to Trans. of the American Foundrymen’s Soc., June 1990

12-90 N. Saluja, O. J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, On the Computation of the Velocity Fields and the Dynamic Free Surface Generated in a Liquid Metal Column by a Rotating Magnetic Field, submitted to J. Fluid Mech., July 1990

7-90 C. L. Bronisz and C. W. Hirt, Modeling Unsaturated Flow in Porous Media: A FLOW-3D Extension, Flow Science report, July 1990 (FSI-90-48-2)

5-90 C. L. Bronisz and C. W. Hirt, Hydrodynamic Ram Simulations Using FLOW-3D, Flow Science report, May 1990 (FSI-90-49-1)

3-90 C. W. Hirt, Turbojet Plume Flow Analysis, Flow Science report, February 1990 (FSI-90-45-1)

5-89 K. S. Eckhoff and E. W. M. Hansen, Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Investigation of Separation in Two-Phase Rotating Flow, SINTEF-Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway, Report No. OR 22 1907.00.01.89, 29 April 1989

2-89 J. M. Sicilian and J. R. Tegart, Comparisons of FLOW-3D Calculations with Very Large Amplitude Slosh Data, presented at the Symposium on Computational Experiments, PVP ASME Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 22-27, 1989

2-88 J. M. Sicilian and C. W. Hirt, AFT Field Joint: CFD Analysis Using the FLOW-3D Program, in Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor Circumferential Flow Technical Interchange Meeting Final Report, NASA-TWR-17788, February 1988

14-87 C. J. Freitas, S. T. Green, and T. B. Morrow, Fluid Dynamics Associated with Ductile Pipeline Fracture, Southwest Research Institute report presented at ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, December 1987

13-87 J. Sicilian, The FLOW-3D Model for Thermal Conduction in Solids, Flow Science report, Dec. 1987 (FSI-87-00-4)

7-87 C.W. Hirt, Vectored Nozzle Flow with Turbulence Modeling, Flow Science report, Sept. 1987 (FSI-87-29-1)

4-87 J.M. Sicilian, C.W. Hirt, and R. P. Harper, FLOW-3D: Computational Modeling Power for Scientists and Engineers, Flow Science report, 1987 (FSI-87-00-1)

3-86 J. M. Sicilian, Natural-Convection Heat-Transfer Analysis, Flow Science Technical Note #4, June 1986 (FSI-86-00-TN4)

2-86 J. Navickas and C. R. Cross, Air Circulation Characteristics and Convective Losses in a 5-MW Molten Salt Cavity Solar Receiver, ASME 8th Annual Conference on Solar Engineering, Anaheim, California, April 13-16, 1986

5-85 C. W. Hirt and R. P. Harper, Calculations of Vent Clearing in a Chemical Process Tank, Flow Science report, December 1985 (FSI-85-28-1)

2-84 Applications of SOLA-3D/FSI to Fluid Slosh, Flow Science report, May 1984

Metal Casting Bibliography

다음은 금속 주조 참고 문헌의 기술 문서 모음입니다. 
이 모든 논문은 FLOW-3D  CAST  결과를 포함하고 있습니다. FLOW-3D  CAST 를 사용하여 금속 주조 산업의 어플리케이션을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션  하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

2024년 3월 20일 Update

181-23   Daichi Minamide, Ken’ichi Yano, Masahiro Sano, Takahiro Aoki, Overflow design system to decrease gas defects considering the direction of molten metal flow, 3rd International Conference on Electrical, Computer, Communications and Mechatronics Engineering (ICECCME), pp. 1-6, 2023. doi.org/10.1109/ICECCME57830.2023.10253413

102-23 Daichi Minamide, Ken’ichi Yano, Masahiro Sano, Takahiro Aoki, Automatic design of overflow system for preventing gas defects by considering the direction of molten metal flow, Computer-Aided Design, 163; 103586, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.cad.2023.103586

87-23 Prosenjit Das, Optimisation of melt pouring temperature and low superheat casting of Al-15Mg2Si-4.5Si composite, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 36.1-3; 2023. doi.org/10.1080/13640461.2023.2211895

60-23   Yuanhao Gu, Feng Wang, Jian Jiao, Zhi Wang, Le Zhou, Pingli Mao, Zheng Liu, Study on semisolid rheo-diecasting process, microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-6Al-1Ca-0.5Sb alloy with high solid fraction, International Journal of Metalcasting, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s40962-023-01001-0

48-23   Patricia Fernández‑Morales, Lauramaría Echeverrí, Emigdio Mendoza Fandiño, Alejandro Alberto Zuleta Gil, Replication casting and additive manufacturing for fabrication of cellular aluminum with periodic topology: optimization by CFD simulation, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 26; pp. 1789-1797, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-023-11124-7

45-23   Daniel Martinez, Philip King, Santosh Reddy Sama, Jay Sim, Hakan Toykoc, Guha Manogharan, Effect of freezing range on reducing casting defects through 3D sand-printed mold designs, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-023-11112-x

38-23   Emanuele Pagone, Christopher Jones, John Forde, William Shaw, Mark Jolly, Konstantinos Salonitis, Defect minimization in vacuum-assisted plaster mould investment casting through simulation of high-value aluminium alloy components, TMS 2023: Light Metals, pp. 1078-1086, 2023.

33-23   Philip King, Guha Manogharan, Novel experimental method for metal flow analysis using open molds for sand casting, International Journal of Metalcasting, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s40962-023-00966-2

32-23   Sujeet Kumar Gautam, Himadri Roy, Aditya Kumar Lohar, Sudip Kumar Samanta, Studies on mold filling behavior of Al–10.5Si–1.7Cu Al alloy during rheo pressure die casting system, International Journal of Metalcasting, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s40962-023-00958-2

31-23   Anand Kumbhare, Prasenjit Biswas, Anil Bisen, Chandan Choudary, Investigation of effect of the rheological parameters on the flow behavior of ADC12 Al alloy in rheo-pressure die casting, International Journal of Metalcasting, 2023. doi.org/10.1007/s40962-023-00962-6

24-23   Natalia Raźny, Anna Dmitruk, Maria Serdechnova, Carsten Blawert, Joanna Ludwiczak, Krzysztof Naplocha, The performance of thermally conductive tree-like cast aluminum structures in PCM-based storage units, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 142; 106606, 2023. doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2022.106606

172-22 J. Yokesh Kumar, S. Gopi, K.S. Amirthagadeswaran, Redesigning and numerical simulation of gating system to reduce cold shut defect in submersible pump part castings, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering, 2022. doi.org/10.1177/0954408922114218

125-22   Maximilian Erber, Tobias Rosnitschek, Christoph Hartmann, Bettina Alber-Laukant, Stephan Tremmel, Wolfram Volk, Geometry-based assurance of directional solidification for complex topology-optimized castings using the medial axis transform, Computer-Aided Design, 152; 103394, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.cad.2022.103394

74-22    Vasilios Fourlakidis, Ilia Belov, Attila Diószeg, Experimental model of the pearlite interlamellar spacing in lamellar graphite iron, Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais e Mineração, 19; e2634, 2022. doi.org/10.4322/2176-1523.20222634

71-22   M. G. Mahmoud, Amr Abdelghany, Serag Salem, Numerical simulation of door lock plates castings produced by high pressure die casting process, International Journal of Metalcasting, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s40962-022-00797-7

70-22   Andreas Schilling, Daniel Schmidt, Jakob Glück, Niklas Schwenke, Husam Sharabi, Martin Fehlbier, About the impact on gravity cast salt cores in high pressure die casting and rheocasting, Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 119; 102585, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.simpat.2022.102585

52-22   Manthan Dhisale, Jitesh Vasavada, Asim Tewari, An approach to optimize cooling channel parameters of low pressure die casting process for reducing shrinkage porosity in aluminium alloy wheels, Materials Today: Proceedings, in print, 2022. doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2022.03.478

44-22   Zihan Lang, Feng Wang, Wei Wang, Zhi Wang, Le Zhou, Pingli Mao, Zheng Liu, Numerical simulation and experimental study on semi-solid forming process of 319s aluminum alloy test bar, International Journal of Metalcasting, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/s40962-022-00788-8

32-22   Elisa Fracchia, Federico Simone Gobber, Claudio Mus, Raul Pirovino, Mario Russo, The local squeeze technology for challenging aluminium HPDC automotive components, Light Metals, pp. 772-778, 2022. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-92529-1_102

141-21   O. Ayer, O. Kaya, Mould design optimisation by FEM, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2130; 012021, 2021. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/2130/1/012021

117-21   I. Rajkumar, N. Rajini, T. Ram Prabhu, Sikiru O. Ismail, Suchart Siengchin, Faruq Mohammad, Hamad A. Al-Lohedan , Applicability of angular orientations of gating designs to quality of sand casting components using two-cavity mould set-up, Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s12666-021-02434-z

106-21   M. Ahmed, E. Riedel, M. Kovalko, A. Volochko, R. Bähr, A. Nofal, Ultrafine ductile and austempered ductile irons by solidification in ultrasonic field, International Journal of Metalcasting, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s40962-021-00683-8

97-21   J. Glueck, A. Schilling, N. Schwenke, A. Fros, M.Fehlbier, Efficiency and agility of a liquid CO2 cooling system for molten metal systems, Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 28; 101485, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2021.101485

82-21   Giulia Scampone, Raul Pirovano, Stefano Mascetti, Giulio Timelli, Experimental and numerical investigations of oxide-related defects in Al alloy gravity die castings, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 117; pp. 1765-1780, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s00170-021-07680-5

74-21   Shuyang Ren, Feng Wang, Jingying Sun, Zheng Liu, Pingli Mao, Gating system design based on numerical simulation and production experiment verification of aluminum alloy bracket fabricated by semi-solid rheo-die casting process, International Journal of Metalcasting, 2021. doi.org/10.1007/s40962-021-00648-x

69-21   Ozen Gursoy, Murat Colak, Kazim Tur, Derya Dispinar, Characterization of properties of Vanadium, Boron and Strontium addition on HPDC of A360 alloy, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 271; 124931, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2021.124931

54-21   K. Munpakdee, P. Ninpetch, S. Otarawanna, R. Canyook, P. Kowitwarangkul, Effect of feed sprue size on porosity defects in Platinum 950 centrifugal investment casting via numerical modelling, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 11th TSME-International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand, December 1-4, 2020, 1137; 012021, 2021. doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/1137/1/012021/

44-21   Yunxiang Zhang, Haidong Zhao, Fei Liu, Microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties improvement of gravity cast Al-7Si-0.4Mg alloys with Zr additions, Materials Characterization, 176; 111117, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2021.111117

05-21   Heqian Song, Lunyong Zhang, Fuyang Cao, Xu Gu, Jianfei Sun, Oxide bifilm defects in aluminum alloy castings, Materials Letters, 285; 129089, 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2020.129089

127-20   Eric Riedel, Niklas Bergedieck, Stefan Scharf, CFD simulation based investigation of cavitation cynamics during high intensity ultrasonic treatment of A356, Metals, 10.11; 1529, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10111529

86-20       Malte Leonhard, Matthias Todte, Jörg Schäfer, Realistic simulation of the combustion of exothermic feeders, Modern Casting, August 2020; pp. 35-40, 2020. (See also 58-19)

52-20       Mingfan Qi, Yonglin Kang, Jingyuan Li, Zhumabieke Wulabieke, Yuzhao Xu, Yangde Li, Aisen Liu, Junchen Chen, Microstructures refinement and mechanical properties enhancement of aluminum and magnesium alloys by combining distributary-confluence channel process for semisolid slurry preparation with high pressure die-casting, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 285; 116800, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2020.116800

46-20       Yasushi Iwata, Shuxin Dong, Yoshio Sugiyama, Jun Yaokawa, Melt permeability changes during solidification of aluminum alloys and application to feeding simulation for die castings, Materials Transactions, 61.7; pp. 1381-1386, 2020. doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.F-M2020822

45-20       Daniel Bernal, Xabier Chamorro, Iñaki Hurtado, Iñaki Madariaga, Effect of boron content and cooling rate on the microstructure and boride formation of β-solidifying γ-TiAl TNM alloy, Metals, 10.5; 698, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10050698

33-20     Eric Riedel, Martin Liepe Stefan Scharf, Simulation of ultrasonic induced cavitation and acoustic streaming in liquid and solidifying aluminum, Metals, 10.4; 476, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10040476

20-20   Wu Yue, Li Zhuo and Lu Rong, Simulation and visual tester verification of solid propellant slurry vacuum plate casting, Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, 2020. doi.org/10.1002/prep.201900411

17-20   C.A. Jones, M.R. Jolly, A.E.W. Jarfors and M. Irwin, An experimental characterization of thermophysical properties of a porous ceramic shell used in the investment casting process, Supplimental Proceedings, pp. 1095-1105, TMS 2020 149th Annual Meeting and Exhibition, San Diego, CA, February 23-27, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36296-6_102

12-20   Franz Josef Feikus, Paul Bernsteiner, Ricardo Fernández Gutiérrez and Michal Luszczak , Further development of electric motor housings, MTZ Worldwide, 81, pp. 38-43, 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s38313-019-0176-z

09-20   Mingfan Qi, Yonglin Kang, Yuzhao Xu, Zhumabieke Wulabieke and Jingyuan Li, A novel rheological high pressure die-casting process for preparing large thin-walled Al–Si–Fe–Mg–Sr alloy with high heat conductivity, high plasticity and medium strength, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 776, art. no. 139040, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2020.139040

07-20   Stefan Heugenhauser, Erhard Kaschnitz and Peter Schumacher, Development of an aluminum compound casting process – Experiments and numerical simulations, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 279, art. no. 116578, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.116578

05-20   Michail Papanikolaou, Emanuele Pagone, Mark Jolly and Konstantinos Salonitis, Numerical simulation and evaluation of Campbell running and gating systems, Metals, 10.1, art. no. 68, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/met10010068

102-19   Ferencz Peti and Gabriela Strnad, The effect of squeeze pin dimension and operational parameters on material homogeneity of aluminium high pressure die cast parts, Acta Marisiensis. Seria Technologica, 16.2, 2019. doi.org/0.2478/amset-2019-0010

94-19   E. Riedel, I. Horn, N. Stein, H. Stein, R. Bahr, and S. Scharf, Ultrasonic treatment: a clean technology that supports sustainability incasting processes, Procedia, 26th CIRP Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) Conference, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, May 7-9, 2019.

93-19   Adrian V. Catalina, Liping Xue, Charles A. Monroe, Robin D. Foley, and John A. Griffin, Modeling and Simulation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi- and AlCu-based Alloys, Transactions, 123rd Metalcasting Congress, Atlanta, GA, USA, April 27-30, 2019.

84-19   Arun Prabhakar, Michail Papanikolaou, Konstantinos Salonitis, and Mark Jolly, Sand casting of sheet lead: numerical simulation of metal flow and solidification, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, pp. 1-13, 2019. doi:10.1007/s00170-019-04522-3

72-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Eric Macdonald, Robert Voigt, and Guha Manogharan, Measurement of metal velocity in sand casting during mold filling, Metals, 9:1079, 2019. doi:10.3390/met9101079

71-19   Sebastian Findeisen, Robin Van Der Auwera, Michael Heuser, and Franz-Josef Wöstmann, Gießtechnische Fertigung von E-Motorengehäusen mit interner Kühling (Casting production of electric motor housings with internal cooling), Geisserei, 106, pp. 72-78, 2019 (in German).

58-19     Von Malte Leonhard, Matthias Todte, and Jörg Schäffer, Realistic simulation of the combustion of exothermic feeders, Casting, No. 2, pp. 28-32, 2019. In English and German.

52-19     S. Lakkum and P. Kowitwarangkul, Numerical investigations on the effect of gas flow rate in the gas stirred ladle with dual plugs, International Conference on Materials Research and Innovation (ICMARI), Bangkok, Thailand, December 17-21, 2018. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 526, 2019. doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/526/1/012028

47-19     Bing Zhou, Shuai Lu, Kaile Xu, Chun Xu, and Zhanyong Wang, Microstructure and simulation of semisolid aluminum alloy castings in the process of stirring integrated transfer-heat (SIT) with water cooling, International Journal of Metalcasting, Online edition, pp. 1-13, 2019. doi: 10.1007/s40962-019-00357-6

31-19     Zihao Yuan, Zhipeng Guo, and S.M. Xiong, Skin layer of A380 aluminium alloy die castings and its blistering during solution treatment, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, Vol. 35, No. 9, pp. 1906-1916, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.05.011

25-19     Stefano Mascetti, Raul Pirovano, and Giulio Timelli, Interazione metallo liquido/stampo: Il fenomeno della metallizzazione, La Metallurgia Italiana, No. 4, pp. 44-50, 2019. In Italian.

20-19     Fu-Yuan Hsu, Campbellology for runner system design, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 187-199, 2019. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_19

19-19     Chengcheng Lyu, Michail Papanikolaou, and Mark Jolly, Numerical process modelling and simulation of Campbell running systems designs, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 53-64, 2019. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_5

18-19     Adrian V. Catalina, Liping Xue, and Charles Monroe, A solidification model with application to AlSi-based alloys, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 201-213, 2019. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_20

17-19     Fu-Yuan Hsu and Yu-Hung Chen, The validation of feeder modeling for ductile iron castings, Shape Casting: The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, pp. 227-238, 2019. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-06034-3_22

04-19   Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch and Guha Manogharan, Novel sprue designs in metal casting via 3D sand-printing, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 25, pp. 563-578, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.009

02-19   Jingying Sun, Qichi Le, Li Fu, Jing Bai, Johannes Tretter, Klaus Herbold and Hongwei Huo, Gas entrainment behavior of aluminum alloy engine crankcases during the low-pressure-die-casting-process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 266, pp. 274-282, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.11.016

82-18   Xu Zhao, Ping Wang, Tao Li, Bo-yu Zhang, Peng Wang, Guan-zhou Wang and Shi-qi Lu, Gating system optimization of high pressure die casting thin-wall AlSi10MnMg longitudinal loadbearing beam based on numerical simulation, China Foundry, Vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 436-442, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s41230-018-8052-z

80-18   Michail Papanikolaou, Emanuele Pagone, Konstantinos Salonitis, Mark Jolly and Charalampos Makatsoris, A computational framework towards energy efficient casting processes, Sustainable Design and Manufacturing 2018: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing (KES-SDM-18), Gold Coast, Australia, June 24-26 2018, SIST 130, pp. 263-276, 2019. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-04290-5_27

64-18   Vasilios Fourlakidis, Ilia Belov and Attila Diószegi, Strength prediction for pearlitic lamellar graphite iron: Model validation, Metals, Vol. 8, No. 9, 2018. doi: 10.3390/met8090684

51-18   Xue-feng Zhu, Bao-yi Yu, Li Zheng, Bo-ning Yu, Qiang Li, Shu-ning Lü and Hao Zhang, Influence of pouring methods on filling process, microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91 Mg alloy pipe by horizontal centrifugal casting, China Foundry, vol. 15, no. 3, pp.196-202, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s41230-018-7256-6

47-18   Santosh Reddy Sama, Jiayi Wang and Guha Manogharan, Non-conventional mold design for metal casting using 3D sand-printing, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, vol. 34-B, pp. 765-775, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.jmapro.2018.03.049

42-18   M. Koru and O. Serçe, The Effects of Thermal and Dynamical Parameters and Vacuum Application on Porosity in High-Pressure Die Casting of A383 Al-Alloy, International Journal of Metalcasting, pp. 1-17, 2018. /doi: 10.1007/s40962-018-0214-7

41-18   Abhilash Viswanath, S. Savithri, U.T.S. Pillai, Similitude analysis on flow characteristics of water, A356 and AM50 alloys during LPC process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 257, pp. 270-277, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.02.031

29-18   Seyboldt, Christoph and Liewald, Mathias, Investigation on thixojoining to produce hybrid components with intermetallic phase, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1960, no. 1, 2018. doi: 10.1063/1.5034992

28-18   Laura Schomer, Mathias Liewald and Kim Rouven Riedmüller, Simulation of the infiltration process of a ceramic open-pore body with a metal alloy in semi-solid state to design the manufacturing of interpenetrating phase composites, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1960, no. 1, 2018. doi: 10.1063/1.5034991

41-17   Y. N. Wu et al., Numerical Simulation on Filling Optimization of Copper Rotor for High Efficient Electric Motors in Die Casting Process, Materials Science Forum, Vol. 898, pp. 1163-1170, 2017.

12-17   A.M.  Zarubin and O.A. Zarubina, Controlling the flow rate of melt in gravity die casting of aluminum alloys, Liteynoe Proizvodstvo (Casting Manufacturing), pp 16-20, 6, 2017. In Russian.

10-17   A.Y. Korotchenko, Y.V. Golenkov, M.V. Tverskoy and D.E. Khilkov, Simulation of the Flow of Metal Mixtures in the Mold, Liteynoe Proizvodstvo (Casting Manufacturing), pp 18-22, 5, 2017. In Russian.

08-17   Morteza Morakabian Esfahani, Esmaeil Hajjari, Ali Farzadi and Seyed Reza Alavi Zaree, Prediction of the contact time through modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in compound casting process of Al/Mg light metals, Journal of Materials Research, © Materials Research Society 2017

04-17   Huihui Liu, Xiongwei He and Peng Guo, Numerical simulation on semi-solid die-casting of magnesium matrix composite based on orthogonal experiment, AIP Conference Proceedings 1829, 020037 (2017); doi: 10.1063/1.4979769.

100-16  Robert Watson, New numerical techniques to quantify and predict the effect of entrainment defects, applied to high pressure die casting, PhD Thesis: University of Birmingham, 2016.

88-16   M.C. Carter, T. Kauffung, L. Weyenberg and C. Peters, Low Pressure Die Casting Simulation Discovery through Short Shot, Cast Expo & Metal Casting Congress, April 16-19, 2016, Minneapolis, MN, Copyright 2016 American Foundry Society.

61-16   M. Koru and O. Serçe, Experimental and numerical determination of casting mold interfacial heat transfer coefficient in the high pressure die casting of a 360 aluminum alloy, ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, Vol. 129 (2016)

59-16   R. Pirovano and S. Mascetti, Tracking of collapsed bubbles during a filling simulation, La Metallurgia Italiana – n. 6 2016

43-16   Kevin Lee, Understanding shell cracking during de-wax process in investment casting, Ph.D Thesis: University of Birmingham, School of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2016.

35-16   Konstantinos Salonitis, Mark Jolly, Binxu Zeng, and Hamid Mehrabi, Improvements in energy consumption and environmental impact by novel single shot melting process for casting, Journal of Cleaner Production, doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.165, Open Access funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, June 29, 2016

20-16   Fu-Yuan Hsu, Bifilm Defect Formation in Hydraulic Jump of Liquid Aluminum, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 2016, Band: 47, Heft 3, 1634-1648.

15-16   Mingfan Qia, Yonglin Kanga, Bing Zhoua, Wanneng Liaoa, Guoming Zhua, Yangde Lib,and Weirong Li, A forced convection stirring process for Rheo-HPDC aluminum and magnesium alloys, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 234 (2016) 353–367

112-15   José Miguel Gonçalves Ledo Belo da Costa, Optimization of filling systems for low pressure by FLOW-3D, Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Mecânica, http://hdl.handle.net/1822/40132, 2015

89-15   B.W. Zhu, L.X. Li, X. Liu, L.Q. Zhang and R. Xu, Effect of Viscosity Measurement Method to Simulate High Pressure Die Casting of Thin-Wall AlSi10MnMg Alloy Castings, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Published online, November 2015, DOI: 10.1007/s11665-015-1783-8, © ASM International.

88-15   Peng Zhang, Zhenming Li, Baoliang Liu, Wenjiang Ding and Liming Peng, Improved tensile properties of a new aluminum alloy for high pressure die casting, Materials Science & Engineering A651(2016)376–390, Available online, November 2015.

83-15   Zu-Qi Hu, Xin-Jian Zhang and Shu-Sen Wu, Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Die-Filling Behavior of High-Performance Die-Cast Al–Mg–Si–Mn Alloy, Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett.), DOI 10.1007/s40195-015-0332-7, © The Chinese Society for Metals and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.

82-15   J. Müller, L. Xue, M.C. Carter, C. Thoma, M. Fehlbier and M. Todte, A Die Spray Cooling Model for Thermal Die Cycling Simulations, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

81-15   M. T. Murray, L.F. Hansen, L. Chilcott, E. Li and A.M. Murray, Case Studies in the Use of Simulation- Improved Yield and Reduced Time to Market, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

80-15   R. Bhola, S. Chandra and D. Souders, Predicting Castability of Thin-Walled Parts for the HPDC Process Using Simulations, 2015 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, Indianapolis, IN, October 2015

76-15   Prosenjit Das, Sudip K. Samanta, Shashank Tiwari and Pradip Dutta, Die Filling Behaviour of Semi Solid A356 Al Alloy Slurry During Rheo Pressure Die Casting, Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, pp 1-6, October 2015

74-15   Murat KORU and Orhan SERÇE, Yüksek Basınçlı Döküm Prosesinde Enjeksiyon Parametrelerine Bağlı Olarak Döküm Simülasyon, Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Science, Science Journal (CSJ), Vol. 36, No: 5 (2015) ISSN: 1300-1949, May 2015

69-15   A. Viswanath, S. Sivaraman, U. T. S. Pillai, Computer Simulation of Low Pressure Casting Process Using FLOW-3D, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 830-831, pp. 45-48, September 2015

68-15   J. Aneesh Kumar, K. Krishnakumar and S. Savithri, Computer Simulation of Centrifugal Casting Process Using FLOW-3D, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 830-831, pp. 53-56, September 2015

59-15   F. Hosseini Yekta and S. A. Sadough Vanini, Simulation of the flow of semi-solid steel alloy using an enhanced model, Metals and Materials International, August 2015.

44-15   Ulrich E. Klotz, Tiziana Heiss and Dario Tiberto, Platinum investment casting material properties, casting simulation and optimum process parameters, Jewelry Technology Forum 2015

41-15   M. Barkhudarov and R. Pirovano, Minimizing Air Entrainment in High Pressure Die Casting Shot Sleeves, GIFA 2015, Düsseldorf, Germany

40-15   M. Todte, A. Fent, and H. Lang, Simulation in support of the development of innovative processes in the casting industry, GIFA 2015, Düsseldorf, Germany

19-15   Bruce Morey, Virtual casting improves powertrain design, Automotive Engineering, SAE International, March 2015.

15-15   K.S. Oh, J.D. Lee, S.J. Kim and J.Y. Choi, Development of a large ingot continuous caster, Metall. Res. Technol. 112, 203 (2015) © EDP Sciences, 2015, DOI: 10.1051/metal/2015006, www.metallurgical-research.org

14-15   Tiziana Heiss, Ulrich E. Klotz and Dario Tiberto, Platinum Investment Casting, Part I: Simulation and Experimental Study of the Casting Process, Johnson Matthey Technol. Rev., 2015, 59, (2), 95, doi:10.1595/205651315×687399

138-14 Christopher Thoma, Wolfram Volk, Ruben Heid, Klaus Dilger, Gregor Banner and Harald Eibisch, Simulation-based prediction of the fracture elongation as a failure criterion for thin-walled high-pressure die casting components, International Journal of Metalcasting, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 47-54, 2014. doi:10.1007/BF03355594

107-14  Mehran Seyed Ahmadi, Dissolution of Si in Molten Al with Gas Injection, ProQuest Dissertations And Theses; Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Toronto (Canada), 2014; Publication Number: AAT 3637106; ISBN: 9781321195231; Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 76-02(E), Section: B.; 191 p.

99-14   R. Bhola and S. Chandra, Predicting Castability for Thin-Walled HPDC Parts, Foundry Management Technology, December 2014

92-14   Warren Bishenden and Changhua Huang, Venting design and process optimization of die casting process for structural components; Part II: Venting design and process optimization, Die Casting Engineer, November 2014

90-14   Ken’ichi Kanazawa, Ken’ichi Yano, Jun’ichi Ogura, and Yasunori Nemoto, Optimum Runner Design for Die-Casting using CFD Simulations and Verification with Water-Model Experiments, Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2014, November 14-20, 2014, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, IMECE2014-37419

89-14   P. Kapranos, C. Carney, A. Pola, and M. Jolly, Advanced Casting Methodologies: Investment Casting, Centrifugal Casting, Squeeze Casting, Metal Spinning, and Batch Casting, In Comprehensive Materials Processing; McGeough, J., Ed.; 2014, Elsevier Ltd., 2014; Vol. 5, pp 39–67.

77-14   Andrei Y. Korotchenko, Development of Scientific and Technological Approaches to Casting Net-Shaped Castings in Sand Molds Free of Shrinkage Defects and Hot Tears, Post-doctoral thesis: Russian State Technological University, 2014. In Russian.

69-14   L. Xue, M.C. Carter, A.V. Catalina, Z. Lin, C. Li, and C. Qiu, Predicting, Preventing Core Gas Defects in Steel Castings, Modern Casting, September 2014

68-14   L. Xue, M.C. Carter, A.V. Catalina, Z. Lin, C. Li, and C. Qiu, Numerical Simulation of Core Gas Defects in Steel Castings, Copyright 2014 American Foundry Society, 118th Metalcasting Congress, April 8 – 11, 2014, Schaumburg, IL

51-14   Jesus M. Blanco, Primitivo Carranza, Rafael Pintos, Pedro Arriaga, and Lakhdar Remaki, Identification of Defects Originated during the Filling of Cast Pieces through Particles Modelling, 11th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM XI), 5th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM V), 6th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ECFD VI), E. Oñate, J. Oliver and A. Huerta (Eds)

47-14   B. Vijaya Ramnatha, C.Elanchezhiana, Vishal Chandrasekhar, A. Arun Kumarb, S. Mohamed Asif, G. Riyaz Mohamed, D. Vinodh Raj , C .Suresh Kumar, Analysis and Optimization of Gating System for Commutator End Bracket, Procedia Materials Science 6 ( 2014 ) 1312 – 1328, 3rd International Conference on Materials Processing and Characterisation (ICMPC 2014)

42-14  Bing Zhou, Yong-lin Kang, Guo-ming Zhu, Jun-zhen Gao, Ming-fan Qi, and Huan-huan Zhang, Forced convection rheoforming process for preparation of 7075 aluminum alloy semisolid slurry and its numerical simulation, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 24(2014) 1109−1116

37-14    A. Karwinski, W. Lesniewski, P. Wieliczko, and M. Malysza, Casting of Titanium Alloys in Centrifugal Induction Furnaces, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, Volume 59, Issue 1, DOI: 10.2478/amm-2014-0068, 2014.

26-14    Bing Zhou, Yonglin Kang, Mingfan Qi, Huanhuan Zhang and Guoming ZhuR-HPDC Process with Forced Convection Mixing Device for Automotive Part of A380 Aluminum Alloy, Materials 2014, 7, 3084-3105; doi:10.3390/ma7043084

20-14  Johannes Hartmann, Tobias Fiegl, Carolin Körner, Aluminum integral foams with tailored density profile by adapted blowing agents, Applied Physics A, 10.1007/s00339-014-8377-4, March 2014.

19-14    A.Y. Korotchenko, N.A. Nikiforova, E.D. Demjanov, N.C. Larichev, The Influence of the Filling Conditions on the Service Properties of the Part Side Frame, Russian Foundryman, 1 (January), pp 40-43, 2014. In Russian.

11-14 B. Fuchs and C. Körner, Mesh resolution consideration for the viability prediction of lost salt cores in the high pressure die casting process, Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2014, Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

08-14 FY Hsu, SW Wang, and HJ Lin, The External and Internal Shrinkages in Aluminum Gravity Castings, Shape Casting: 5th International Symposium 2014. Available online at Google Books

103-13  B. Fuchs, H. Eibisch and C. Körner, Core Viability Simulation for Salt Core Technology in High-Pressure Die Casting, International Journal of Metalcasting, July 2013, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 39–45

94-13    Randall S. Fielding, J. Crapps, C. Unal, and J.R.Kennedy, Metallic Fuel Casting Development and Parameter Optimization Simulations, International Conference on Fast reators and Related Fuel Cycles (FR13), 4-7 March 2013, Paris France

90-13  A. Karwińskia, M. Małyszaa, A. Tchórza, A. Gila, B. Lipowska, Integration of Computer Tomography and Simulation Analysis in Evaluation of Quality of Ceramic-Carbon Bonded Foam Filter, Archives of Foundry Engineering, DOI: 10.2478/afe-2013-0084, Published quarterly as the organ of the Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ISSN, (2299-2944), Volume 13, Issue 4/2013

88-13  Litie and Metallurgia (Casting and Metallurgy), 3 (72), 2013, N.V.Sletova, I.N.Volnov, S.P.Zadrutsky, V.A.Chaikin, Modeling of the Process of Removing Non-metallic Inclusions in Aluminum Alloys Using the FLOW-3D program, pp 138-140. In Russian.

85-13    Michał Szucki,Tomasz Goraj, Janusz Lelito, Józef S. Suchy, Numerical Analysis of Solid Particles Flow in Liquid Metal, XXXVII International Scientific Conference Foundryman’ Day 2013, Krakow, 28-29 November 2013

84-13  Körner, C., Schwankl, M., Himmler, D., Aluminum-Aluminum compound castings by electroless deposited zinc layers, Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.12.01483-13.

77-13  Antonio Armillotta & Raffaello Baraggi & Simone Fasoli, SLM tooling for die casting with conformal cooling channels, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, DOI 10.1007/s00170-013-5523-7, December 2013.

64-13   Johannes Hartmann, Christina Blümel, Stefan Ernst, Tobias Fiegl, Karl-Ernst Wirth, Carolin Körner, Aluminum integral foam castings with microcellular cores by nano-functionalization, J Mater Sci, DOI: 10.1007/s10853-013-7668-z, September 2013.

46-13  Nicholas P. Orenstein, 3D Flow and Temperature Analysis of Filling a Plutonium Mold, LA-UR-13-25537, Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Los Alamos Annual Student Symposium 2013, 2013-07-24 (Rev.1)

42-13   Yang Yue, William D. Griffiths, and Nick R. Green, Modelling of the Effects of Entrainment Defects on Mechanical Properties in a Cast Al-Si-Mg Alloy, Materials Science Forum, 765, 225, 2013.

39-13  J. Crapps, D.S. DeCroix, J.D Galloway, D.A. Korzekwa, R. Aikin, R. Fielding, R. Kennedy, C. Unal, Separate effects identification via casting process modeling for experimental measurement of U-Pu-Zr alloys, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 15 July 2013.

35-13   A. Pari, Real Life Problem Solving through Simulations in the Die Casting Industry – Case Studies, © Die Casting Engineer, July 2013.

34-13  Martin Lagler, Use of Simulation to Predict the Viability of Salt Cores in the HPDC Process – Shot Curve as a Decisive Criterion, © Die Casting Engineer, July 2013.

24-13    I.N.Volnov, Optimizatsia Liteynoi Tekhnologii, (Casting Technology Optimization), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), 3, 2013, 27-29. In Russian

23-13  M.R. Barkhudarov, I.N. Volnov, Minimizatsia Zakhvata Vozdukha v Kamere Pressovania pri Litie pod Davleniem, (Minimization of Air Entrainment in the Shot Sleeve During High Pressure Die Casting), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), 3, 2013, 30-34. In Russian

09-13  M.C. Carter and L. Xue, Simulating the Parameters that Affect Core Gas Defects in Metal Castings, Copyright 2012 American Foundry Society, Presented at the 2013 CastExpo, St. Louis, Missouri, April 2013

08-13  C. Reilly, N.R. Green, M.R. Jolly, J.-C. Gebelin, The Modelling Of Oxide Film Entrainment In Casting Systems Using Computational Modelling, Applied Mathematical Modelling, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2013.03.061, April 2013.

03-13  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A fast simulation of transient metal flow and solidification in a narrow channel. Part II. Model validation and parametric study, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.12.061.

02-13  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A fast simulation of transient metal flow and solidification in a narrow channel. Part I: Model development using lubrication approximation, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.12.060.

116-12  Jufu Jianga, Ying Wang, Gang Chena, Jun Liua, Yuanfa Li and Shoujing Luo, “Comparison of mechanical properties and microstructure of AZ91D alloy motorcycle wheels formed by die casting and double control forming, Materials & Design, Volume 40, September 2012, Pages 541-549.

107-12  F.K. Arslan, A.H. Hatman, S.Ö. Ertürk, E. Güner, B. Güner, An Evaluation for Fundamentals of Die Casting Materials Selection and Design, IMMC’16 International Metallurgy & Materials Congress, Istanbul, Turkey, 2012.

103-12 WU Shu-sen, ZHONG Gu, AN Ping, WAN Li, H. NAKAE, Microstructural characteristics of Al−20Si−2Cu−0.4Mg−1Ni alloy formed by rheo-squeeze casting after ultrasonic vibration treatment, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 22 (2012) 2863-2870, November 2012. Full paper available online.

109-12 Alexandre Reikher, Numerical Analysis of Die-Casting Process in Thin Cavities Using Lubrication Approximation, Ph.D. Thesis: The University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Engineering Department (2012) Theses and Dissertations. Paper 65.

97-12 Hong Zhou and Li Heng Luo, Filling Pattern of Step Gating System in Lost Foam Casting Process and its Application, Advanced Materials Research, Volumes 602-604, Progress in Materials and Processes, 1916-1921, December 2012.

93-12  Liangchi Zhang, Chunliang Zhang, Jeng-Haur Horng and Zichen Chen, Functions of Step Gating System in the Lost Foam Casting Process, Advanced Materials Research, 591-593, 940, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.591-593.940, November 2012.

91-12  Hong Yan, Jian Bin Zhu, Ping Shan, Numerical Simulation on Rheo-Diecasting of Magnesium Matrix Composites, 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.192-193.287, Solid State Phenomena, 192-193, 287.

89-12  Alexandre Reikher and Krishna M. Pillai, A Fast Numerical Simulation for Modeling Simultaneous Metal Flow and Solidification in Thin Cavities Using the Lubrication Approximation, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications: An International Journal of Computation and Methodology, 63:2, 75-100, November 2012.

82-12  Jufu Jiang, Gang Chen, Ying Wang, Zhiming Du, Weiwei Shan, and Yuanfa Li, Microstructure and mechanical properties of thin-wall and high-rib parts of AM60B Mg alloy formed by double control forming and die casting under the optimal conditions, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2012.10.086, October 2012.

78-12   A. Pari, Real Life Problem Solving through Simulations in the Die Casting Industry – Case Studies, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

77-12  Y. Wang, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian and R.A. Miller, Rheological behavior models of metal matrix alloys in semi-solid casting process, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

76-12  A. Reikher and H. Gerber, Analysis of Solidification Parameters During the Die Cast Process, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012, Indianapolis, IN.

75-12 R.A. Miller, Y. Wang and K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, Estimating Cavity Fill Time, 2012 Die Casting Congress & Exposition, © NADCA, October 8-10, 2012Indianapolis, IN.

65-12  X.H. Yang, T.J. Lu, T. Kim, Influence of non-conducting pore inclusions on phase change behavior of porous media with constant heat flux boundaryInternational Journal of Thermal Sciences, Available online 10 October 2012. Available online at SciVerse.

55-12  Hejun Li, Pengyun Wang, Lehua Qi, Hansong Zuo, Songyi Zhong, Xianghui Hou, 3D numerical simulation of successive deposition of uniform molten Al droplets on a moving substrate and experimental validation, Computational Materials Science, Volume 65, December 2012, Pages 291–301.

52-12 Hongbing Ji, Yixin Chen and Shengzhou Chen, Numerical Simulation of Inner-Outer Couple Cooling Slab Continuous Casting in the Filling Process, Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 557-559), Advanced Materials and Processes II, pp. 2257-2260, July 2012.

47-12    Petri Väyrynen, Lauri Holappa, and Seppo Louhenkilpi, Simulation of Melting of Alloying Materials in Steel Ladle, SCANMET IV – 4th International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking, Lulea, Sweden, June 10-13, 2012.

46-12  Bin Zhang and Dave Salee, Metal Flow and Heat Transfer in Billet DC Casting Using Wagstaff® Optifill™ Metal Distribution Systems, 5th International Metal Quality Workshop, United Arab Emirates Dubai, March 18-22, 2012.

45-12 D.R. Gunasegaram, M. Givord, R.G. O’Donnell and B.R. Finnin, Improvements engineered in UTS and elongation of aluminum alloy high pressure die castings through the alteration of runner geometry and plunger velocity, Materials Science & Engineering.

44-12    Antoni Drys and Stefano Mascetti, Aluminum Casting Simulations, Desktop Engineering, September 2012

42-12   Huizhen Duan, Jiangnan Shen and Yanping Li, Comparative analysis of HPDC process of an auto part with ProCAST and FLOW-3D, Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 184-185 (2012) pp 90-94, Online available since 2012/Jun/14 at www.scientific.net, © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.184-185.90.

41-12    Deniece R. Korzekwa, Cameron M. Knapp, David A. Korzekwa, and John W. Gibbs, Co-Design – Fabrication of Unalloyed Plutonium, LA-UR-12-23441, MDI Summer Research Group Workshop Advanced Manufacturing, 2012-07-25/2012-07-26 (Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States)

29-12  Dario Tiberto and Ulrich E. Klotz, Computer simulation applied to jewellery casting: challenges, results and future possibilities, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.33 012008. Full paper available at IOP.

28-12  Y Yue and N R Green, Modelling of different entrainment mechanisms and their influences on the mechanical reliability of Al-Si castings, 2012 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 33,012072.Full paper available at IOP.

27-12  E Kaschnitz, Numerical simulation of centrifugal casting of pipes, 2012 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 33 012031, Issue 1. Full paper available at IOP.

15-12  C. Reilly, N.R Green, M.R. Jolly, The Present State Of Modeling Entrainment Defects In The Shape Casting Process, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Available online 27 April 2012, ISSN 0307-904X, 10.1016/j.apm.2012.04.032.

12-12   Andrei Starobin, Tony Hirt, Hubert Lang, and Matthias Todte, Core drying simulation and validation, International Foundry Research, GIESSEREIFORSCHUNG 64 (2012) No. 1, ISSN 0046-5933, pp 2-5

10-12  H. Vladimir Martínez and Marco F. Valencia (2012). Semisolid Processing of Al/β-SiC Composites by Mechanical Stirring Casting and High Pressure Die Casting, Recent Researches in Metallurgical Engineering – From Extraction to Forming, Dr Mohammad Nusheh (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0356-1, InTech

07-12     Amir H. G. Isfahani and James M. Brethour, Simulating Thermal Stresses and Cooling Deformations, Die Casting Engineer, March 2012

06-12   Shuisheng Xie, Youfeng He and Xujun Mi, Study on Semi-solid Magnesium Alloys Slurry Preparation and Continuous Roll-casting Process, Magnesium Alloys – Design, Processing and Properties, ISBN: 978-953-307-520-4, InTech.

04-12 J. Spangenberg, N. Roussel, J.H. Hattel, H. Stang, J. Skocek, M.R. Geiker, Flow induced particle migration in fresh concrete: Theoretical frame, numerical simulations and experimental results on model fluids, Cement and Concrete Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2012.01.007, February 2012.

01-12   Lee, B., Baek, U., and Han, J., Optimization of Gating System Design for Die Casting of Thin Magnesium Alloy-Based Multi-Cavity LCD Housings, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Springer New York, Issn: 1059-9495, 10.1007/s11665-011-0111-1, Volume 1 / 1992 – Volume 21 / 2012. Available online at Springer Link.

104-11  Fu-Yuan Hsu and Huey Jiuan Lin, Foam Filters Used in Gravity Casting, Metall and Materi Trans B (2011) 42: 1110. doi:10.1007/s11663-011-9548-8.

99-11    Eduardo Trejo, Centrifugal Casting of an Aluminium Alloy, thesis: Doctor of Philosophy, Metallurgy and Materials School of Engineering University of Birmingham, October 2011. Full paper available upon request.

93-11  Olga Kononova, Andrejs Krasnikovs ,Videvuds Lapsa,Jurijs Kalinka and Angelina Galushchak, Internal Structure Formation in High Strength Fiber Concrete during Casting, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 59 2011

76-11  J. Hartmann, A. Trepper, and C. Körner, Aluminum Integral Foams with Near-Microcellular Structure, Advanced Engineering Materials 2011, Volume 13 (2011) No. 11, © Wiley-VCH

71-11  Fu-Yuan Hsu and Yao-Ming Yang Confluence Weld in an Aluminum Gravity Casting, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Available online 23 November 2011, ISSN 0924-0136, 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2011.11.006.

65-11     V.A. Chaikin, A.V. Chaikin, I.N.Volnov, A Study of the Process of Late Modification Using Simulation, in Zagotovitelnye Proizvodstva v Mashinostroenii, 10, 2011, 8-12. In Russian.

54-11  Ngadia Taha Niane and Jean-Pierre Michalet, Validation of Foundry Process for Aluminum Parts with FLOW-3D Software, Proceedings of the 2011 International Symposium on Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, 2011.

51-11    A. Reikher and H. Gerber, Calculation of the Die Cast parameters of the Thin Wall Aluminum Cast Part, 2011 Die Casting Congress & Tabletop, Columbus, OH, September 19-21, 2011

50-11   Y. Wang, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, and R.A. Miller, Runner design optimization based on CFD simulation for a die with multiple cavities, 2011 Die Casting Congress & Tabletop, Columbus, OH, September 19-21, 2011

48-11 A. Karwiński, W. Leśniewski, S. Pysz, P. Wieliczko, The technology of precision casting of titanium alloys by centrifugal process, Archives of Foundry Engineering, ISSN: 1897-3310), Volume 11, Issue 3/2011, 73-80, 2011.

46-11  Daniel Einsiedler, Entwicklung einer Simulationsmethodik zur Simulation von Strömungs- und Trocknungsvorgängen bei Kernfertigungsprozessen mittels CFD (Development of a simulation methodology for simulating flow and drying operations in core production processes using CFD), MSc thesis at Technical University of Aalen in Germany (Hochschule Aalen), 2011.

44-11  Bin Zhang and Craig Shaber, Aluminum Ingot Thermal Stress Development Modeling of the Wagstaff® EpsilonTM Rolling Ingot DC Casting System during the Start-up Phase, Materials Science Forum Vol. 693 (2011) pp 196-207, © 2011 Trans Tech Publications, July, 2011.

43-11 Vu Nguyen, Patrick Rohan, John Grandfield, Alex Levin, Kevin Naidoo, Kurt Oswald, Guillaume Girard, Ben Harker, and Joe Rea, Implementation of CASTfill low-dross pouring system for ingot casting, Materials Science Forum Vol. 693 (2011) pp 227-234, © 2011 Trans Tech Publications, July, 2011.

40-11  A. Starobin, D. Goettsch, M. Walker, D. Burch, Gas Pressure in Aluminum Block Water Jacket Cores, © 2011 American Foundry Society, International Journal of Metalcasting/Summer 2011

37-11 Ferencz Peti, Lucian Grama, Analyze of the Possible Causes of Porosity Type Defects in Aluminum High Pressure Diecast Parts, Scientific Bulletin of the Petru Maior University of Targu Mures, Vol. 8 (XXV) no. 1, 2011, ISSN 1841-9267

31-11  Johannes Hartmann, André Trepper, Carolin Körner, Aluminum Integral Foams with Near-Microcellular Structure, Advanced Engineering Materials, 13: n/a. doi: 10.1002/adem.201100035, June 2011.

27-11  A. Pari, Optimization of HPDC Process using Flow Simulation Case Studies, Die Casting Engineer, July 2011

26-11    A. Reikher, H. Gerber, Calculation of the Die Cast Parameters of the Thin Wall Aluminum Die Casting Part, Die Casting Engineer, July 2011

21-11 Thang Nguyen, Vu Nguyen, Morris Murray, Gary Savage, John Carrig, Modelling Die Filling in Ultra-Thin Aluminium Castings, Materials Science Forum (Volume 690), Light Metals Technology V, pp 107-111, 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.690.107, June 2011.

19-11 Jon Spangenberg, Cem Celal Tutum, Jesper Henri Hattel, Nicolas Roussel, Metter Rica Geiker, Optimization of Casting Process Parameters for Homogeneous Aggregate Distribution in Self-Compacting Concrete: A Feasibility Study, © IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2011, New Orleans, USA

16-11  A. Starobin, C.W. Hirt, H. Lang, and M. Todte, Core Drying Simulation and Validations, AFS Proceedings 2011, © American Foundry Society, Presented at the 115th Metalcasting Congress, Schaumburg, Illinois, April 2011.

15-11  J. J. Hernández-Ortega, R. Zamora, J. López, and F. Faura, Numerical Analysis of Air Pressure Effects on the Flow Pattern during the Filling of a Vertical Die Cavity, AIP Conf. Proc., Volume 1353, pp. 1238-1243, The 14th International Esaform Conference on Material Forming: Esaform 2011; doi:10.1063/1.3589686, May 2011. Available online.

10-11 Abbas A. Khalaf and Sumanth Shankar, Favorable Environment for Nondentric Morphology in Controlled Diffusion Solidification, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-011-0641-z, © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2011, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, March 11, 2011.

08-11 Hai Peng Li, Chun Yong Liang, Li Hui Wang, Hong Shui Wang, Numerical Simulation of Casting Process for Gray Iron Butterfly Valve, Advanced Materials Research, 189-193, 260, February 2011.

04-11  C.W. Hirt, Predicting Core Shooting, Drying and Defect Development, Foundry Management & Technology, January 2011.

76-10  Zhizhong Sun, Henry Hu, Alfred Yu, Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of Squeeze Casting Magnesium Alloy AM50, Magnesium Technology 2010, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & ExhibitionFebruary 14-18, 2010, Seattle, WA.

68-10  A. Reikher, H. Gerber, K.M. Pillai, T.-C. Jen, Natural Convection—An Overlooked Phenomenon of the Solidification Process, Die Casting Engineer, January 2010

54-10    Andrea Bernardoni, Andrea Borsi, Stefano Mascetti, Alessandro Incognito and Matteo Corrado, Fonderia Leonardo aveva ragione! L’enorme cavallo dedicato a Francesco Sforza era materialmente realizzabile, A&C – Analisis e Calcolo, Giugno 2010. In  Italian.

48-10  J. J. Hernández-Ortega, R. Zamora, J. Palacios, J. López and F. Faura, An Experimental and Numerical Study of Flow Patterns and Air Entrapment Phenomena During the Filling of a Vertical Die Cavity, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., October 2010, Volume 132, Issue 5, 05101, doi:10.1115/1.4002535.

47-10  A.V. Chaikin, I.N. Volnov, and V.A. Chaikin, Development of Dispersible Mixed Inoculant Compositions Using the FLOW-3D Program, Liteinoe Proizvodstvo, October, 2010, in Russian.

42-10  H. Lakshmi, M.C. Vinay Kumar, Raghunath, P. Kumar, V. Ramanarayanan, K.S.S. Murthy, P. Dutta, Induction reheating of A356.2 aluminum alloy and thixocasting as automobile component, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China 20(20101) s961-s967.

41-10  Pamela J. Waterman, Understanding Core-Gas Defects, Desktop Engineering, October 2010. Available online at Desktop Engineering. Also published in the Foundry Trade Journal, November 2010.

39-10  Liu Zheng, Jia Yingying, Mao Pingli, Li Yang, Wang Feng, Wang Hong, Zhou Le, Visualization of Die Casting Magnesium Alloy Steering Bracket, Special Casting & Nonferrous Alloys, ISSN: 1001-2249, CN: 42-1148/TG, 2010-04. In Chinese.

37-10  Morris Murray, Lars Feldager Hansen, and Carl Reinhardt, I Have Defects – Now What, Die Casting Engineer, September 2010

36-10  Stefano Mascetti, Using Flow Analysis Software to Optimize Piston Velocity for an HPDC Process, Die Casting Engineer, September 2010. Also available in Italian: Ottimizzare la velocita del pistone in pressofusione.  A & C, Analisi e Calcolo, Anno XII, n. 42, Gennaio 2011, ISSN 1128-3874.

32-10  Guan Hai Yan, Sheng Dun Zhao, Zheng Hui Sha, Parameters Optimization of Semisolid Diecasting Process for Air-Conditioner’s Triple Valve in HPb59-1 Alloy, Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 129 – 131), Vol. Material and Manufacturing Technology, pp. 936-941, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.129-131.936, August 2010.

29-10 Zheng Peng, Xu Jun, Zhang Zhifeng, Bai Yuelong, and Shi Likai, Numerical Simulation of Filling of Rheo-diecasting A357 Aluminum Alloy, Special Casting & Nonferrous Alloys, DOI: CNKI:SUN:TZZZ.0.2010-01-024, 2010.

27-10 For an Aerospace Diecasting, Littler Uses Simulation to Reveal Defects, and Win a New Order, Foundry Management & Technology, July 2010

23-10 Michael R. Barkhudarov, Minimizing Air Entrainment, The Canadian Die Caster, June 2010

15-10 David H. Kirkwood, Michel Suery, Plato Kapranos, Helen V. Atkinson, and Kenneth P. Young, Semi-solid Processing of Alloys, 2010, XII, 172 p. 103 illus., 19 in color., Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-642-00705-7.

09-10  Shannon Wetzel, Fullfilling Da Vinci’s Dream, Modern Casting, April 2010.

08-10 B.I. Semenov, K.M. Kushtarov, Semi-solid Manufacturing of Castings, New Industrial Technologies, Publication of Moscow State Technical University n.a. N.E. Bauman, 2009 (in Russian)

07-10 Carl Reilly, Development Of Quantitative Casting Quality Assessment Criteria Using Process Modelling, thesis: The University of Birmingham, March 2010 (Available upon request)

06-10 A. Pari, Optimization of HPDC Process using Flow Simulation – Case Studies, CastExpo ’10, NADCA, Orlando, Florida, March 2010

05-10 M.C. Carter, S. Palit, and M. Littler, Characterizing Flow Losses Occurring in Air Vents and Ejector Pins in High Pressure Die Castings, CastExpo ’10, NADCA, Orlando, Florida, March 2010

04-10 Pamela Waterman, Simulating Porosity Factors, Foundry Management Technology, March 2010, Article available at Foundry Management Technology

03-10 C. Reilly, M.R. Jolly, N.R. Green, JC Gebelin, Assessment of Casting Filling by Modeling Surface Entrainment Events Using CFD, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Jim Evans Honorary Symposium), Seattle, Washington, USA, February 14-18, 2010

02-10 P. Väyrynen, S. Wang, J. Laine and S.Louhenkilpi, Control of Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Inclusions in Continuous Casting – CFD and Neural Network Studies, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Jim Evans Honorary Symposium), Seattle, Washington, USA, February 14-18, 2010

60-09   Somlak Wannarumon, and Marco Actis Grande, Comparisons of Computer Fluid Dynamic Software Programs applied to Jewelry Investment Casting Process, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 55 2009.

59-09   Marco Actis Grande and Somlak Wannarumon, Numerical Simulation of Investment Casting of Gold Jewelry: Experiments and Validations, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol:3 2009-07-24

56-09  Jozef Kasala, Ondrej Híreš, Rudolf Pernis, Start-up Phase Modeling of Semi Continuous Casting Process of Brass Billets, Metal 2009, 19.-21.5.2009

51-09  In-Ting Hong, Huan-Chien Tung, Chun-Hao Chiu and Hung-Shang Huang, Effect of Casting Parameters on Microstructure and Casting Quality of Si-Al Alloy for Vacuum Sputtering, China Steel Technical Report, No. 22, pp. 33-40, 2009.

42-09  P. Väyrynen, S. Wang, S. Louhenkilpi and L. Holappa, Modeling and Removal of Inclusions in Continuous Casting, Materials Science & Technology 2009 Conference & Exhibition, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, October 25-29, 2009

41-09 O.Smirnov, P.Väyrynen, A.Kravchenko and S.Louhenkilpi, Modern Methods of Modeling Fluid Flow and Inclusions Motion in Tundish Bath – General View, Proceedings of Steelsim 2009 – 3rd International Conference on Simulation and Modelling of Metallurgical Processes in Steelmaking, Leoben, Austria, September 8-10, 2009

21-09 A. Pari, Case Studies – Optimization of HPDC Process Using Flow Simulation, Die Casting Engineer, July 2009

20-09 M. Sirvio, M. Wos, Casting directly from a computer model by using advanced simulation software, FLOW-3D Cast, Archives of Foundry Engineering Volume 9, Issue 1/2009, 79-82

19-09 Andrei Starobin, C.W. Hirt, D. Goettsch, A Model for Binder Gas Generation and Transport in Sand Cores and Molds, Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Solidification Processes XII, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Minerals Society), June 2009

11-09 Michael Barkhudarov, Minimizing Air Entrainment in a Shot Sleeve during Slow-Shot Stage, Die Casting Engineer (The North American Die Casting Association ISSN 0012-253X), May 2009

10-09 A. Reikher, H. Gerber, Application of One-Dimensional Numerical Simulation to Optimize Process Parameters of a Thin-Wall Casting in High Pressure Die Casting, Die Casting Engineer (The North American Die Casting Association ISSN 0012-253X), May 2009

7-09 Andrei Starobin, Simulation of Core Gas Evolution and Flow, presented at the North American Die Casting Association – 113th Metalcasting Congress, April 7-10, 2009, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

6-09 A.Pari, Optimization of HPDC PROCESS: Case Studies, North American Die Casting Association – 113th Metalcasting Congress, April 7-10, 2009, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

2-09 C. Reilly, N.R. Green and M.R. Jolly, Oxide Entrainment Structures in Horizontal Running Systems, TMS 2009, San Francisco, California, February 2009

30-08 I.N.Volnov, Computer Modeling of Casting of Pipe Fittings, © 2008, Pipe Fittings, 5 (38), 2008. Russian version

28-08 A.V.Chaikin, I.N.Volnov, V.A.Chaikin, Y.A.Ukhanov, N.R.Petrov, Analysis of the Efficiency of Alloy Modifiers Using Statistics and Modeling, © 2008, Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), October, 2008

27-08 P. Scarber, Jr., H. Littleton, Simulating Macro-Porosity in Aluminum Lost Foam Castings, American Foundry Society, © 2008, AFS Lost Foam Conference, Asheville, North Carolina, October, 2008

25-08 FMT Staff, Forecasting Core Gas Pressures with Computer Simulation, Foundry Management and Technology, October 28, 2008 © 2008 Penton Media, Inc. Online article

24-08 Core and Mold Gas Evolution, Foundry Management and Technology, January 24, 2008 (excerpted from the FM&T May 2007 issue) © 2008 Penton Media, Inc.

22-08 Mark Littler, Simulation Eliminates Die Casting Scrap, Modern Casting/September 2008

21-08 X. Chen, D. Penumadu, Permeability Measurement and Numerical Modeling for Refractory Porous Materials, AFS Transactions © 2008 American Foundry Society, CastExpo ’08, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

20-08 Rolf Krack, Using Solidification Simulations for Optimising Die Cooling Systems, FTJ July/August 2008

19-08 Mark Littler, Simulation Software Eliminates Die Casting Scrap, ECS Casting Innovations, July/August 2008

13-08 T. Yoshimura, K. Yano, T. Fukui, S. Yamamoto, S. Nishido, M. Watanabe and Y. Nemoto, Optimum Design of Die Casting Plunger Tip Considering Air Entrainment, Proceedings of 10th Asian Foundry Congress (AFC10), Nagoya, Japan, May 2008

08-08 Stephen Instone, Andreas Buchholz and Gerd-Ulrich Gruen, Inclusion Transport Phenomena in Casting Furnaces, Light Metals 2008, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), 2008

07-08 P. Scarber, Jr., H. Littleton, Simulating Macro-Porosity in Aluminum Lost Foam Casting, AFS Transactions 2008 © American Foundry Society, CastExpo ’08, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

06-08 A. Reikher, H. Gerber and A. Starobin, Multi-Stage Plunger Deceleration System, CastExpo ’08, NADCA, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2008

05-08 Amol Palekar, Andrei Starobin, Alexander Reikher, Die-casting end-of-fill and drop forge viscometer flow transients examined with a coupled-motion numerical model, 68th World Foundry Congress, Chennai, India, February 2008

03-08 Petri J. Väyrynen, Sami K. Vapalahti and Seppo J. Louhenkilpi, On Validation of Mathematical Fluid Flow Models for Simulation of Tundish Water Models and Industrial Examples, AISTech 2008, May 2008

53-07   A. Kermanpur, Sh. Mahmoudi and A. Hajipour, Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Metal Flow and Solidification in the Multi-cavity Casting Moulds of Automotive Components, International Journal of Iron & Steel Society of Iran, Article 2, Volume 4, Issue 1, Summer and Autumn 2007, pages 8-15.

36-07 Duque Mesa A. F., Herrera J., Cruz L.J., Fernández G.P. y Martínez H.V., Caracterización Defectológica de Piezas Fundida por Lost Foam Casting Mediante Simulación Numérica, 8° Congreso Iberoamericano de Ingenieria Mecanica, Cusco, Peru, 23 al 25 de Octubre de 2007 (in Spanish)

27-07 A.Y. Korotchenko, A.M. Zarubin, I.A.Korotchenko, Modeling of High Pressure Die Casting Filling, Russian Foundryman, December 2007, pp 15-19. (in Russian)

26-07 I.N. Volnov, Modeling of Casting Processes with Variable Geometry, Russian Foundryman, November 2007, pp 27-30. (in Russian)

16-07 P. Väyrynen, S. Vapalahti, S. Louhenkilpi, L. Chatburn, M. Clark, T. Wagner, Tundish Flow Model Tuning and Validation – Steady State and Transient Casting Situations, STEELSIM 2007, Graz/Seggau, Austria, September 12-14 2007

11-07 Marco Actis Grande, Computer Simulation of the Investment Casting Process – Widening of the Filling Step, Santa Fe Symposium on Jewelry Manufacturing Technology, May 2007

09-07 Alexandre Reikher and Michael Barkhudarov, Casting: An Analytical Approach, Springer, 1st edition, August 2007, Hardcover ISBN: 978-1-84628-849-4. U.S. Order Form; Europe Order Form.

07-07 I.N. Volnov, Casting Modeling Systems – Current State, Problems and Perspectives, (in Russian), Liteyshik Rossii (Russian Foundryman), June 2007

05-07 A.N. Turchin, D.G. Eskin, and L. Katgerman, Solidification under Forced-Flow Conditions in a Shallow Cavity, DOI: 10.1007/s1161-007-9183-9, © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2007

04-07 A.N. Turchin, M. Zuijderwijk, J. Pool, D.G. Eskin, and L. Katgerman, Feathery grain growth during solidification under forced flow conditions, © Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2007.02.030, April 2007

03-07 S. Kuyucak, Sponsored Research – Clean Steel Casting Production—Evaluation of Laboratory Castings, Transactions of the American Foundry Society, Volume 115, 111th Metalcasting Congress, May 2007

02-07 Fu-Yuan Hsu, Mark R. Jolly and John Campbell, The Design of L-Shaped Runners for Gravity Casting, Shape Casting: 2nd International Symposium, Edited by Paul N. Crepeau, Murat Tiryakioðlu and John Campbell, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), Orlando, FL, Feb 2007

30-06 X.J. Liu, S.H. Bhavnani, R.A. Overfelt, Simulation of EPS foam decomposition in the lost foam casting process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 182 (2007) 333–342, © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

25-06 Michael Barkhudarov and Gengsheng Wei, Modeling Casting on the Move, Modern Casting, August 2006; Modeling of Casting Processes with Variable Geometry, Russian Foundryman, December 2007, pp 10-15. (in Russian)

24-06 P. Scarber, Jr. and C.E. Bates, Simulation of Core Gas Production During Mold Fill, © 2006 American Foundry Society

7-06 M.Y.Smirnov, Y.V.Golenkov, Manufacturing of Cast Iron Bath Tubs Castings using Vacuum-Process in Russia, Russia’s Foundryman, July 2006. In Russian.

6-06 M. Barkhudarov, and G. Wei, Modeling of the Coupled Motion of Rigid Bodies in Liquid Metal, Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes – XI, May 28 – June 2, 2006, Opio, France, eds. Ch.-A. Gandin and M. Bellet, pp 71-78, 2006.

2-06 J.-C. Gebelin, M.R. Jolly and F.-Y. Hsu, ‘Designing-in’ Controlled Filling Using Numerical Simulation for Gravity Sand Casting of Aluminium Alloys, Int. J. Cast Met. Res., 2006, Vol.19 No.1

1-06 Michael Barkhudarov, Using Simulation to Control Microporosity Reduces Die Iterations, Die Casting Engineer, January 2006, pp. 52-54

30-05 H. Xue, K. Kabiri-Bamoradian, R.A. Miller, Modeling Dynamic Cavity Pressure and Impact Spike in Die Casting, Cast Expo ’05, April 16-19, 2005

22-05 Blas Melissari & Stavros A. Argyropoulous, Measurement of Magnitude and Direction of Velocity in High-Temperature Liquid Metals; Part I, Mathematical Modeling, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Volume 36B, October 2005, pp. 691-700

21-05 M.R. Jolly, State of the Art Review of Use of Modeling Software for Casting, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 337-346

20-05 J-C Gebelin, M.R. Jolly & F-Y Hsu, ‘Designing-in’ Controlled Filling Using Numerical Simulation for Gravity Sand Casting of Aluminium Alloys, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 355-364

19-05 F-Y Hsu, M.R. Jolly & J Campbell, Vortex Gate Design for Gravity Castings, TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, Eds, M. Tiryakioglu & P.N Crepeau, TMS, Warrendale, PA, ISBN 0-87339-583-2, Feb 2005, pp 73-82

18-05 M.R. Jolly, Modelling the Investment Casting Process: Problems and Successes, Japanese Foundry Society, JFS, Tokyo, Sept. 2005

13-05 Xiaogang Yang, Xiaobing Huang, Xiaojun Dai, John Campbell and Joe Tatler, Numerical Modelling of the Entrainment of Oxide Film Defects in Filling of Aluminium Alloy Castings, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 17 (6), 2004, 321-331

10-05 Carlos Evaristo Esparza, Martha P. Guerro-Mata, Roger Z. Ríos-Mercado, Optimal Design of Gating Systems by Gradient Search Methods, Computational Materials Science, October 2005

6-05 Birgit Hummler-Schaufler, Fritz Hirning, Jurgen Schaufler, A World First for Hatz Diesel and Schaufler Tooling, Die Casting Engineer, May 2005, pp. 18-21

4-05 Rolf Krack, The W35 Topic—A World First, Die Casting World, March 2005, pp. 16-17

3-05 Joerg Frei, Casting Simulations Speed Up Development, Die Casting World, March 2005, p. 14

2-05 David Goettsch and Michael Barkhudarov, Analysis and Optimization of the Transient Stage of Stopper-Rod Pour, Shape Casting: The John Campbell Symposium, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2005

36-04  Ik Min Park, Il Dong Choi, Yong Ho Park, Development of Light-Weight Al Scroll Compressor for Car Air Conditioner, Materials Science Forum, Designing, Processing and Properties of Advanced Engineering Materials, 449-452, 149, March 2004.

32-04 D.H. Kirkwood and P.J Ward, Numerical Modelling of Semi-Solid Flow under Processing Conditions, steel research int. 75 (2004), No. 8/9

30-04 Haijing Mao, A Numerical Study of Externally Solidified Products in the Cold Chamber Die Casting Process, thesis: The Ohio State University, 2004 (Available upon request)

28-04 Z. Cao, Z. Yang, and X.L. Chen, Three-Dimensional Simulation of Transient GMA Weld Pool with Free Surface, Supplement to the Welding Journal, June 2004.

23-04 State of the Art Use of Computational Modelling in the Foundry Industry, 3rd International Conference Computational Modelling of Materials III, Sicily, Italy, June 2004, Advances in Science and Technology,  Eds P. Vincenzini & A Lami, Techna Group Srl, Italy, ISBN: 88-86538-46-4, Part B, pp 479-490

22-04 Jerry Fireman, Computer Simulation Helps Reduce Scrap, Die Casting Engineer, May 2004, pp. 46-49

21-04 Joerg Frei, Simulation—A Safe and Quick Way to Good Components, Aluminium World, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 42-43

20-04 J.-C. Gebelin, M.R. Jolly, A. M. Cendrowicz, J. Cirre and S. Blackburn, Simulation of Die Filling for the Wax Injection Process – Part II Numerical Simulation, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, Volume 35B, August 2004

14-04 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov, Charles H. Sherwin, and Ruel A. Overfelt, Hot Distortion Studies In Phenolic Urethane Cold Box System, American Foundry Society, 108th Casting Congress, June 12-15, 2004, Rosemont, IL, USA

13-04 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov and Ruel A. Overfelt, First V-Process Casting of Magnesium, American Foundry Society, 108th Casting Congress, June 12-15, 2004, Rosemont, IL, USA

5-04 C. Schlumpberger & B. Hummler-Schaufler, Produktentwicklung auf hohem Niveau (Product Development on a High Level), Druckguss Praxis, January 2004, pp 39-42 (in German).

3-04 Charles Bates, Dealing with Defects, Foundry Management and Technology, February 2004, pp 23-25

1-04 Laihua Wang, Thang Nguyen, Gary Savage and Cameron Davidson, Thermal and Flow Modeling of Ladling and Injection in High Pressure Die Casting Process, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, vol. 16 No 4 2003, pp 409-417

2-03 J-C Gebelin, AM Cendrowicz, MR Jolly, Modeling of the Wax Injection Process for the Investment Casting Process – Prediction of Defects, presented at the Third International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Minerals and Process Industries, December 10-12, 2003, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 415-420

29-03 C. W. Hirt, Modeling Shrinkage Induced Micro-porosity, Flow Science Technical Note (FSI-03-TN66)

28-03 Thixoforming at the University of Sheffield, Diecasting World, September 2003, pp 11-12

26-03 William Walkington, Gas Porosity-A Guide to Correcting the Problems, NADCA Publication: 516

22-03 G F Yao, C W Hirt, and M Barkhudarov, Development of a Numerical Approach for Simulation of Sand Blowing and Core Formation, in Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Process-X”, Ed. By Stefanescu et al pp. 633-639, 2003

21-03 E F Brush Jr, S P Midson, W G Walkington, D T Peters, J G Cowie, Porosity Control in Copper Rotor Die Castings, NADCA Indianapolis Convention Center, Indianapolis, IN September 15-18, 2003, T03-046

12-03 J-C Gebelin & M.R. Jolly, Modeling Filters in Light Alloy Casting Processes,  Trans AFS, 2002, 110, pp. 109-120

11-03 M.R. Jolly, Casting Simulation – How Well Do Reality and Virtual Casting Match – A State of the Art Review, Intl. J. Cast Metals Research, 2002, 14, pp. 303-313

10-03 Gebelin., J-C and Jolly, M.R., Modeling of the Investment Casting Process, Journal of  Materials Processing Tech., Vol. 135/2-3, pp. 291 – 300

9-03 Cox, M, Harding, R.A. and Campbell, J., Optimised Running System Design for Bottom Filled Aluminium Alloy 2L99 Investment Castings, J. Mat. Sci. Tech., May 2003, Vol. 19, pp. 613-625

8-03 Von Alexander Schrey and Regina Reek, Numerische Simulation der Kernherstellung, (Numerical Simulation of Core Blowing), Giesserei, June 2003, pp. 64-68 (in German)

7-03 J. Zuidema Jr., L Katgerman, Cyclone separation of particles in aluminum DC Casting, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 607-614

6-03 Jean-Christophe Gebelin and Mark Jolly, Numerical Modeling of Metal Flow Through Filters, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 431-438

5-03 N.W. Lai, W.D. Griffiths and J. Campbell, Modelling of the Potential for Oxide Film Entrainment in Light Metal Alloy Castings, Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Destin, FL, May 2003, pp. 415-422

21-02 Boris Lukezic, Case History: Process Modeling Solves Die Design Problems, Modern Casting, February 2003, P 59

20-02 C.W. Hirt and M.R. Barkhudarov, Predicting Defects in Lost Foam Castings, Modern Casting, December 2002, pp 31-33

19-02 Mark Jolly, Mike Cox, Ric Harding, Bill Griffiths and John Campbell, Quiescent Filling Applied to Investment Castings, Modern Casting, December 2002 pp. 36-38

18-02 Simulation Helps Overcome Challenges of Thin Wall Magnesium Diecasting, Foundry Management and Technology, October 2002, pp 13-15

17-02 G Messmer, Simulation of a Thixoforging Process of Aluminum Alloys with FLOW-3D, Institute for Metal Forming Technology, University of Stuttgart

16-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Computer Simulation of Lost Foam Process, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 319-324

15-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Computer Simulation of Inclusion Tracking, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 341-346

14-02 Barkhudarov, Michael, Advanced Simulation of the Flow and Heat Transfer of an Alternator Housing, Casting Simulation Background and Examples from Europe and the USA, World Foundrymen Organization, 2002, pp 219-228

8-02 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov, and Ruel A. Overfelt, Experimental and Numerical Study of Bonded Sand-Air Two-Phase Flow in PUA Process, Auburn University, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-091, Kansas City, MO

7-02 A Habibollah Zadeh, and J Campbell, Metal Flow Through a Filter System, University of Birmingham, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-020, Kansas City, MO

6-02 Phil Ward, and Helen Atkinson, Final Report for EPSRC Project: Modeling of Thixotropic Flow of Metal Alloys into a Die, GR/M17334/01, March 2002, University of Sheffield

5-02 S. I. Bakhtiyarov and R. A. Overfelt, Numerical and Experimental Study of Aluminum Casting in Vacuum-sealed Step Molding, Auburn University, 2002 American Foundry Society, AFS Transactions 02-050, Kansas City, MO

4-02 J. C. Gebelin and M. R. Jolly, Modelling Filters in Light Alloy Casting Processes, University of Birmingham, 2002 American Foundry Society AFS Transactions 02-079, Kansas City, MO

3-02 Mark Jolly, Mike Cox, Jean-Christophe Gebelin, Sam Jones, and Alex Cendrowicz, Fundamentals of Investment Casting (FOCAST), Modelling the Investment Casting Process, Some preliminary results from the UK Research Programme, IRC in Materials, University of Birmingham, UK, AFS2001

49-01   Hua Bai and Brian G. Thomas, Bubble formation during horizontal gas injection into downward-flowing liquid, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 1143-1159, 2001. doi.org/10.1007/s11663-001-0102-y

45-01 Jan Zuidema; Laurens Katgerman; Ivo J. Opstelten;Jan M. Rabenberg, Secondary Cooling in DC Casting: Modelling and Experimental Results, TMS 2001, New Orleans, Louisianna, February 11-15, 2001

43-01 James Andrew Yurko, Fluid Flow Behavior of Semi-Solid Aluminum at High Shear Rates,Ph.D. thesis; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2001. Abstract only; full thesis available at http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/8451 (for a fee).

33-01 Juang, S.H., CAE Application on Design of Die Casting Dies, 2001 Conference on CAE Technology and Application, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan, November 2001, (article in Chinese with English-language abstract)

32-01 Juang, S.H. and C. M. Wang, Effect of Feeding Geometry on Flow Characteristics of Magnesium Die Casting by Numerical Analysis, The Preceedings of 6th FADMA Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, July 2001, Chinese language with English abstract

26-01 C. W. Hirt., Predicting Defects in Lost Foam Castings, December 13, 2001

21-01 P. Scarber Jr., Using Liquid Free Surface Areas as a Predictor of Reoxidation Tendency in Metal Alloy Castings, presented at the Steel Founders’ Society of American, Technical and Operating Conference, October 2001

20-01 P. Scarber Jr., J. Griffin, and C. E. Bates, The Effect of Gating and Pouring Practice on Reoxidation of Steel Castings, presented at the Steel Founders’ Society of American, Technical and Operating Conference, October 2001

19-01 L. Wang, T. Nguyen, M. Murray, Simulation of Flow Pattern and Temperature Profile in the Shot Sleeve of a High Pressure Die Casting Process, CSIRO Manufacturing Science and Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Presented by North American Die Casting Association, Oct 29-Nov 1, 2001, Cincinnati, To1-014

18-01 Rajiv Shivpuri, Venkatesh Sankararaman, Kaustubh Kulkarni, An Approach at Optimizing the Ingate Design for Reducing Filling and Shrinkage Defects, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, Presented by North American Die Casting Association, Oct 29-Nov 1, 2001, Cincinnati, TO1-052

5-01 Michael Barkhudarov, Simulation Helps Overcome Challenges of Thin Wall Magnesium Diecasting, Diecasting World, March 2001, pp. 5-6

2-01 J. Grindling, Customized CFD Codes to Simulate Casting of Thermosets in Full 3D, Electrical Manufacturing and Coil Winding 2000 Conference, October 31-November 2, 20

20-00 Richard Schuhmann, John Carrig, Thang Nguyen, Arne Dahle, Comparison of Water Analogue Modelling and Numerical Simulation Using Real-Time X-Ray Flow Data in Gravity Die Casting, Australian Die Casting Association Die Casting 2000 Conference, September 3-6, 2000, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

15-00 M. Sirvio, Vainola, J. Vartianinen, M. Vuorinen, J. Orkas, and S. Devenyi, Fluid Flow Analysis for Designing Gating of Aluminum Castings, Proc. NADCA Conf., Rosemont, IL, Nov 6-8, 1999

14-00 X. Yang, M. Jolly, and J. Campbell, Reduction of Surface Turbulence during Filling of Sand Castings Using a Vortex-flow Runner, Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August 2000

13-00 H. S. H. Lo and J. Campbell, The Modeling of Ceramic Foam Filters, Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August 2000

12-00 M. R. Jolly, H. S. H. Lo, M. Turan and J. Campbell, Use of Simulation Tools in the Practical Development of a Method for Manufacture of Cast Iron Camshafts,” Conference for Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes IX, Aachen, Germany, August, 2000

14-99 J Koke, and M Modigell, Time-Dependent Rheological Properties of Semi-solid Metal Alloys, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Aachen University of Technology, Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials 3: 15-30, 1999

12-99 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, Schneider, Wolfgang, Ray, Steven, Marthinusen, Jan-Olaf, Recent Improvements in Ceramic Foam Filter Design by Coupled Heat and Fluid Flow Modeling, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1999, pp. 1041-1047

10-99 Bongcheol Park and Jerald R. Brevick, Computer Flow Modeling of Cavity Pre-fill Effects in High Pressure Die Casting, NADCA Proceedings, Cleveland T99-011, November, 1999

8-99 Brad Guthrie, Simulation Reduces Aluminum Die Casting Cost by Reducing Volume, Die Casting Engineer Magazine, September/October 1999, pp. 78-81

7-99 Fred L. Church, Virtual Reality Predicts Cast Metal Flow, Modern Metals, September, 1999, pp. 67F-J

19-98 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, & Schneider, Wolfgang, Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow Phenomena in the Launder-integrated Tool Within Casting Unit Development, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1998, pp. 1175-1182

18-98 X. Yang & J. Campbell, Liquid Metal Flow in a Pouring Basin, Int. J. Cast Metals Res, 1998, 10, pp. 239-253

15-98 R. Van Tol, Mould Filling of Horizontal Thin-Wall Castings, Delft University Press, The Netherlands, 1998

14-98 J. Daughtery and K. A. Williams, Thermal Modeling of Mold Material Candidates for Copper Pressure Die Casting of the Induction Motor Rotor Structure, Proc. Int’l Workshop on Permanent Mold Casting of Copper-Based Alloys, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Oct. 15-16, 1998

10-98 C. W. Hirt, and M.R. Barkhudarov, Lost Foam Casting Simulation with Defect Prediction, Flow Science Inc, presented at Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes VIII Conference, June 7-12, 1998, Catamaran Hotel, San Diego, California

9-98 M. R. Barkhudarov and C. W. Hirt, Tracking Defects, Flow Science Inc, presented at the 1st International Aluminum Casting Technology Symposium, 12-14 October 1998, Rosemont, IL

5-98 J. Righi, Computer Simulation Helps Eliminate Porosity, Die Casting Management Magazine, pp. 36-38, January 1998

3-98 P. Kapranos, M. R. Barkhudarov, D. H. Kirkwood, Modeling of Structural Breakdown during Rapid Compression of Semi-Solid Alloy Slugs, Dept. Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, U.K. and Flow Science Inc, USA, Presented at the 5th International Conference Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, 23-25 June 1998

1-98 U. Jerichow, T. Altan, and P. R. Sahm, Semi Solid Metal Forming of Aluminum Alloys-The Effect of Process Variables Upon Material Flow, Cavity Fill and Mechanical Properties, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, published in Die Casting Engineer, p. 26, Jan/Feb 1998

8-97 Michael Barkhudarov, High Pressure Die Casting Simulation Using FLOW-3D, Die Casting Engineer, 1997

15-97 M. R. Barkhudarov, Advanced Simulation of the Flow and Heat Transfer Process in Simultaneous Engineering, Flow Science report, presented at the Casting 1997 – International ADI and Simulation Conference, Helsinki, Finland, May 28-30, 1997

14-97 M. Ranganathan and R. Shivpuri, Reducing Scrap and Increasing Die Life in Low Pressure Die Casting through Flow Simulation and Accelerated Testing, Dept. Welding and Systems Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, presented at 19th International Die Casting Congress & Exposition, November 3-6, 1997

13-97 J. Koke, Modellierung und Simulation der Fließeigenschaften teilerstarrter Metallegierungen, Livt Information, Institut für Verfahrenstechnik, RWTH Aachen, October 1997

10-97 J. P. Greene and J. O. Wilkes, Numerical Analysis of Injection Molding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics – Part 2 Fiber Orientation, Body-in-White Center, General Motors Corp. and Dept. Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 37, No. 6, June 1997

9-97 J. P. Greene and J. O. Wilkes, Numerical Analysis of Injection Molding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics. Part 1 – Injection Pressures and Flow, Manufacturing Center, General Motors Corp. and Dept. Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 37, No. 3, March 1997

8-97 H. Grazzini and D. Nesa, Thermophysical Properties, Casting Simulation and Experiments for a Stainless Steel, AT Systemes (Renault) report, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

7-97 R. Van Tol, L. Katgerman and H. E. A. Van den Akker, Horizontal Mould Filling of a Thin Wall Aluminum Casting, Laboratory of Materials report, Delft University, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

6-97 M. R. Barkhudarov, Is Fluid Flow Important for Predicting Solidification, Flow Science report, presented at the Solidification Processing ’97 Conference, July 7-10, 1997, Sheffield, U.K.

22-96 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich & Schneider, Wolfgang, 3-D Modeling of the Start-up Phase of DC Casting of Sheet Ingots, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1996, pp. 971-981

9-96 M. R. Barkhudarov and C. W. Hirt, Thixotropic Flow Effects under Conditions of Strong Shear, Flow Science report FSI96-00-2, to be presented at the “Materials Week ’96” TMS Conference, Cincinnati, OH, 7-10 October 1996

4-96 C. W. Hirt, A Computational Model for the Lost Foam Process, Flow Science final report, February 1996 (FSI-96-57-R2)

3-96 M. R. Barkhudarov, C. L. Bronisz, C. W. Hirt, Three-Dimensional Thixotropic Flow Model, Flow Science report, FSI-96-00-1, published in the proceedings of (pp. 110- 114) and presented at the 4th International Conference on Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites, The University of Sheffield, 19-21 June 1996

1-96 M. R. Barkhudarov, J. Beech, K. Chang, and S. B. Chin, Numerical Simulation of Metal/Mould Interfacial Heat Transfer in Casting, Dept. Mech. & Process Engineering, Dept. Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield and Flow Science Inc, 9th Int. Symposium on Transport Phenomena in Thermal-Fluid Engineering, June 25-28, 1996, Singapore

11-95 Barkhudarov, M. R., Hirt, C.W., Casting Simulation Mold Filling and Solidification-Benchmark Calculations Using FLOW-3D, Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes VII, pp 935-946

10-95 Grun, Gerd-Ulrich, & Schneider, Wolfgang, Optimal Design of a Distribution Pan for Level Pour Casting, Proc TMS Annual Meeting, 1995, pp. 1061-1070

9-95 E. Masuda, I. Itoh, K. Haraguchi, Application of Mold Filling Simulation to Die Casting Processes, Honda Engineering Co., Ltd., Tochigi, Japan, presented at the Modelling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes VII, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 1995

6-95 K. Venkatesan, Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Process Parameters on the Erosive Wear of Die Casting Dies, presented for Ph.D. degree at Ohio State University, 1995

5-95 J. Righi, A. F. LaCamera, S. A. Jones, W. G. Truckner, T. N. Rouns, Integration of Experience and Simulation Based Understanding in the Die Design Process, Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA 15069, presented by the North American Die Casting Association, 1995

2-95 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Simulation and Comparison with Water Modeling Studies of the Inertia Dominated Cavity Filling in Die Casting, NUMIFORM, 1995

1-95 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Gate Velocity and Gate Size on the Quality of Die Casting Parts, NAMRC, 1995.

15-94 D. Liang, Y. Bayraktar, S. A. Moir, M. Barkhudarov, and H. Jones, Primary Silicon Segregation During Isothermal Holding of Hypereutectic AI-18.3%Si Alloy in the Freezing Range, Dept. of Engr. Materials, U. of Sheffield, Metals and Materials, February 1994

13-94 Deniece Korzekwa and Paul Dunn, A Combined Experimental and Modeling Approach to Uranium Casting, Materials Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, presented at the Symposium on Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, El Dorado Hotel, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1994

12-94 R. van Tol, H. E. A. van den Akker and L. Katgerman, CFD Study of the Mould Filling of a Horizontal Thin Wall Aluminum Casting, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, HTD-Vol. 284/AMD-Vol. 182, Transport Phenomena in Solidification, ASME 1994

11-94 M. R. Barkhudarov and K. A. Williams, Simulation of ‘Surface Turbulence’ Fluid Phenomena During the Mold Filling Phase of Gravity Castings, Flow Science Technical Note #41, November 1994 (FSI-94-TN41)

10-94 M. R. Barkhudarov and S. B. Chin, Stability of a Numerical Algorithm for Gas Bubble Modelling, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K., International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 19, 415-437 (1994)

16-93 K. Venkatesan and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Simulation of Die Cavity Filling in Die Castings and an Evaluation of Process Parameters on Die Wear, Dept. of Industrial Systems Engineering, Presented by: N.A. Die Casting Association, Cleveland, Ohio, October 18-21, 1993

15-93 K. Venkatesen and R. Shivpuri, Numerical Modeling of Filling and Solidification for Improved Quality of Die Casting: A Literature Survey (Chapters II and III), Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, Report C-93-07, August 1993, Ohio State University

1-93 P-E Persson, Computer Simulation of the Solidification of a Hub Carrier for the Volvo 800 Series, AB Volvo Technological Development, Metals Laboratory, Technical Report No. LM 500014E, Jan. 1993

13-92 D. R. Korzekwa, M. A. K. Lewis, Experimentation and Simulation of Gravity Fed Lead Castings, in proceedings of a TMS Symposium on Concurrent Engineering Approach to Materials Processing, S. N. Dwivedi, A. J. Paul and F. R. Dax, eds., TMS-AIME Warrendale, p. 155 (1992)

12-92 M. A. K. Lewis, Near-Net-Shaiconpe Casting Simulation and Experimentation, MST 1992 Review, Los Alamos National Laboratory

2-92 M. R. Barkhudarov, H. You, J. Beech, S. B. Chin, D. H. Kirkwood, Validation and Development of FLOW-3D for Casting, School of Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, presented at the TMS/AIME Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 3, 1992

1-92 D. R. Korzekwa and L. A. Jacobson, Los Alamos National Laboratory and C.W. Hirt, Flow Science Inc, Modeling Planar Flow Casting with FLOW-3D, presented at the TMS/AIME Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 3, 1992

12-91 R. Shivpuri, M. Kuthirakulathu, and M. Mittal, Nonisothermal 3-D Finite Difference Simulation of Cavity Filling during the Die Casting Process, Dept. Industrial and Systems Engineering, Ohio State University, presented at the 1991 Winter Annual ASME Meeting, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1-6, 1991

3-91 C. W. Hirt, FLOW-3D Study of the Importance of Fluid Momentum in Mold Filling, presented at the 18th Annual Automotive Materials Symposium, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI, May 1-2, 1991 (FSI-91-00-2)

11-90 N. Saluja, O.J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, On the Calculation of the Electromagnetic Force Field in the Circular Stirring of Metallic Melts, accepted in J. Appl. Physics, 1990

10-90 N. Saluja, O. J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, On the Calculation of the Electromagnetic Force Field in the Circular Stirring of Metallic Molds in Continuous Castings, presented at the 6th Iron and Steel Congress of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Nagoya, Japan, October 1990

9-90 N. Saluja, O. J. Ilegbusi, and J. Szekely, Fluid Flow in Phenomena in the Electromagnetic Stirring of Continuous Casting Systems, Part I. The Behavior of a Cylindrically Shaped, Laboratory Scale Installation, accepted for publication in Steel Research, 1990

8-89 C. W. Hirt, Gravity-Fed Casting, Flow Science Technical Note #20, July 1989 (FSI-89-TN20)

6-89 E. W. M. Hansen and F. Syvertsen, Numerical Simulation of Flow Behaviour in Moldfilling for Casting Analysis, SINTEF-Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway, Report No. STS20 A89001, June 1989

1-88 C. W. Hirt and R. P. Harper, Modeling Tests for Casting Processes, Flow Science report, Jan. 1988 (FSI-88-38-01)

2-87 C. W. Hirt, Addition of a Solidification/Melting Model to FLOW-3D, Flow Science report, April 1987 (FSI-87-33-1)