Coupled CFD-DEM simulation of interfacial fluid–particle interaction during binder jet 3D printing

Coupled CFD-DEM simulation of interfacial fluid–particle interaction during binder jet 3D printing

바인더 제트 3D 프린팅 중 계면 유체-입자 상호 작용에 대한 CFD-DEM 결합 시뮬레이션

Joshua J. Wagner, C. Fred Higgs III

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2024.116747

Abstract

The coupled dynamics of interfacial fluid phases and unconstrained solid particles during the binder jet 3D printing process govern the final quality and performance of the resulting components. The present work proposes a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) framework capable of simulating the complex interfacial fluid–particle interaction that occurs when binder microdroplets are deposited into a powder bed. The CFD solver uses a volume-of-fluid (VOF) method for capturing liquid–gas multifluid flows and relies on block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to localize grid refinement around evolving fluid–fluid interfaces. The DEM module resolves six degrees of freedom particle motion and accounts for particle contact, cohesion, and rolling resistance. Fully-resolved CFD-DEM coupling is achieved through a fictitious domain immersed boundary (IB) approach. An improved method for enforcing three-phase contact lines with a VOF-IB extension technique is introduced. We present several simulations of binder jet primitive formation using realistic process parameters and material properties. The DEM particle systems are experimentally calibrated to reproduce the cohesion behavior of physical nickel alloy powder feedstocks. We demonstrate the proposed model’s ability to resolve the interdependent fluid and particle dynamics underlying the process by directly comparing simulated primitive granules with one-to-one experimental counterparts obtained from an in-house validation apparatus. This computational framework provides unprecedented insight into the fundamental mechanisms of binder jet 3D printing and presents a versatile new approach for process parameter optimization and defect mitigation that avoids the inherent challenges of experiments.

바인더 젯 3D 프린팅 공정 중 계면 유체 상과 구속되지 않은 고체 입자의 결합 역학이 결과 구성 요소의 최종 품질과 성능을 좌우합니다. 본 연구는 바인더 미세액적이 분말층에 증착될 때 발생하는 복잡한 계면 유체-입자 상호작용을 시뮬레이션할 수 있는 전산유체역학(CFD) 및 이산요소법(DEM) 프레임워크를 제안합니다.

CFD 솔버는 액체-가스 다중유체 흐름을 포착하기 위해 VOF(유체량) 방법을 사용하고 블록 구조 적응형 메쉬 세분화(AMR)를 사용하여 진화하는 유체-유체 인터페이스 주위의 그리드 세분화를 국지화합니다. DEM 모듈은 6개의 자유도 입자 운동을 해결하고 입자 접촉, 응집력 및 구름 저항을 설명합니다.

완전 분해된 CFD-DEM 결합은 가상 도메인 침지 경계(IB) 접근 방식을 통해 달성됩니다. VOF-IB 확장 기술을 사용하여 3상 접촉 라인을 강화하는 향상된 방법이 도입되었습니다. 현실적인 공정 매개변수와 재료 특성을 사용하여 바인더 제트 기본 형성에 대한 여러 시뮬레이션을 제시합니다.

DEM 입자 시스템은 물리적 니켈 합금 분말 공급원료의 응집 거동을 재현하기 위해 실험적으로 보정되었습니다. 우리는 시뮬레이션된 기본 과립과 내부 검증 장치에서 얻은 일대일 실험 대응물을 직접 비교하여 프로세스의 기본이 되는 상호 의존적인 유체 및 입자 역학을 해결하는 제안된 모델의 능력을 보여줍니다.

이 계산 프레임워크는 바인더 제트 3D 프린팅의 기본 메커니즘에 대한 전례 없는 통찰력을 제공하고 실험에 내재된 문제를 피하는 공정 매개변수 최적화 및 결함 완화를 위한 다용도의 새로운 접근 방식을 제시합니다.

Introduction

Binder jet 3D printing (BJ3DP) is a powder bed additive manufacturing (AM) technology capable of fabricating geometrically complex components from advanced engineering materials, such as metallic superalloys and ultra-high temperature ceramics [1], [2]. As illustrated in Fig. 1(a), the process is comprised of many repetitive print cycles, each contributing a new cross-sectional layer on top of a preceding one to form a 3D CAD-specified geometry. The feedstock material is first delivered from a hopper to a build plate and then spread into a thin layer by a counter-rotating roller. After powder spreading, a print head containing many individual inkjet nozzles traverses over the powder bed while precisely jetting binder microdroplets onto select regions of the spread layer. Following binder deposition, the build plate lowers by a specified layer thickness, leaving a thin void space at the top of the job box that the subsequent powder layer will occupy. This cycle repeats until the full geometries are formed layer by layer. Powder bed fusion (PBF) methods follow a similar procedure, except they instead use a laser or electron beam to selectively melt and fuse the powder material. Compared to PBF, binder jetting offers several distinct advantages, including faster build rates, enhanced scalability for large production volumes, reduced machine and operational costs, and a wider selection of suitable feedstock materials [2]. However, binder jetted parts generally possess inferior mechanical properties and reduced dimensional accuracy [3]. As a result, widescale adoption of BJ3DP to fabricate high-performance, mission-critical components, such as those common to the aerospace and defense sectors, is contingent on novel process improvements and innovations [4].

A major obstacle hindering the advancement of BJ3DP is our limited understanding of how various printing parameters and material properties collectively influence the underlying physical mechanisms of the process and their effect on the resulting components. To date, the vast majority of research efforts to uncover these relationships have relied mainly on experimental approaches [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], which are often expensive and time-consuming and have inherent physical restrictions on what can be measured and observed. For these reasons, there is a rapidly growing interest in using computational models to circumvent the challenges of experimental investigations and facilitate a deeper understanding of the process’s fundamental phenomena. While significant progress has been made in developing and deploying numerical frameworks aimed at powder spreading [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27] and sintering [28], [29], [30], [31], [32], simulating the interfacial fluid–particle interaction (IFPI) in the binder deposition stage is still in its infancy. In their exhaustive review, Mostafaei et al. [2] point out the lack of computational models capable of resolving the coupled fluid and particle dynamics associated with binder jetting and suggest that the development of such tools is critical to further improving the process and enhancing the quality of its end-use components.

We define IFPI as a multiphase flow regime characterized by immiscible fluid phases separated by dynamic interfaces that intersect the surfaces of moving solid particles. As illustrated in Fig. 1(b), an elaborate IFPI occurs when a binder droplet impacts the powder bed in BJ3DP. The momentum transferred from the impacting droplet may cause powder compaction, cratering, and particle ejection. These ballistic disturbances can have deleterious effects on surface texture and lead to the formation of large void spaces inside the part [5], [13]. After impact, the droplet spreads laterally on the bed surface and vertically into the pore network, driven initially by inertial impact forces and then solely by capillary action [33]. Attractive capillary forces exerted on mutually wetted particles tend to draw them inward towards each other, forming a packed cluster of bound particles referred to as a primitive [34]. A single-drop primitive is the most fundamental building element of a BJ3DP part, and the interaction leading to its formation has important implications on the final part characteristics, such as its mechanical properties, resolution, and dimensional accuracy. Generally, binder droplets are deposited successively as the print head traverses over the powder bed. The traversal speed and jetting frequency are set such that consecutive droplets coalesce in the bed, creating a multi-drop primitive line instead of a single-drop primitive granule. The binder must be jetted with sufficient velocity to penetrate the powder bed deep enough to provide adequate interlayer binding; however, a higher impact velocity leads to more pronounced ballistic effects.

A computational framework equipped to simulate the interdependent fluid and particle dynamics in BJ3DP would allow for unprecedented observational and measurement capability at temporal and spatial resolutions not currently achievable by state-of-the-art imaging technology, namely synchrotron X-ray imaging [13], [14], [18], [19]. Unfortunately, BJ3DP presents significant numerical challenges that have slowed the development of suitable modeling frameworks; the most significant of which are as follows:

  • 1.Incorporating dynamic fluid–fluid interfaces with complex topological features remains a nontrivial task for standard mesh-based CFD codes. There are two broad categories encompassing the methods used to handle interfacial flows: interface tracking and interface capturing [35]. Interface capturing techniques, such as the popular volume-of-fluid (VOF) [36] and level-set methods [37], [38], are better suited for problems with interfaces that become heavily distorted or when coalescence and fragmentation occur frequently; however, they are less accurate in resolving surface tension and boundary layer effects compared to interface tracking methods like front-tracking [39], arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian [40], and space–time finite element formulations [41]. Since interfacial forces become increasingly dominant at decreasing length scales, inaccurate surface tension calculations can significantly deteriorate the fidelity of IFPI simulations involving <100 μm droplets and particles.
  • 2.Dynamic powder systems are often modeled using the discrete element method (DEM) introduced by Cundall and Strack [42]. For IFPI problems, a CFD-DEM coupling scheme is required to exchange information between the fluid and particle solvers. Fully-resolved CFD-DEM coupling suggests that the flow field around individual particle surfaces is resolved on the CFD mesh [43], [44]. In contrast, unresolved coupling volume averages the effect of the dispersed solid phase on the continuous fluid phases [45], [46], [47], [48]. Comparatively, the former is computationally expensive but provides detailed information about the IFPI in question and is more appropriate when contact line dynamics are significant. However, since the pore structure of a powder bed is convoluted and evolves with time, resolving such solid–fluid interfaces on a computational mesh presents similar challenges as fluid–fluid interfaces discussed in the previous point. Although various algorithms have been developed to deform unstructured meshes to accommodate moving solid surfaces (see Bazilevs et al. [49] for an overview of such methods), they can be prohibitively expensive when frequent topology changes require mesh regeneration rather than just modification through nodal displacement. The pore network in a powder bed undergoes many topology changes as particles come in and out of contact with each other, constantly closing and opening new flow channels. Non-body-conforming structured grid approaches that rely on immersed boundary (IB) methods to embed the particles in the flow field can be better suited for such cases [50]. Nevertheless, accurately representing these complex pore geometries on Cartesian grids requires extremely high mesh resolutions, which can impose significant computational costs.
  • 3.Capillary effects depend on the contact angle at solid–liquid–gas intersections. Since mesh nodes do not coincide with a particle surface when using an IB method on structured grids, imposing contact angle boundary conditions at three-phase contact lines is not straightforward.

While these issues also pertain to PBF process modeling, resolving particle motion is generally less crucial for analyzing melt pool dynamics compared to primitive formation in BJ3DP. Therefore, at present, the vast majority of computational process models of PBF assume static powder beds and avoid many of the complications described above, see, e.g., [51], [52], [53], [54], [55], [56], [57], [58], [59]. Li et al. [60] presented the first 2D fully-resolved CFD-DEM simulations of the interaction between the melt pool, powder particles, surrounding gas, and metal vapor in PBF. Following this work, Yu and Zhao [61], [62] published similar melt pool IFPI simulations in 3D; however, contact line dynamics and capillary forces were not considered. Compared to PBF, relatively little work has been published regarding the computational modeling of binder deposition in BJ3DP. Employing the open-source VOF code Gerris [63], Tan [33] first simulated droplet impact on a powder bed with appropriate binder jet parameters, namely droplet size and impact velocity. However, similar to most PBF melt pool simulations described in the current literature, the powder bed was fixed in place and not allowed to respond to the interacting fluid phases. Furthermore, a simple face-centered cubic packing of non-contacting, monosized particles was considered, which does not provide a realistic pore structure for AM powder beds. Building upon this approach, we presented a framework to simulate droplet impact on static powder beds with more practical particle size distributions and packing arrangements [64]. In a study similar to [33], [64], Deng et al. [65] used the VOF capability in Ansys Fluent to examine the lateral and vertical spreading of a binder droplet impacting a fixed bimodal powder bed with body-centered packing. Li et al. [66] also adopted Fluent to conduct 2D simulations of a 100 μm diameter droplet impacting substrates with spherical roughness patterns meant to represent the surface of a simplified powder bed with monosized particles. The commercial VOF-based software FLOW-3D offers an AM module centered on process modeling of various AM technologies, including BJ3DP. However, like the above studies, particle motion is still not considered in this codebase. Ur Rehman et al. [67] employed FLOW-3D to examine microdroplet impact on a fixed stainless steel powder bed. Using OpenFOAM, Erhard et al. [68] presented simulations of different droplet impact spacings and patterns on static sand particles.

Recently, Fuchs et al. [69] introduced an impressive multipurpose smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) framework capable of resolving IFPI in various AM methods, including both PBF and BJ3DP. In contrast to a combined CFD-DEM approach, this model relies entirely on SPH meshfree discretization of both the fluid and solid governing equations. The authors performed several prototype simulations demonstrating an 80 μm diameter droplet impacting an unconstrained powder bed at different speeds. While the powder bed responds to the hydrodynamic forces imparted by the impacting droplet, the particle motion is inconsistent with experimental time-resolved observations of the process [13]. Specifically, the ballistic effects, such as particle ejection and bed deformation, were drastically subdued, even in simulations using a droplet velocity ∼ 5× that of typical jetting conditions. This behavior could be caused by excessive damping in the inter-particle contact force computations within their SPH framework. Moreover, the wetted particles did not appear to be significantly influenced by the strong capillary forces exerted by the binder as no primitive agglomeration occurred. The authors mention that the objective of these simulations was to demonstrate their codebase’s broad capabilities and that some unrealistic process parameters were used to improve computational efficiency and stability, which could explain the deviations from experimental observations.

In the present paper, we develop a novel 3D CFD-DEM numerical framework for simulating fully-resolved IFPI during binder jetting with realistic material properties and process parameters. The CFD module is based on the VOF method for capturing binder–air interfaces. Surface tension effects are realized through the continuum surface force (CSF) method with height function calculations of interface curvature. Central to our fluid solver is a proprietary block-structured AMR library with hierarchical octree grid nesting to focus enhanced grid resolution near fluid–fluid interfaces. The GPU-accelerated DEM module considers six degrees of freedom particle motion and includes models based on Hertz-Mindlin contact, van der Waals cohesion, and viscoelastic rolling resistance. The CFD and DEM modules are coupled to achieve fully-resolved IFPI using an IB approach in which Lagrangian solid particles are mapped to the underlying Eulerian fluid mesh through a solid volume fraction field. An improved VOF-IB extension algorithm is introduced to enforce the contact angle at three-phase intersections. This provides robust capillary flow behavior and accurate computations of the fluid-induced forces and torques acting on individual wetted particles in densely packed powder beds.

We deploy our integrated codebase for direct numerical simulations of single-drop primitive formation with powder beds whose particle size distributions are generated from corresponding laboratory samples. These simulations use jetting parameters similar to those employed in current BJ3DP machines, fluid properties that match commonly used aqueous polymeric binders, and powder properties specific to nickel alloy feedstocks. The cohesion behavior of the DEM powder is calibrated based on the angle of repose of the laboratory powder systems. The resulting primitive granules are compared with those obtained from one-to-one experiments conducted using a dedicated in-house test apparatus. Finally, we demonstrate how the proposed framework can simulate more complex and realistic printing operations involving multi-drop primitive lines.

Section snippets

Mathematical description of interfacial fluid–particle interaction

This section briefly describes the governing equations of fluid and particle dynamics underlying the CFD and DEM solvers. Our unified framework follows an Eulerian–Lagrangian approach, wherein the Navier–Stokes equations of incompressible flow are discretized on an Eulerian grid to describe the motion of the binder liquid and surrounding gas, and the Newton–Euler equations account for the positions and orientations of the Lagrangian powder particles. The mathematical foundation for

CFD solver for incompressible flow with multifluid interfaces

This section details the numerical methodology used in our CFD module to solve the Navier–Stokes equations of incompressible flow. First, we introduce the VOF method for capturing the interfaces between the binder and air phases. This approach allows us to solve the fluid dynamics equations considering only a single continuum field with spatial and temporal variations in fluid properties. Next, we describe the time integration procedure using a fractional-step projection algorithm for

DEM solver for solid particle dynamics

This section covers the numerical procedure for tracking the motion of individual powder particles with DEM. The Newton–Euler equations (Eqs. (10), (11)) are ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for which many established numerical integrators are available. In general, the most challenging aspects of DEM involve processing particle collisions in a computationally efficient manner and dealing with small time step constraints that result from stiff materials, such as metallic AM powders. The

Unified CFD-DEM solver

The preceding sections have introduced the CFD and DEM solution algorithms separately. Here, we discuss the integrated CFD-DEM solution algorithm and related details.

Binder jet process modeling and validation experiments

In this section, we deploy our CFD-DEM framework to simulate the IFPI occurring during the binder droplet deposition stage of the BJ3DP process. The first simulations attempt to reproduce experimental single-drop primitive granules extracted from four nickel alloy powder samples with varying particle size distributions. The experiments are conducted with a dedicated in-house test apparatus that allows for the precision deposition of individual binder microdroplets into a powder bed sample. The

Conclusions

This paper introduces a coupled CFD-DEM framework capable of fully-resolved simulation of the interfacial fluid–particle interaction occurring in the binder jet 3D printing process. The interfacial flow of binder and surrounding air is captured with the VOF method and surface tension effects are incorporated using the CSF technique augmented by height function curvature calculations. Block-structured AMR is employed to provide localized grid refinement around the evolving liquid–gas interface.

CRediT authorship contribution statement

Joshua J. Wagner: Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Software, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing. C. Fred Higgs III: Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing.

Declaration of competing interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship, United States of America, Grant No. 80NSSC19K1171. Partial support was also provided through an AIAA Foundation Orville, USA and Wilbur Wright Graduate Award, USA . The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr. Craig Smith of NASA Glenn Research Center for the valuable input he provided on this project.

References (155)

The impacts of profile concavity on turbidite deposits: Insights from the submarine canyons on global continental margins

The impacts of profile concavity on turbidite deposits: Insights from the submarine canyons on global continental margins

프로필 오목부가 탁도 퇴적물에 미치는 영향: 전 세계 대륙 경계에 대한 해저 협곡의 통찰력

Kaiqi Yu a, Elda Miramontes bc, Matthieu J.B. Cartigny d, Yuping Yang a, Jingping Xu a
aDepartment of Ocean Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, 1088 Xueyuan Rd., Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong, China
bMARUM-Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germanyc
Faculty of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
dDepartment of Geography, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK

Received 10 August 2023, Revised 13 March 2024, Accepted 13 March 2024, Available online 17 March 2024, Version of Record 20 March 2024.

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Highlights

  • •The impact of submarine canyon concavity on turbidite deposition was assessed.
  • •Distribution of turbidite deposits varies with changes in canyon concavity.
  • •Three distinct deposition patterns were identified.
  • •The recognized deposition patterns align well with the observed turbidite deposits.

Abstract

Submarine canyons are primary conduits for turbidity currents transporting terrestrial sediments, nutrients, pollutants and organic carbon to the deep sea. The concavity in the longitudinal profile of these canyons (i.e. the downstream flattening rate along the profiles) influences the transport processes and results in variations in turbidite thickness, impacting the transfer and burial of particles. To better understand the controlling mechanisms of canyon concavity on the distribution of turbidite deposits, here we investigate the variation in sediment accumulation as a function of canyon concavity of 20 different modern submarine canyons, distributed on global continental margins. In order to effectively assess the isolated impact of the concavity of 20 different canyons, a series of two-dimensional, depth-resolved numerical simulations are conducted. Simulation results show that the highly concave profile (e.g. Surveyor and Horizon) tends to concentrate the turbidite deposits mainly at the slope break, while nearly straight profiles (e.g. Amazon and Congo) result in deposition focused at the canyon head. Moderately concave profiles with a smoother canyon floor (e.g. Norfolk-Washington and Mukluk) effectively facilitate the downstream transport of suspended sediments in turbidity currents. Furthermore, smooth and steep upper reaches of canyons commonly contribute to sediment bypass (i.e. Mukluk and Chirikof), while low slope angles lead to deposition at upper reaches (i.e. Bounty and Valencia). At lower reaches, the distribution of turbidite deposits is consistent with the occurrence of hydraulic jumps. Under the influence of different canyon concavities, three types of deposition patterns are inferred in this study, and verified by comparison with observed turbidite deposits on the modern or paleo-canyon floor. This study demonstrates a potential difference in sediment transport efficiency of submarine canyons with different concavities, which has potential consequences for sediment and organic carbon transport through submarine canyons.

Introduction

Submarine canyons are pivotal links in source-to-sink systems on continental margins (Sømme et al., 2009; Nyberg et al., 2018; Pope et al., 2022a, Pope et al., 2022b) that provide efficient pathways for moving prodigious volumes of terrestrial materials to the abyssal basin (Spychala et al., 2020; Heijnen et al., 2022). When turbidity currents, the main force that transports the above mentioned sediments (Xu et al., 2004; Xu, 2010; Talling et al., 2013; Stevenson et al., 2015), slow down after entering a flatter and/or wider stretch of the canyon downstream, the laden sediments settle, often rapidly, to form a deposit called turbidite that is known for organic carbon burial, hydrocarbon reserves and the accumulation of microplastics (Galy et al., 2007; Pohl et al., 2020a; Pope et al., 2022b; Pierdomenico et al., 2023). A set of flume experiments by Pohl et al. (2020b) revealed that the variation of bed slope plays a dominant role in controlling the sizes and locations of the deposit: a) a more gently dipping upper slope leads to upstream migration of upslope pinch-out; b) the increase of lower slope results in a decrease of the deposit thickness (Fig. 1a).

From upper continental slopes to deepwater basins, turbidity currents are commonly confined by submarine canyons that facilitate the longer distance transport of sediments (Eggenhuisen et al., 2022; Pope et al., 2022a; Wahab et al., 2022, Li et al., 2023a). The concavity, defined here as the downstream flattening rate of profiles (Covault et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2019; Seybold et al., 2021; Soutter et al., 2021a), of the longitudinal bed profile of the submarine canyons is therefore a key factor that determines hydrodynamic processes of turbidity currents, including the accumulation of sediments along the canyon thalweg (Covault et al., 2014; de Leeuw et al., 2016; Heerema et al., 2022; Heijnen et al., 2022). Due to the comprehensive impacts of sediment supply, grain size, climate change, regional tectonics, associated river and self-incision, the concavity of submarine canyons on global continental margins varies greatly (Parker et al., 1986; Harris and Whiteway, 2011; Casalbore et al., 2018; Nyberg et al., 2018; Soutter et al., 2021a, Li et al., 2023b), which is much more complex than the two constant slope setup of Pohl et al. (2020b)’s flume experiment (Fig. 1a). This raises the question of how the more complex concavity influences the dynamics of turbidity currents and the resultant distribution of turbidite deposits. For instance, the longitudinal profile concavity can also be increased by steepening the upper slope and/or gentling the lower slope of canyons (Fig. 1b). Parameters, known as significant factors influencing flow dynamics, include dip angle (Pohl et al., 2019), bed roughness (Baghalian and Ghodsian, 2020), obstacle presence (Howlett et al., 2019), and confinement conditions (Soutter et al., 2021b). However, the role of channel concavity in determining the downstream evolution of flow dynamics remains poorly understood (Covault et al., 2011; Georgiopoulou and Cartwright, 2013), and it is still unclear whether changes in concavity can result in different locations of pinch-out points and variations in turbidite deposit thicknesses (Pohl et al., 2020b).

In this study, we hypothesize that a more concave profile resulting from a steeper upper slope and a gentler lower slope may lead to a downstream migration of the upslope pinch-out and an increase of deposit thickness (Fig. 1b). This hypothesis is tested in 20 modern submarine canyons (shown in Fig. 2) whose longitudinal profiles are extracted from the GEBCO_2022 grid. Due to the lack of data describing the turbidite thickness trends in these canyons, we used a numerical model (FLOW-3D® software) to simulate the depositional process. The simulation results allow us to address at least two questions: (1) How does the concavity affect the distribution and thickness of turbidite deposits along the canyon thalwegs? (2) What is the impact of canyon concavity on the dynamics of the turbidity currents? Such answers on a global scale are undoubtedly helpful in understanding not only the sediment transport processes but also the efficient transfer and burial of organic carbon along global continental margins.

Section snippets

Submarine canyons used in this study

The longitudinal profiles of 20 modern submarine canyons are obtained using Global Mapper® from a public domain database GEBCO_2022 (doi:https://doi.org/10.5285/e0f0bb80-ab44-2739-e053-6c86abc0289c). The GEBCO_2022 grid provides elevation data, in meters, on a 15 arc-second interval grid. The 20 selected submarine canyons, which span the typical distance covered by turbidity currents, have been chosen from a diverse range of submarine canyon and channel systems that extend at least 250 km

Concavity of longitudinal canyon profiles

The NCI and α values of all 20 canyon profiles utilized in this study are plotted in Fig. 4, indicating the majority of these submarine canyons typically exhibit a concave profile, characterized by a negative NCI, except for the Amazon. In most of the profiles, the NCI is lower than −0.08, with the most concave point (indicated by the minimum ratio α) located closer to the canyon head than to the profile end, and their upper reaches are steeper than lower reaches, typically observed as the

Validation of the hypothesis

As previously mentioned in this paper, one of the primary objectives of this study is to evaluate the hypothesis inferred from the flume tank experiment of Pohl et al. (2020b): whether a more concave canyon profile can exert a comparable influence on turbidite deposits as the steepness of the lower and upper slopes in a slope-break system (Fig. 1). Shown as the modeling results, the deposition pattern of this study is more ‘irregular’ compared with the flume tank experiment (Pohl et al., 2020b

Conclusion

Based on global bathymetry, this study simulates the depositional behavior of turbidity currents flowing through the 20 different submarine canyons on the margins of open ocean and marginal sea. Influenced by the different concavities, the resulted deposition patterns are characterized by a variable distribution of turbidite deposits.

  • 1)The simulation results demonstrate that the accumulation of turbidite deposits is primarily observed in downstream regions near the slope break for highly concave

CRediT authorship contribution statement

Kaiqi Yu: Writing – review & editing, Writing – original draft, Validation, Software, Methodology, Investigation, Conceptualization. Elda Miramontes: Writing – review & editing, Supervision, Conceptualization. Matthieu J.B. Cartigny: Writing – review & editing, Supervision. Yuping Yang: Software, Methodology. Jingping Xu: Writing – review & editing, Supervision, Funding acquisition, Conceptualization.

Declaration of competing interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Acknowledgements

This study is supported by the Shenzhen Natural Science Foundation (JCYJ20210324105211031). Matthieu J. B. Cartigny was supported by Royal Society Research Fellowship (DHF/R1/180166). We thank the Chief Editor Zhongyuan Chen, the associate editor and two reviewers for their constructive comments that helped us improve our manuscript.

References (70)

There are more references available in the full text version of this article.

Fig. 3. Free surface and substrate profiles in all Sp and Ls cases at t = 1 s, t = 3 s, and t = 5 s, arranged left to right (note: the colour contours correspond to the horizontal component of the flow velocity (u), expressed in m/s).

Numerical investigation of dam break flow over erodible beds with diverse substrate level variations

다양한 기질 수준 변화를 갖는 침식성 층 위의 댐 파손 흐름에 대한 수치 조사

Alireza Khoshkonesh1, Blaise Nsom2, Saeid Okhravi3*, Fariba Ahmadi Dehrashid4, Payam Heidarian5,
Silvia DiFrancesco6
1 Department of Geography, School of Social Sciences, History, and Philosophy, Birkbeck University of London, London, UK.
2 Université de Bretagne Occidentale. IRDL/UBO UMR CNRS 6027. Rue de Kergoat, 29285 Brest, France.
3 Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84104, Bratislava, Slovak Republic.
4Department of Water Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, 65178-38695, Hamedan, Iran.
5 Department of Civil, Environmental, Architectural Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy.
6Niccol`o Cusano University, via Don C. Gnocchi 3, 00166 Rome, Italy. * Corresponding author. Tel.: +421-944624921. E-mail: saeid.okhravi@savba.sk

Abstract

This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the influence of substrate level difference and material composition on dam break wave evolution over two different erodible beds. Utilizing the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, we tracked free surface advection and reproduced wave evolution using experimental data from the literature. For model validation, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis encompassed mesh resolution, turbulence simulation methods, and bed load transport equations. The implementation of Large Eddy Simulation (LES), non-equilibrium sediment flux, and van Rijn’s (1984) bed load formula yielded higher accuracy compared to alternative approaches. The findings emphasize the significant effect of substrate level difference and material composition on dam break morphodynamic characteristics. Decreasing substrate level disparity led to reduced flow velocity, wavefront progression, free surface height, substrate erosion, and other pertinent parameters. Initial air entrapment proved substantial at the wavefront, illustrating pronounced air-water interaction along the bottom interface. The Shields parameter experienced a one-third reduction as substrate level difference quadrupled, with the highest near-bed concentration observed at the wavefront. This research provides fresh insights into the complex interplay of factors governing dam break wave propagation and morphological changes, advancing our comprehension of this intricate phenomenon.

이 연구는 두 개의 서로 다른 침식층에 대한 댐 파괴파 진화에 대한 기질 수준 차이와 재료 구성의 영향을 종합적으로 조사하는 것을 목표로 했습니다. VOF(유체량) 방법을 활용하여 자유 표면 이류를 추적하고 문헌의 실험 데이터를 사용하여 파동 진화를 재현했습니다.

모델 검증을 위해 메쉬 해상도, 난류 시뮬레이션 방법 및 침대 하중 전달 방정식을 포함하는 포괄적인 민감도 분석을 수행했습니다. LES(Large Eddy Simulation), 비평형 퇴적물 플럭스 및 van Rijn(1984)의 하상 부하 공식의 구현은 대체 접근 방식에 비해 더 높은 정확도를 산출했습니다.

연구 결과는 댐 붕괴 형태역학적 특성에 대한 기질 수준 차이와 재료 구성의 중요한 영향을 강조합니다. 기판 수준 차이가 감소하면 유속, 파면 진행, 자유 표면 높이, 기판 침식 및 기타 관련 매개변수가 감소했습니다.

초기 공기 포집은 파면에서 상당한 것으로 입증되었으며, 이는 바닥 경계면을 따라 뚜렷한 공기-물 상호 작용을 보여줍니다. 기판 레벨 차이가 4배로 증가함에 따라 Shields 매개변수는 1/3로 감소했으며, 파면에서 가장 높은 베드 근처 농도가 관찰되었습니다.

이 연구는 댐 파괴파 전파와 형태학적 변화를 지배하는 요인들의 복잡한 상호 작용에 대한 새로운 통찰력을 제공하여 이 복잡한 현상에 대한 이해를 향상시킵니다.

Keywords

Dam break; Substrate level difference; Erodible bed; Sediment transport; Computational fluid dynamics CFD.

Fig. 3. Free surface and substrate profiles in all Sp and Ls cases at t = 1 s, t = 3 s, and t = 5 s, arranged left to right (note: the colour contours
correspond to the horizontal component of the flow velocity (u), expressed in m/s).
Fig. 3. Free surface and substrate profiles in all Sp and Ls cases at t = 1 s, t = 3 s, and t = 5 s, arranged left to right (note: the colour contours correspond to the horizontal component of the flow velocity (u), expressed in m/s).

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Figure 5. Simulation of the molten pool under low-speed scanning (1.06 m/s). (a) Sequential solidification of the molten pool at the end of the melt track for laser powers of 190 and 340 W, respectively. (b) Recoil pressure on the molten pool at the keyhole for laser powers of 190 and 340 W, respectively. (c) The force diagram of the melt at the back of the keyhole at t = 750 μs in case B. (d) Temperature gradient at the solid–liquid interface of the molten pool at the moment the laser is deactivated in case A. (e) Temperature gradient at the solid–liquid interface of the molten pool at the moment the laser is deactivated in case B.

Revealing formation mechanism of end of processdepression in laser powder bed fusion by multiphysics meso-scale simulation

다중물리 메조 규모 시뮬레이션을 통해 레이저 분말층 융합에서 공정 종료의 함몰 형성 메커니즘 공개

Haodong Chen a,b, Xin Lin a,b,c, Yajing Sund, Shuhao Wanga,b, Kunpeng Zhu a,b,c and Binbin Dana,b

To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2024.2326599

ABSTRACT

Unintended end-of-process depression (EOPD) commonly occurs in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), leading to poor surface quality and lower fatigue strength, especially for many implants. In this study, a high-fidelity multi-physics meso-scale simulation model is developed to uncover the forming mechanism of this defect. A defect-process map of the EOPD phenomenon is obtained using this simulation model. It is found that the EOPD formation mechanisms are different under distinct regions of process parameters. At low scanning speeds in keyhole mode, the long-lasting recoil pressure and the large temperature gradient easily induce EOPD. While at high scanning speeds in keyhole mode, the shallow molten pool morphology and the large solidification rate allow the keyhole to evolve into an EOPD quickly. Nevertheless, in the conduction mode, the Marangoni effects along with a faster solidification rate induce EOPD. Finally, a ‘step’ variable power strategy is proposed to optimise the EOPD defects for the case with high volumetric energy density at low scanning speeds. This work provides a profound understanding and valuable insights into the quality control of LPBF fabrication.

의도하지 않은 공정 종료 후 함몰(EOPD)은 LPBF(레이저 분말층 융합)에서 흔히 발생하며, 특히 많은 임플란트의 경우 표면 품질이 떨어지고 피로 강도가 낮아집니다. 본 연구에서는 이 결함의 형성 메커니즘을 밝히기 위해 충실도가 높은 다중 물리학 메조 규모 시뮬레이션 모델을 개발했습니다.

이 시뮬레이션 모델을 사용하여 EOPD 현상의 결함 프로세스 맵을 얻습니다. EOPD 형성 메커니즘은 공정 매개변수의 별개 영역에서 서로 다른 것으로 밝혀졌습니다.

키홀 모드의 낮은 스캔 속도에서는 오래 지속되는 반동 압력과 큰 온도 구배로 인해 EOPD가 쉽게 유발됩니다. 키홀 모드에서 높은 스캐닝 속도를 유지하는 동안 얕은 용융 풀 형태와 큰 응고 속도로 인해 키홀이 EOPD로 빠르게 진화할 수 있습니다.

그럼에도 불구하고 전도 모드에서는 더 빠른 응고 속도와 함께 마랑고니 효과가 EOPD를 유발합니다. 마지막으로, 낮은 스캐닝 속도에서 높은 체적 에너지 밀도를 갖는 경우에 대해 EOPD 결함을 최적화하기 위한 ‘단계’ 가변 전력 전략이 제안되었습니다.

이 작업은 LPBF 제조의 품질 관리에 대한 심오한 이해와 귀중한 통찰력을 제공합니다.

Figure 5. Simulation of the molten pool under low-speed scanning (1.06 m/s). (a) Sequential solidification of the molten pool at the
end of the melt track for laser powers of 190 and 340 W, respectively. (b) Recoil pressure on the molten pool at the keyhole for laser
powers of 190 and 340 W, respectively. (c) The force diagram of the melt at the back of the keyhole at t = 750 μs in case B. (d) Temperature gradient at the solid–liquid interface of the molten pool at the moment the laser is deactivated in case A. (e) Temperature
gradient at the solid–liquid interface of the molten pool at the moment the laser is deactivated in case B.
Figure 5. Simulation of the molten pool under low-speed scanning (1.06 m/s). (a) Sequential solidification of the molten pool at the end of the melt track for laser powers of 190 and 340 W, respectively. (b) Recoil pressure on the molten pool at the keyhole for laser powers of 190 and 340 W, respectively. (c) The force diagram of the melt at the back of the keyhole at t = 750 μs in case B. (d) Temperature gradient at the solid–liquid interface of the molten pool at the moment the laser is deactivated in case A. (e) Temperature gradient at the solid–liquid interface of the molten pool at the moment the laser is deactivated in case B.

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Schematic diagram of HP-LPBF melting process.

Modeling and numerical studies of high-precision laser powder bed fusion

Yi Wei ;Genyu Chen;Nengru Tao;Wei Zhou
https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0191504

In order to comprehensively reveal the evolutionary dynamics of the molten pool and the state of motion of the fluid during the high-precision laser powder bed fusion (HP-LPBF) process, this study aims to deeply investigate the specific manifestations of the multiphase flow, solidification phenomena, and heat transfer during the process by means of numerical simulation methods. Numerical simulation models of SS316L single-layer HP-LPBF formation with single and double tracks were constructed using the discrete element method and the computational fluid dynamics method. The effects of various factors such as Marangoni convection, surface tension, vapor recoil, gravity, thermal convection, thermal radiation, and evaporative heat dissipation on the heat and mass transfer in the molten pool have been paid attention to during the model construction process. The results show that the molten pool exhibits a “comet” shape, in which the temperature gradient at the front end of the pool is significantly larger than that at the tail end, with the highest temperature gradient up to 1.69 × 108 K/s. It is also found that the depth of the second track is larger than that of the first one, and the process parameter window has been determined preliminarily. In addition, the application of HP-LPBF technology helps to reduce the surface roughness and minimize the forming size.

Topics

Heat transferNonequilibrium thermodynamicsSolidification processComputer simulationDiscrete element methodLasersMass transferFluid mechanicsComputational fluid dynamicsMultiphase flows

I. INTRODUCTION

Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) has become a research hotspot in the field of additive manufacturing of metals due to its advantages of high-dimensional accuracy, good surface quality, high density, and high material utilization.1,2 With the rapid development of electronics, medical, automotive, biotechnology, energy, communication, and optics, the demand for microfabrication technology is increasing day by day.3 High-precision laser powder bed fusion (HP-LPBF) is one of the key manufacturing technologies for tiny parts in the fields of electronics, medical, automotive, biotechnology, energy, communication, and optics because of its process characteristics such as small focal spot diameter, small powder particle size, and thin powder layup layer thickness.4–13 Compared with LPBF, HP-LPBF has the significant advantages of smaller focal spot diameter, smaller powder particle size, and thinner layer thickness. These advantages make HP-LPBF perform better in producing micro-fine parts, high surface quality, and parts with excellent mechanical properties.

HP-LPBF is in the exploratory stage, and researchers have already done some exploratory studies on the focal spot diameter, the amount of defocusing, and the powder particle size. In order to explore the influence of changing the laser focal spot diameter on the LPBF process characteristics of the law, Wildman et al.14 studied five groups of different focal spot diameter LPBF forming 316L stainless steel (SS316L) processing effect, the smallest focal spot diameter of 26 μm, and the results confirm that changing the focal spot diameter can be achieved to achieve the energy control, so as to control the quality of forming. Subsequently, Mclouth et al.15 proposed the laser out-of-focus amount (focal spot diameter) parameter, which characterizes the distance between the forming plane and the laser focal plane. The laser energy density was controlled by varying the defocusing amount while keeping the laser parameters constant. Sample preparation at different focal positions was investigated, and their microstructures were characterized. The results show that the samples at the focal plane have finer microstructure than those away from the focal plane, which is the effect of higher power density and smaller focal spot diameter. In order to explore the influence of changing the powder particle size on the characteristics of the LPBF process, Qian et al.16 carried out single-track scanning simulations on powder beds with average powder particle sizes of 70 and 40 μm, respectively, and the results showed that the melt tracks sizes were close to each other under the same process parameters for the two particle-size distributions and that the molten pool of powder beds with small particles was more elongated and the edges of the melt tracks were relatively flat. In order to explore the superiority of HP-LPBF technology, Xu et al.17 conducted a comparative analysis of HP-LPBF and conventional LPBF of SS316L. The results showed that the average surface roughness of the top surface after forming by HP-LPBF could reach 3.40 μm. Once again, it was verified that HP-LPBF had higher forming quality than conventional LPBF. On this basis, Wei et al.6 comparatively analyzed the effects of different laser focal spot diameters on different powder particle sizes formed by LPBF. The results showed that the smaller the laser focal spot diameter, the fewer the defects on the top and side surfaces. The above research results confirm that reducing the laser focal spot diameter can obtain higher energy density and thus better forming quality.

LPBF involves a variety of complex systems and mechanisms, and the final quality of the part is influenced by a large number of process parameters.18–24 Some research results have shown that there are more than 50 factors affecting the quality of the specimen. The influencing factors are mainly categorized into three main groups: (1) laser parameters, (2) powder parameters, and (3) equipment parameters, which interact with each other to determine the final specimen quality. With the continuous development of technologies such as computational materials science and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the method of studying the influence of different factors on the forming quality of LPBF forming process has been shifted from time-consuming and laborious experimental characterization to the use of numerical simulation methods. As a result, more and more researchers are adopting this approach for their studies. Currently, numerical simulation studies on LPBF are mainly focused on the exploration of molten pool, temperature distribution, and residual stresses.

  1. Finite element simulation based on continuum mechanics and free surface fluid flow modeling based on fluid dynamics are two common approaches to study the behavior of LPBF molten pool.25–28 Finite element simulation focuses on the temperature and thermal stress fields, treats the powder bed as a continuum, and determines the molten pool size by plotting the elemental temperature above the melting point. In contrast, fluid dynamics modeling can simulate the 2D or 3D morphology of the metal powder pile and obtain the powder size and distribution by certain algorithms.29 The flow in the molten pool is mainly affected by recoil pressure and the Marangoni effect. By simulating the molten pool formation, it is possible to predict defects, molten pool shape, and flow characteristics, as well as the effect of process parameters on the molten pool geometry.30–34 In addition, other researchers have been conducted to optimize the laser processing parameters through different simulation methods and experimental data.35–46 Crystal growth during solidification is studied to further understand the effect of laser parameters on dendritic morphology and solute segregation.47–54 A multi-scale system has been developed to describe the fused deposition process during 3D printing, which is combined with the conductive heat transfer model and the dendritic solidification model.55,56
  2. Relevant scholars have adopted various different methods for simulation, such as sequential coupling theory,57 Lagrangian and Eulerian thermal models,58 birth–death element method,25 and finite element method,59 in order to reveal the physical phenomena of the laser melting process and optimize the process parameters. Luo et al.60 compared the LPBF temperature field and molten pool under double ellipsoidal and Gaussian heat sources by ANSYS APDL and found that the diffusion of the laser energy in the powder significantly affects the molten pool size and the temperature field.
  3. The thermal stresses obtained from the simulation correlate with the actual cracks,61 and local preheating can effectively reduce the residual stresses.62 A three-dimensional thermodynamic finite element model investigated the temperature and stress variations during laser-assisted fabrication and found that powder-to-solid conversion increases the temperature gradient, stresses, and warpage.63 Other scholars have predicted residual stresses and part deflection for LPBF specimens and investigated the effects of deposition pattern, heat, laser power, and scanning strategy on residual stresses, noting that high-temperature gradients lead to higher residual stresses.64–67 

In short, the process of LPBF forming SS316L is extremely complex and usually involves drastic multi-scale physicochemical changes that will only take place on a very small scale. Existing literature employs DEM-based mesoscopic-scale numerical simulations to investigate the effects of process parameters on the molten pool dynamics of LPBF-formed SS316L. However, a few studies have been reported on the key mechanisms of heating and solidification, spatter, and convective behavior of the molten pool of HP-LPBF-formed SS316L with small laser focal spot diameters. In this paper, the geometrical properties of coarse and fine powder particles under three-dimensional conditions were first calculated using DEM. Then, numerical simulation models for single-track and double-track cases in the single-layer HP-LPBF forming SS316L process were developed at mesoscopic scale using the CFD method. The flow genesis of the melt in the single-track and double-track molten pools is discussed, and their 3D morphology and dimensional characteristics are discussed. In addition, the effects of laser process parameters, powder particle size, and laser focal spot diameter on the temperature field, characterization information, and defects in the molten pool are discussed.

II. MODELING

A. 3D powder bed modeling

HP-LPBF is an advanced processing technique for preparing target parts layer by layer stacking, the process of which involves repetitive spreading and melting of powders. In this process, both the powder spreading and the morphology of the powder bed are closely related to the results of the subsequent melting process, while the melted surface also affects the uniform distribution of the next layer of powder. For this reason, this chapter focuses on the modeling of the physical action during the powder spreading process and the theory of DEM to establish the numerical model of the powder bed, so as to lay a solid foundation for the accuracy of volume of fluid (VOF) and CFD.

1. DEM

DEM is a numerical technique for calculating the interaction of a large number of particles, which calculates the forces and motions of the spheres by considering each powder sphere as an independent unit. The motion of the powder particles follows the laws of classical Newtonian mechanics, including translational and rotational,38,68–70 which are expressed as follows:����¨=���+∑��ij,

(1)����¨=∑�(�ij×�ij),

(2)

where �� is the mass of unit particle i in kg, ��¨ is the advective acceleration in m/s2, And g is the gravitational acceleration in m/s2. �ij is the force in contact with the neighboring particle � in N. �� is the rotational inertia of the unit particle � in kg · m2. ��¨ is the unit particle � angular acceleration in rad/s2. �ij is the vector pointing from unit particle � to the contact point of neighboring particle �⁠.

Equations (1) and (2) can be used to calculate the velocity and angular velocity variations of powder particles to determine their positions and velocities. A three-dimensional powder bed model of SS316L was developed using DEM. The powder particles are assumed to be perfect spheres, and the substrate and walls are assumed to be rigid. To describe the contact between the powder particles and between the particles and the substrate, a non-slip Hertz–Mindlin nonlinear spring-damping model71 was used with the following expression:�hz=��������+��[(�����ij−�eff����)−(�����+�eff����)],

(3)

where �hz is the force calculated using the Hertzian in M. �� and �� are the radius of unit particles � and � in m, respectively. �� is the overlap size of the two powder particles in m. ��⁠, �� are the elastic constants in the normal and tangential directions, respectively. �ij is the unit vector connecting the centerlines of the two powder particles. �eff is the effective mass of the two powder particles in kg. �� and �� are the viscoelastic damping constants in the normal and tangential directions, respectively. �� and �� are the components of the relative velocities of the two powder particles. ��� is the displacement vector between two spherical particles. The schematic diagram of overlapping powder particles is shown in Fig. 1.

FIG. 1.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Schematic diagram of overlapping powder particles.

Because the particle size of the powder used for HP-LPBF is much smaller than 100 μm, the effect of van der Waals forces must be considered. Therefore, the cohesive force �jkr of the Hertz–Mindlin model was used instead of van der Waals forces,72 with the following expression:�jkr=−4��0�*�1.5+4�*3�*�3,

(4)1�*=(1−��2)��+(1−��2)��,

(5)1�*=1��+1��,

(6)

where �* is the equivalent Young’s modulus in GPa; �* is the equivalent particle radius in m; �0 is the surface energy of the powder particles in J/m2; α is the contact radius in m; �� and �� are the Young’s modulus of the unit particles � and �⁠, respectively, in GPa; and �� and �� are the Poisson’s ratio of the unit particles � and �⁠, respectively.

2. Model building

Figure 2 shows a 3D powder bed model generated using DEM with a coarse powder geometry of 1000 × 400 × 30 μm3. The powder layer thickness is 30 μm, and the powder bed porosity is 40%. The average particle size of this spherical powder is 31.7 μm and is normally distributed in the range of 15–53 μm. The geometry of the fine powder was 1000 × 400 × 20 μm3, with a layer thickness of 20 μm, and the powder bed porosity of 40%. The average particle size of this spherical powder is 11.5 μm and is normally distributed in the range of 5–25 μm. After the 3D powder bed model is generated, it needs to be imported into the CFD simulation software for calculation, and the imported geometric model is shown in Fig. 3. This geometric model is mainly composed of three parts: protective gas, powder bed, and substrate. Under the premise of ensuring the accuracy of the calculation, the mesh size is set to 3 μm, and the total number of coarse powder meshes is 1 704 940. The total number of fine powder meshes is 3 982 250.

FIG. 2.

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Three-dimensional powder bed model: (a) coarse powder, (b) fine powder.

FIG. 3.

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Geometric modeling of the powder bed computational domain: (a) coarse powder, (b) fine powder.

B. Modeling of fluid mechanics simulation

In order to solve the flow, melting, and solidification problems involved in HP-LPBF molten pool, the study must follow the three governing equations of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of momentum.73 The VOF method, which is the most widely used in fluid dynamics, is used to solve the molten pool dynamics model.

1. VOF

VOF is a method for tracking the free interface between the gas and liquid phases on the molten pool surface. The core idea of the method is to define a volume fraction function F within each grid, indicating the proportion of the grid space occupied by the material, 0 ≤ F ≤ 1 in Fig. 4. Specifically, when F = 0, the grid is empty and belongs to the gas-phase region; when F = 1, the grid is completely filled with material and belongs to the liquid-phase region; and when 0 < F < 1, the grid contains free surfaces and belongs to the mixed region. The direction normal to the free surface is the direction of the fastest change in the volume fraction F (the direction of the gradient of the volume fraction), and the direction of the gradient of the volume fraction can be calculated from the values of the volume fractions in the neighboring grids.74 The equations controlling the VOF are expressed as follows:𝛻����+�⋅(��→)=0,

(7)

where t is the time in s and �→ is the liquid velocity in m/s.

FIG. 4.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Schematic diagram of VOF.

The material parameters of the mixing zone are altered due to the inclusion of both the gas and liquid phases. Therefore, in order to represent the density of the mixing zone, the average density �¯ is used, which is expressed as follows:72�¯=(1−�1)�gas+�1�metal,

(8)

where �1 is the proportion of liquid phase, �gas is the density of protective gas in kg/m3, and �metal is the density of metal in kg/m3.

2. Control equations and boundary conditions

Figure 5 is a schematic diagram of the HP-LPBF melting process. First, the laser light strikes a localized area of the material and rapidly heats up the area. Next, the energy absorbed in the region is diffused through a variety of pathways (heat conduction, heat convection, and surface radiation), and this process triggers complex phase transition phenomena (melting, evaporation, and solidification). In metals undergoing melting, the driving forces include surface tension and the Marangoni effect, recoil due to evaporation, and buoyancy due to gravity and uneven density. The above physical phenomena interact with each other and do not occur independently.

FIG. 5.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Schematic diagram of HP-LPBF melting process.

  1. Laser heat sourceThe Gaussian surface heat source model is used as the laser heat source model with the following expression:�=2�0����2exp(−2�12��2),(9)where � is the heat flow density in W/m2, �0 is the absorption rate of SS316L, �� is the radius of the laser focal spot in m, and �1 is the radial distance from the center of the laser focal spot in m. The laser focal spot can be used for a wide range of applications.
  2. Energy absorptionThe formula for calculating the laser absorption �0 of SS316L is as follows:�0=0.365(�0[1+�0(�−20)]/�)0.5,(10)where �0 is the direct current resistivity of SS316L at 20 °C in Ω m, �0 is the resistance temperature coefficient in ppm/°C, � is the temperature in °C, and � is the laser wavelength in m.
  3. Heat transferThe basic principle of heat transfer is conservation of energy, which is expressed as follows:𝛻𝛻𝛻�(��)��+�·(��→�)=�·(�0����)+��,(11)where � is the density of liquid phase SS316L in kg/m3, �� is the specific heat capacity of SS316L in J/(kg K), 𝛻� is the gradient operator, t is the time in s, T is the temperature in K, 𝛻�� is the temperature gradient, �→ is the velocity vector, �0 is the coefficient of thermal conduction of SS316L in W/(m K), and  �� is the thermal energy dissipation term in the molten pool.
  4. Molten pool flowThe following three conditions need to be satisfied for the molten pool to flow:
    • Conservation of mass with the following expression:𝛻�·(��→)=0.(12)
    • Conservation of momentum (Navier–Stokes equation) with the following expression:𝛻𝛻𝛻𝛻���→��+�(�→·�)�→=�·[−pI+�(��→+(��→)�)]+�,(13)where � is the pressure in Pa exerted on the liquid phase SS316L microelement, � is the unit matrix, � is the fluid viscosity in N s/m2, and � is the volumetric force (gravity, atmospheric pressure, surface tension, vapor recoil, and the Marangoni effect).
    • Conservation of energy, see Eq. (11)
  5. Surface tension and the Marangoni effectThe effect of temperature on the surface tension coefficient is considered and set as a linear relationship with the following expression:�=�0−��dT(�−��),(14)where � is the surface tension of the molten pool at temperature T in N/m, �� is the melting temperature of SS316L in K, �0 is the surface tension of the molten pool at temperature �� in Pa, and σdσ/ dT is the surface tension temperature coefficient in N/(m K).In general, surface tension decreases with increasing temperature. A temperature gradient causes a gradient in surface tension that drives the liquid to flow, known as the Marangoni effect.
  6. Metal vapor recoilAt higher input energy densities, the maximum temperature of the molten pool surface reaches the evaporation temperature of the material, and a gasification recoil pressure occurs vertically downward toward the molten pool surface, which will be the dominant driving force for the molten pool flow.75 The expression is as follows:��=0.54�� exp ���−���0���,(15)where �� is the gasification recoil pressure in Pa, �� is the ambient pressure in kPa, �� is the latent heat of evaporation in J/kg, �0 is the gas constant in J/(mol K), T is the surface temperature of the molten pool in K, and Te is the evaporation temperature in K.
  7. Solid–liquid–gas phase transitionWhen the laser hits the powder layer, the powder goes through three stages: heating, melting, and solidification. During the solidification phase, mutual transformations between solid, liquid, and gaseous states occur. At this point, the latent heat of phase transition absorbed or released during the phase transition needs to be considered.68 The phase transition is represented based on the relationship between energy and temperature with the following expression:�=�����,(�<��),�(��)+�−����−����,(��<�<��)�(��)+(�−��)����,(��<�),,(16)where �� and �� are solid and liquid phase density, respectively, of SS316L in kg/m3. �� and �� unit volume of solid and liquid phase-specific heat capacity, respectively, of SS316L in J/(kg K). �� and ��⁠, respectively, are the solidification temperature and melting temperature of SS316L in K. �� is the latent heat of the phase transition of SS316L melting in J/kg.

3. Assumptions

The CFD model was computed using the commercial software package FLOW-3D.76 In order to simplify the calculation and solution process while ensuring the accuracy of the results, the model makes the following assumptions:

  1. It is assumed that the effects of thermal stress and material solid-phase thermal expansion on the calculation results are negligible.
  2. The molten pool flow is assumed to be a Newtonian incompressible laminar flow, while the effects of liquid thermal expansion and density on the results are neglected.
  3. It is assumed that the surface tension can be simplified to an equivalent pressure acting on the free surface of the molten pool, and the effect of chemical composition on the results is negligible.
  4. Neglecting the effect of the gas flow field on the molten pool.
  5. The mass loss due to evaporation of the liquid metal is not considered.
  6. The influence of the plasma effect of the molten metal on the calculation results is neglected.

It is worth noting that the formulation of assumptions requires a trade-off between accuracy and computational efficiency. In the above models, some physical phenomena that have a small effect or high difficulty on the calculation results are simplified or ignored. Such simplifications make numerical simulations more efficient and computationally tractable, while still yielding accurate results.

4. Initial conditions

The preheating temperature of the substrate was set to 393 K, at which time all materials were in the solid state and the flow rate was zero.

5. Material parameters

The material used is SS316L and the relevant parameters required for numerical simulations are shown in Table I.46,77,78

TABLE I.

SS316L-related parameters.

PropertySymbolValue
Density of solid metal (kg/m3�metal 7980 
Solid phase line temperature (K) �� 1658 
Liquid phase line temperature (K) �� 1723 
Vaporization temperature (K) �� 3090 
Latent heat of melting (⁠ J/kg⁠) �� 2.60×105 
Latent heat of evaporation (⁠ J/kg⁠) �� 7.45×106 
Surface tension of liquid phase (N /m⁠) � 1.60 
Liquid metal viscosity (kg/m s) �� 6×10−3 
Gaseous metal viscosity (kg/m s) �gas 1.85×10−5 
Temperature coefficient of surface tension (N/m K) ��/�T 0.80×10−3 
Molar mass (⁠ kg/mol⁠) 0.05 593 
Emissivity � 0.26 
Laser absorption �0 0.35 
Ambient pressure (kPa) �� 101 325 
Ambient temperature (K) �0 300 
Stefan–Boltzmann constant (W/m2 K4� 5.67×10−8 
Thermal conductivity of metals (⁠ W/m K⁠) � 24.55 
Density of protective gas (kg/m3�gas 1.25 
Coefficient of thermal expansion (/K) �� 16×10−6 
Generalized gas constant (⁠ J/mol K⁠) 8.314 

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

With the objective of studying in depth the evolutionary patterns of single-track and double-track molten pool development, detailed observations were made for certain specific locations in the model, as shown in Fig. 6. In this figure, P1 and P2 represent the longitudinal tangents to the centers of the two melt tracks in the XZ plane, while L1 is the transverse profile in the YZ plane. The scanning direction is positive and negative along the X axis. Points A and B are the locations of the centers of the molten pool of the first and second melt tracks, respectively (x = 1.995 × 10−4, y = 5 × 10−7, and z = −4.85 × 10−5).

FIG. 6.

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Schematic diagram of observation position.

A. Single-track simulation

A series of single-track molten pool simulation experiments were carried out in order to investigate the influence law of laser power as well as scanning speed on the HP-LPBF process. Figure 7 demonstrates the evolution of the 3D morphology and temperature field of the single-track molten pool in the time period of 50–500 μs under a laser power of 100 W and a scanning speed of 800 mm/s. The powder bed is in the natural cooling state. When t = 50 μs, the powder is heated by the laser heat and rapidly melts and settles to form the initial molten pool. This process is accompanied by partial melting of the substrate and solidification together with the melted powder. The molten pool rapidly expands with increasing width, depth, length, and temperature, as shown in Fig. 7(a). When t = 150 μs, the molten pool expands more obviously, and the temperature starts to transfer to the surrounding area, forming a heat-affected zone. At this point, the width of the molten pool tends to stabilize, and the temperature in the center of the molten pool has reached its peak and remains largely stable. However, the phenomenon of molten pool spatter was also observed in this process, as shown in Fig. 7(b). As time advances, when t = 300 μs, solidification begins to occur at the tail of the molten pool, and tiny ripples are produced on the solidified surface. This is due to the fact that the melt flows toward the region with large temperature gradient under the influence of Marangoni convection and solidifies together with the melt at the end of the bath. At this point, the temperature gradient at the front of the bath is significantly larger than at the end. While the width of the molten pool was gradually reduced, the shape of the molten pool was gradually changed to a “comet” shape. In addition, a slight depression was observed at the top of the bath because the peak temperature at the surface of the bath reached the evaporation temperature, which resulted in a recoil pressure perpendicular to the surface of the bath downward, creating a depressed region. As the laser focal spot moves and is paired with the Marangoni convection of the melt, these recessed areas will be filled in as shown in Fig. 7(c). It has been shown that the depressed regions are the result of the coupled effect of Marangoni convection, recoil pressure, and surface tension.79 By t = 500 μs, the width and height of the molten pool stabilize and show a “comet” shape in Fig. 7(d).

FIG. 7.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Single-track molten pool process: (a) t = 50  ��⁠, (b) t = 150  ��⁠, (c) t = 300  ��⁠, (d) t = 500  ��⁠.

Figure 8 depicts the velocity vector diagram of the P1 profile in a single-track molten pool, the length of the arrows represents the magnitude of the velocity, and the maximum velocity is about 2.36 m/s. When t = 50 μs, the molten pool takes shape, and the velocities at the two ends of the pool are the largest. The variation of the velocities at the front end is especially more significant in Fig. 8(a). As the time advances to t = 150 μs, the molten pool expands rapidly, in which the velocity at the tail increases and changes more significantly, while the velocity at the front is relatively small. At this stage, the melt moves backward from the center of the molten pool, which in turn expands the molten pool area. The melt at the back end of the molten pool center flows backward along the edge of the molten pool surface and then converges along the edge of the molten pool to the bottom center, rising to form a closed loop. Similarly, a similar closed loop is formed at the front end of the center of the bath, but with a shorter path. However, a large portion of the melt in the center of the closed loop formed at the front end of the bath is in a nearly stationary state. The main cause of this melt flow phenomenon is the effect of temperature gradient and surface tension (the Marangoni effect), as shown in Figs. 8(b) and 8(e). This dynamic behavior of the melt tends to form an “elliptical” pool. At t = 300 μs, the tendency of the above two melt flows to close the loop is more prominent and faster in Fig. 8(c). When t = 500 μs, the velocity vector of the molten pool shows a stable trend, and the closed loop of melt flow also remains stable. With the gradual laser focal spot movement, the melt is gradually solidified at its tail, and finally, a continuous and stable single track is formed in Fig. 8(d).

FIG. 8.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Vector plot of single-track molten pool velocity in XZ longitudinal section: (a) t = 50  ��⁠, (b) t = 150  ��⁠, (c) t = 300  ��⁠, (d) t = 500  ��⁠, (e) molten pool flow.

In order to explore in depth the transient evolution of the molten pool, the evolution of the single-track temperature field and the melt flow was monitored in the YZ cross section. Figure 9(a) shows the state of the powder bed at the initial moment. When t = 250 μs, the laser focal spot acts on the powder bed and the powder starts to melt and gradually collects in the molten pool. At this time, the substrate will also start to melt, and the melt flow mainly moves in the downward and outward directions and the velocity is maximum at the edges in Fig. 9(b). When t = 300 μs, the width and depth of the molten pool increase due to the recoil pressure. At this time, the melt flows more slowly at the center, but the direction of motion is still downward in Fig. 9(c). When t = 350 μs, the width and depth of the molten pool further increase, at which time the intensity of the melt flow reaches its peak and the direction of motion remains the same in Fig. 9(d). When t = 400 μs, the melt starts to move upward, and the surrounding powder or molten material gradually fills up, causing the surface of the molten pool to begin to flatten. At this time, the maximum velocity of the melt is at the center of the bath, while the velocity at the edge is close to zero, and the edge of the melt starts to solidify in Fig. 9(e). When t = 450 μs, the melt continues to move upward, forming a convex surface of the melt track. However, the melt movement slows down, as shown in Fig. 9(f). When t = 500 μs, the melt further moves upward and its speed gradually becomes smaller. At the same time, the melt solidifies further, as shown in Fig. 9(g). When t = 550 μs, the melt track is basically formed into a single track with a similar “mountain” shape. At this stage, the velocity is close to zero only at the center of the molten pool, and the flow behavior of the melt is poor in Fig. 9(h). At t = 600 μs, the melt stops moving and solidification is rapidly completed. Up to this point, a single track is formed in Fig. 9(i). During the laser action on the powder bed, the substrate melts and combines with the molten state powder. The powder-to-powder fusion is like the convergence of water droplets, which are rapidly fused by surface tension. However, the fusion between the molten state powder and the substrate occurs driven by surface tension, and the molten powder around the molten pool is pulled toward the substrate (a wetting effect occurs), which ultimately results in the formation of a monolithic whole.38,80,81

FIG. 9.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Evolution of single-track molten pool temperature and melt flow in the YZ cross section: (a) t = 0  ��⁠, (b) t = 250  ��⁠, (c) t = 300  ��⁠, (d) t = 350  ��⁠, (e) t = 400  ��⁠, (f) t = 450  ��⁠, (g) t = 500  ��⁠, (h) t = 550  ��⁠, (i) t = 600  ��⁠.

The wetting ability between the liquid metal and the solid substrate in the molten pool directly affects the degree of balling of the melt,82,83 and the wetting ability can be measured by the contact angle of a single track in Fig. 10. A smaller value of contact angle represents better wettability. The contact angle α can be calculated by�=�1−�22,

(17)

where �1 and �2 are the contact angles of the left and right regions, respectively.

FIG. 10.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Schematic of contact angle.

Relevant studies have confirmed that the wettability is better at a contact angle α around or below 40°.84 After measurement, a single-track contact angle α of about 33° was obtained under this process parameter, which further confirms the good wettability.

B. Double-track simulation

In order to deeply investigate the influence of hatch spacing on the characteristics of the HP-LPBF process, a series of double-track molten pool simulation experiments were systematically carried out. Figure 11 shows in detail the dynamic changes of the 3D morphology and temperature field of the double-track molten pool in the time period of 2050–2500 μs under the conditions of laser power of 100 W, scanning speed of 800 mm/s, and hatch spacing of 0.06 mm. By comparing the study with Fig. 7, it is observed that the basic characteristics of the 3D morphology and temperature field of the second track are similar to those of the first track. However, there are subtle differences between them. The first track exhibits a basically symmetric shape, but the second track morphology shows a slight deviation influenced by the difference in thermal diffusion rate between the solidified metal and the powder. Otherwise, the other characteristic information is almost the same as that of the first track. Figure 12 shows the velocity vector plot of the P2 profile in the double-track molten pool, with a maximum velocity of about 2.63 m/s. The melt dynamics at both ends of the pool are more stable at t = 2050 μs, where the maximum rate of the second track is only 1/3 of that of the first one. Other than that, the rest of the information is almost no significant difference from the characteristic information of the first track. Figure 13 demonstrates a detailed observation of the double-track temperature field and melts flow in the YZ cross section, and a comparative study with Fig. 9 reveals that the width of the second track is slightly wider. In addition, after the melt direction shifts from bottom to top, the first track undergoes four time periods (50 μs) to reach full solidification, while the second track takes five time periods. This is due to the presence of significant heat buildup in the powder bed after the forming of the first track, resulting in a longer dynamic time of the melt and an increased molten pool lifetime. In conclusion, the level of specimen forming can be significantly optimized by adjusting the laser power and hatch spacing.

FIG. 11.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Double-track molten pool process: (a) t = 2050  ��⁠, (b) t = 2150  ��⁠, (c) t = 2300  ��⁠, (d) t = 2500  ��⁠.

FIG. 12.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Vector plot of double-track molten pool velocity in XZ longitudinal section: (a) t = 2050  ��⁠, (b) t = 2150  ��⁠, (c) t = 2300  ��⁠, (d) t = 2500  ��⁠.

FIG. 13.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Evolution of double-track molten pool temperature and melt flow in the YZ cross section: (a) t = 2250  ��⁠, (b) t = 2300  ��⁠, (c) t = 2350  ��⁠, (d) t = 2400  ��⁠, (e) t = 2450  ��⁠, (f) t = 2500  ��⁠, (g) t = 2550  ��⁠, (h) t = 2600  ��⁠, (i) t = 2650  ��⁠.

In order to quantitatively detect the molten pool dimensions as well as the remolten region dimensions, the molten pool characterization information in Fig. 14 is constructed by drawing the boundary on the YZ cross section based on the isothermal surface of the liquid phase line. It can be observed that the heights of the first track and second track are basically the same, but the depth of the second track increases relative to the first track. The molten pool width is mainly positively correlated with the laser power as well as the scanning speed (the laser line energy density �⁠). However, the remelted zone width is negatively correlated with the hatch spacing (the overlapping ratio). Overall, the forming quality of the specimens can be directly influenced by adjusting the laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing.

FIG. 14.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Double-track molten pool characterization information on YZ cross section.

In order to study the variation rule of the temperature in the center of the molten pool with time, Fig. 15 demonstrates the temperature variation curves with time for two reference points, A and B. Among them, the red dotted line indicates the liquid phase line temperature of SS316L. From the figure, it can be seen that the maximum temperature at the center of the molten pool in the first track is lower than that in the second track, which is mainly due to the heat accumulation generated after passing through the first track. The maximum temperature gradient was calculated to be 1.69 × 108 K/s. When the laser scanned the first track, the temperature in the center of the molten pool of the second track increased slightly. Similarly, when the laser scanned the second track, a similar situation existed in the first track. Since the temperature gradient in the second track is larger than that in the first track, the residence time of the liquid phase in the molten pool of the first track is longer than that of the second track.

FIG. 15.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Temperature profiles as a function of time for two reference points A and B.

C. Simulation analysis of molten pool under different process parameters

In order to deeply investigate the effects of various process parameters on the mesoscopic-scale temperature field, molten pool characteristic information and defects of HP-LPBF, numerical simulation experiments on mesoscopic-scale laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing of double-track molten pools were carried out.

1. Laser power

Figure 16 shows the effects of different laser power on the morphology and temperature field of the double-track molten pool at a scanning speed of 800 mm/s and a hatch spacing of 0.06 mm. When P = 50 W, a smaller molten pool is formed due to the lower heat generated by the Gaussian light source per unit time. This leads to a smaller track width, which results in adjacent track not lapping properly and the presence of a large number of unmelted powder particles, resulting in an increase in the number of defects, such as pores in the specimen. The surface of the track is relatively flat, and the depth is small. In addition, the temperature gradient before and after the molten pool was large, and the depression location appeared at the biased front end in Fig. 16(a). When P = 100 W, the surface of the track is flat and smooth with excellent lap. Due to the Marangoni effect, the velocity field of the molten pool is in the form of “vortex,” and the melt has good fluidity, and the maximum velocity reaches 2.15 m/s in Fig. 16(b). When P = 200 W, the heat generated by the Gaussian light source per unit time is too large, resulting in the melt rapidly reaching the evaporation temperature, generating a huge recoil pressure, forming a large molten pool, and the surface of the track is obviously raised. The melt movement is intense, especially the closed loop at the center end of the molten pool. At this time, the depth and width of the molten pool are large, leading to the expansion of the remolten region and the increased chance of the appearance of porosity defects in Fig. 16(c). The results show that at low laser power, the surface tension in the molten pool is dominant. At high laser power, recoil pressure is its main role.

FIG. 16.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Simulation results of double-track molten pool under different laser powers: (a) P = 50 W, (b) P = 100 W, (c) P = 200 W.

Table II shows the effect of different laser powers on the characteristic information of the double-track molten pool at a scanning speed of 800 mm/s and a hatch spacing of 0.06 mm. The negative overlapping ratio in the table indicates that the melt tracks are not lapped, and 26/29 indicates the melt depth of the first track/second track. It can be seen that with the increase in laser power, the melt depth, melt width, melt height, and remelted zone show a gradual increase. At the same time, the overlapping ratio also increases. Especially in the process of laser power from 50 to 200 W, the melting depth and melting width increased the most, which increased nearly 2 and 1.5 times, respectively. Meanwhile, the overlapping ratio also increases with the increase in laser power, which indicates that the melting and fusion of materials are better at high laser power. On the other hand, the dimensions of the molten pool did not change uniformly with the change of laser power. Specifically, the depth-to-width ratio of the molten pool increased from about 0.30 to 0.39 during the increase from 50 to 120 W, which further indicates that the effective heat transfer in the vertical direction is greater than that in the horizontal direction with the increase in laser power. This dimensional response to laser power is mainly affected by the recoil pressure and also by the difference in the densification degree between the powder layer and the metal substrate. In addition, according to the experimental results, the contact angle shows a tendency to increase and then decrease during the process of laser power increase, and always stays within the range of less than 33°. Therefore, in practical applications, it is necessary to select the appropriate laser power according to the specific needs in order to achieve the best processing results.

TABLE II.

Double-track molten pool characterization information at different laser powers.

Laser power (W)Depth (μm)Width (μm)Height (μm)Remolten region (μm)Overlapping ratio (%)Contact angle (°)
50 16 54 11 −10 23 
100 26/29 74 14 18 23.33 33 
200 37/45 116 21 52 93.33 28 

2. Scanning speed

Figure 17 demonstrates the effect of different scanning speeds on the morphology and temperature field of the double-track molten pool at a laser power of 100 W and a hatch spacing of 0.06 mm. With the gradual increase in scanning speed, the surface morphology of the molten pool evolves from circular to elliptical. When � = 200 mm/s, the slow scanning speed causes the material to absorb too much heat, which is very easy to trigger the overburning phenomenon. At this point, the molten pool is larger and the surface morphology is uneven. This situation is consistent with the previously discussed scenario with high laser power in Fig. 17(a). However, when � = 1600 mm/s, the scanning speed is too fast, resulting in the material not being able to absorb sufficient heat, which triggers the powder particles that fail to melt completely to have a direct effect on the bonding of the melt to the substrate. At this time, the molten pool volume is relatively small and the neighboring melt track cannot lap properly. This result is consistent with the previously discussed case of low laser power in Fig. 17(b). Overall, the ratio of the laser power to the scanning speed (the line energy density �⁠) has a direct effect on the temperature field and surface morphology of the molten pool.

FIG. 17.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Simulation results of double-track molten pool under different scanning speed: (a)  � = 200 mm/s, (b)  � = 1600 mm/s.

Table III shows the effects of different scanning speed on the characteristic information of the double-track molten pool under the condition of laser power of 100 W and hatch spacing of 0.06 mm. It can be seen that the scanning speed has a significant effect on the melt depth, melt width, melt height, remolten region, and overlapping ratio. With the increase in scanning speed, the melt depth, melt width, melt height, remelted zone, and overlapping ratio show a gradual decreasing trend. Among them, the melt depth and melt width decreased faster, while the melt height and remolten region decreased relatively slowly. In addition, when the scanning speed was increased from 200 to 800 mm/s, the decreasing speeds of melt depth and melt width were significantly accelerated, while the decreasing speeds of overlapping ratio were relatively slow. When the scanning speed was further increased to 1600 mm/s, the decreasing speeds of melt depth and melt width were further accelerated, and the un-lapped condition of the melt channel also appeared. In addition, the contact angle increases and then decreases with the scanning speed, and both are lower than 33°. Therefore, when selecting the scanning speed, it is necessary to make reasonable trade-offs according to the specific situation, and take into account the factors of melt depth, melt width, melt height, remolten region, and overlapping ratio, in order to achieve the best processing results.

TABLE III.

Double-track molten pool characterization information at different scanning speeds.

Scanning speed (mm/s)Depth (μm)Width (μm)Height (μm)Remolten region (μm)Overlapping ratio (%)Contact angle (°)
200 55/68 182 19/32 124 203.33 22 
1600 13 50 11 −16.67 31 

3. Hatch spacing

Figure 18 shows the effect of different hatch spacing on the morphology and temperature field of the double-track molten pool under the condition of laser power of 100 W and scanning speed of 800 mm/s. The surface morphology and temperature field of the first track and second track are basically the same, but slightly different. The first track shows a basically symmetric morphology along the scanning direction, while the second track shows a slight offset due to the difference in the heat transfer rate between the solidified material and the powder particles. When the hatch spacing is too small, the overlapping ratio increases and the probability of defects caused by remelting phenomenon grows. When the hatch spacing is too large, the neighboring melt track cannot overlap properly, and the powder particles are not completely melted, leading to an increase in the number of holes. In conclusion, the ratio of the line energy density � to the hatch spacing (the volume energy density E) has a significant effect on the temperature field and surface morphology of the molten pool.

FIG. 18.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Simulation results of double-track molten pool under different hatch spacings: (a) H = 0.03 mm, (b) H = 0.12 mm.

Table IV shows the effects of different hatch spacing on the characteristic information of the double-track molten pool under the condition of laser power of 100 W and scanning speed of 800 mm/s. It can be seen that the hatch spacing has little effect on the melt depth, melt width, and melt height, but has some effect on the remolten region. With the gradual expansion of hatch spacing, the remolten region shows a gradual decrease. At the same time, the overlapping ratio also decreased with the increase in hatch spacing. In addition, it is observed that the contact angle shows a tendency to increase and then remain stable when the hatch spacing increases, which has a more limited effect on it. Therefore, trade-offs and decisions need to be made on a case-by-case basis when selecting the hatch spacing.

TABLE IV.

Double-track molten pool characterization information at different hatch spacings.

Hatch spacing (mm)Depth (μm)Width (μm)Height (μm)Remolten region (μm)Overlapping ratio (%)Contact angle (°)
0.03 25/27 82 14 59 173.33 30 
0.12 26 78 14 −35 33 

In summary, the laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing have a significant effect on the formation of the molten pool, and the correct selection of these three process parameters is crucial to ensure the forming quality. In addition, the melt depth of the second track is slightly larger than that of the first track at higher line energy density � and volume energy density E. This is mainly due to the fact that a large amount of heat accumulation is generated after the first track, forming a larger molten pool volume, which leads to an increase in the melt depth.

D. Simulation analysis of molten pool with powder particle size and laser focal spot diameter

Figure 19 demonstrates the effect of different powder particle sizes and laser focal spot diameters on the morphology and temperature field of the double-track molten pool under a laser power of 100 W, a scanning speed of 800 mm/s, and a hatch spacing of 0.06 mm. In the process of melting coarse powder with small laser focal spot diameter, the laser energy cannot completely melt the larger powder particles, resulting in their partial melting and further generating excessive pore defects. The larger powder particles tend to generate zigzag molten pool edges, which cause an increase in the roughness of the melt track surface. In addition, the molten pool is also prone to generate the present spatter phenomenon, which can directly affect the quality of forming. The volume of the formed molten pool is relatively small, while the melt depth, melt width, and melt height are all smaller relative to the fine powder in Fig. 19(a). In the process of melting fine powders with a large laser focal spot diameter, the laser energy is able to melt the fine powder particles sufficiently, even to the point of overmelting. This results in a large number of fine spatters being generated at the edge of the molten pool, which causes porosity defects in the melt track in Fig. 19(b). In addition, the maximum velocity of the molten pool is larger for large powder particle sizes compared to small powder particle sizes, which indicates that the temperature gradient in the molten pool is larger for large powder particle sizes and the melt motion is more intense. However, the size of the laser focal spot diameter has a relatively small effect on the melt motion. However, a larger focal spot diameter induces a larger melt volume with greater depth, width, and height. In conclusion, a small powder size helps to reduce the surface roughness of the specimen, and a small laser spot diameter reduces the minimum forming size of a single track.

FIG. 19.

VIEW LARGEDOWNLOAD SLIDE

Simulation results of double-track molten pool with different powder particle size and laser focal spot diameter: (a) focal spot = 25 μm, coarse powder, (b) focal spot = 80 μm, fine powder.

Table V shows the maximum temperature gradient at the reference point for different powder sizes and laser focal spot diameters. As can be seen from the table, the maximum temperature gradient is lower than that of HP-LPBF for both coarse powders with a small laser spot diameter and fine powders with a large spot diameter, a phenomenon that leads to an increase in the heat transfer rate of HP-LPBF, which in turn leads to a corresponding increase in the cooling rate and, ultimately, to the formation of finer microstructures.

TABLE V.

Maximum temperature gradient at the reference point for different powder particle sizes and laser focal spot diameters.

Laser power (W)Scanning speed (mm/s)Hatch spacing (mm)Average powder size (μm)Laser focal spot diameter (μm)Maximum temperature gradient (×107 K/s)
100 800 0.06 31.7 25 7.89 
11.5 80 7.11 

IV. CONCLUSIONS

In this study, the geometrical characteristics of 3D coarse and fine powder particles were first calculated using DEM and then numerical simulations of single track and double track in the process of forming SS316L from monolayer HP-LPBF at mesoscopic scale were developed using CFD method. The effects of Marangoni convection, surface tension, recoil pressure, gravity, thermal convection, thermal radiation, and evaporative heat dissipation on the heat and mass transfer in the molten pool were considered in this model. The effects of laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing on the dynamics of the single-track and double-track molten pools, as well as on other characteristic information, were investigated. The effects of the powder particle size on the molten pool were investigated comparatively with the laser focal spot diameter. The main conclusions are as follows:

  1. The results show that the temperature gradient at the front of the molten pool is significantly larger than that at the tail, and the molten pool exhibits a “comet” morphology. At the top of the molten pool, there is a slightly concave region, which is the result of the coupling of Marangoni convection, recoil pressure, and surface tension. The melt flow forms two closed loops, which are mainly influenced by temperature gradients and surface tension. This special dynamic behavior of the melt tends to form an “elliptical” molten pool and an almost “mountain” shape in single-track forming.
  2. The basic characteristics of the three-dimensional morphology and temperature field of the second track are similar to those of the first track, but there are subtle differences. The first track exhibits a basically symmetrical shape; however, due to the difference in thermal diffusion rates between the solidified metal and the powder, a slight asymmetry in the molten pool morphology of the second track occurs. After forming through the first track, there is a significant heat buildup in the powder bed, resulting in a longer dynamic time of the melt, which increases the life of the molten pool. The heights of the first track and second track remained essentially the same, but the depth of the second track was greater relative to the first track. In addition, the maximum temperature gradient was 1.69 × 108 K/s during HP-LPBF forming.
  3. At low laser power, the surface tension in the molten pool plays a dominant role. At high laser power, recoil pressure becomes the main influencing factor. With the increase of laser power, the effective heat transfer in the vertical direction is superior to that in the horizontal direction. With the gradual increase of scanning speed, the surface morphology of the molten pool evolves from circular to elliptical. In addition, the scanning speed has a significant effect on the melt depth, melt width, melt height, remolten region, and overlapping ratio. Too large or too small hatch spacing will lead to remelting or non-lap phenomenon, which in turn causes the formation of defects.
  4. When using a small laser focal spot diameter, it is difficult to completely melt large powder particle sizes, resulting in partial melting and excessive porosity generation. At the same time, large powder particles produce curved edges of the molten pool, resulting in increased surface roughness of the melt track. In addition, spatter occurs, which directly affects the forming quality. At small focal spot diameters, the molten pool volume is relatively small, and the melt depth, the melt width, and the melt height are correspondingly small. Taken together, the small powder particle size helps to reduce surface roughness, while the small spot diameter reduces the forming size.

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Figure 1 | Schematic of the present research model with dimensions and macro-roughnesses installed.

On the hydraulic performance of the inclined drops: the effect of downstreammacro-roughness elements

경사 낙하의 수력학적 성능: 하류 거시 거칠기 요소의 영향

Farhoud Kalateh a,*, Ehsan Aminvash a and Rasoul Daneshfaraz b
a Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
b Faculty of Engineering, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran
*Corresponding author. E-mail: f.kalateh@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The main goal of the present study is to investigate the effects of macro-roughnesses downstream of the inclined drop through numerical models. Due to the vital importance of geometrical properties of the macro-roughnesses in the hydraulic performance and efficient energy dissipation downstream of inclined drops, two different geometries of macro-roughnesses, i.e., semi-circular and triangular geometries, have been investigated using the Flow-3D model. Numerical simulation showed that with the flow rate increase and relative critical depth, the flow energy consumption has decreased. Also, relative energy dissipation increases with the increase in height and slope angle, so that this amount of increase in energy loss compared to the smooth bed in semi-circular and triangular elements is 86.39 and 76.80%, respectively, in the inclined drop with a height of 15 cm and 86.99 and 65.78% in the drop with a height of 20 cm. The Froude number downstream on the uneven bed has been dramatically reduced, so this amount of reduction has been approximately 47 and 54% compared to the control condition. The relative depth of the downstream has also increased due to the turbulence of the flow on the uneven bed with the increase in the flow rate.

본 연구의 주요 목표는 수치 모델을 통해 경사 낙하 하류의 거시 거칠기 효과를 조사하는 것입니다. 수력학적 성능과 경사 낙하 하류의 효율적인 에너지 소산에서 거시 거칠기의 기하학적 특성이 매우 중요하기 때문에 두 가지 서로 다른 거시 거칠기 형상, 즉 반원형 및 삼각형 형상이 Flow를 사용하여 조사되었습니다.

3D 모델 수치 시뮬레이션을 통해 유량이 증가하고 상대 임계 깊이가 증가함에 따라 유동 에너지 소비가 감소하는 것으로 나타났습니다. 또한, 높이와 경사각이 증가함에 따라 상대적인 에너지 소산도 증가하는데, 반원형 요소와 삼각형 요소에서 평활층에 비해 에너지 손실의 증가량은 경사낙하에서 각각 86.39%와 76.80%입니다.

높이 15cm, 높이 20cm의 드롭에서 86.99%, 65.78%입니다. 고르지 못한 베드 하류의 프루드 수가 극적으로 감소하여 이 감소량은 대조 조건에 비해 약 47%와 54%였습니다. 유속이 증가함에 따라 고르지 못한 층에서의 흐름의 난류로 인해 하류의 상대적 깊이도 증가했습니다.

Key words

flow energy dissipation, Froude number, inclined drop, numerical simulation

Figure 1 | Schematic of the present research model with dimensions and macro-roughnesses installed.
Figure 1 | Schematic of the present research model with dimensions and macro-roughnesses installed.
Figure 2 | Meshing, boundary condition, and solution field network
Figure 2 | Meshing, boundary condition, and solution field network

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Effects of ramp slope and discharge on hydraulic performance of submerged hump weirs

Effects of ramp slope and discharge on hydraulic performance of submerged hump weirs

Arash Ahmadi a, Amir H. Azimi b

Abstract

험프 웨어는 수위 제어 및 배출 측정을 위한 기존의 수력 구조물 중 하나입니다. 상류 및 하류 경사로의 경사는 자유 및 침수 흐름 조건 모두에서 험프 웨어의 성능에 영향을 미치는 설계 매개변수입니다.

침수된 험프보의 유출 특성 및 수위 변화에 대한 램프 경사 및 유출의 영향을 조사하기 위해 일련의 수치 시뮬레이션이 수행되었습니다. 1V:1H에서 1V:5H까지의 5개 램프 경사를 다양한 업스트림 방전에서 테스트했습니다.

수치모델의 검증을 위해 수치결과를 실험실 데이터와 비교하였다. 수면수위 예측과 유출계수의 시뮬레이션 불일치는 각각 전체 범위의 ±10%와 ±5% 이내였습니다.

모듈 한계 및 방전 감소 계수의 변화에 대한 램프 경사의 영향을 연구했습니다. 험프보의 경사로 경사가 증가함에 따라 상대적으로 높은 침수율에서 모듈러 한계가 발생함을 알 수 있었다.

침수 시작은 방류 수위를 작은 증분으로 조심스럽게 증가시켜 모델링되었으며 그 결과는 모듈 한계의 고전적인 정의와 비교되었습니다. 램프 경사와 방전이 증가함에 따라 모듈러 한계가 증가하는 것으로 밝혀졌지만, 모듈러 한계의 고전적인 정의는 모듈러 한계가 방전과 무관하다는 것을 나타냅니다.

Hump weir 하류의 속도와 와류장은 램프 경사에 의해 제어되는 와류 구조 형성을 나타냅니다. 에너지 손실은 수치 출력으로부터 계산되었으며 정규화된 에너지 손실은 침수에 따라 선형적으로 감소하는 것으로 나타났습니다.

Hump weirs are amongst conventional hydraulic structures for water level control and discharge measurement. The slope in the upstream and downstream ramps is a design parameter that affects the performance of Hump weirs in both free and submerged flow conditions. A series of numerical simulations was performed to investigate the effects of ramp slope and discharge on discharge characteristics and water level variations of submerged Hump weirs. Five ramp slopes ranging from 1V:1H to 1V:5H were tested at different upstream discharges. The numerical results were compared with the laboratory data for verifications of the numerical model. The simulation discrepancies in prediction of water surface level and discharge coefficient were within ±10 % and ±5 % of the full range, respectively. The effects of ramp slope on variations of modular limit and discharge reduction factor were studied. It was found that the modular limit occurred at relatively higher submergence ratios as the ramp slope in Hump weirs increased. The onset of submergence was modeled by carefully increasing tailwater level with small increments and the results were compared with the classic definition of modular limit. It was found that the modular limit increases with increasing the ramp slope and discharge while the classic definition of modular limit indicated that the modular limit is independent of the discharge. The velocity and vortex fields in the downstream of Hump weirs indicated the formation vortex structure, which is controlled by the ramp slope. The energy losses were calculated from the numerical outputs, and it was found that the normalized energy losses decreased linearly with submergence.

Introduction

Weirs have been utilized predominantly for discharge measurement, flow diversion, and water level control in open channels, irrigation canal, and natural streams due to their simplicity of operation and accuracy. Several research studies have been conducted to determine the head-discharge relationship in weirs as one of the most common hydraulic structures for flow measurement (Rajaratnam and Muralidhar, 1969 [[1], [2], [3]]; Vatankhah, 2010, [[4], [5], [6]]; b [[7], [8], [9]]; Azimi and Seyed Hakim, 2019; Salehi et al., 2019; Salehi and Azimi, 2019, [10]. Weirs in general are classified into two major categories named as sharp-crested weirs and weirs of finite-crest length (Rajaratnam and Muralidhar, 1969; [11]. Sharp-crested weirs are typically used for flow measurement in small irrigation canals and laboratory flumes. In contrast, weirs of finite crest length are more suitable for water level control and flow diversion in rivers and natural streams [7,[12], [13], [14]].

The head-discharge relationship in sharp-crested weirs is developed by employing energy equation between two sections in the upstream and downstream of the weir and integration of the velocity profile at the crest of the weir as:

where Qf is the free flow discharge, B is the channel width, g is the acceleration due to gravity, ho is the water head in free-flow condition, and Cd is the discharge coefficient. Rehbock [15] proposed a linear correlation between discharge coefficient and the ratio of water head, ho, and the weir height, P as Cd = 0.605 + 0.08 (ho/P).

Upstream and/or downstream ramp(s) can be added to sharp-crested weirs to enhance the structural stability of the weir. A sharp-crested weir with upstream and/or downstream ramp(s) are known as triangular weirs in the literature. Triangular weirs with both upstream and downstream ramps are also known as Hump weirs and are first introduced in the experimental study of Bazin [16]. The ramps are constructed upstream and downstream of sharp-crested weirs to enhance the weir’s structural integrity and improve the hydraulic performance of the weir. In free-flow condition, the discharge coefficient of Hump weirs increases with increasing downstream ramp slope but decreases as upstream ramp slope increases (Azimi et al., 2013).

The hydraulic performance of weirs is evaluated in both free and submerged flow conditions. In free flow condition, water freely flows over weirs since the downstream water level is lower than that of the crest level of the weir. Channel blockage or flood in the downstream of weirs can raise the tailwater level, t. As tailwater passes the crest elevation in sharp-crested weirs, the upstream flow decelerates due to the excess pressure force in the downstream and the upstream water level increases. The onset of water level raise due to tailwater raise is called the modular limit. Once the tailwater level passes the modular limit, the weir is submerged. In sharp-crested weirs, the submerged flow regime may occur even before the tailwater reaches the crest elevation [8,14], whereas, in weirs of finite crest length, the upstream water level remains unchanged even if the tailwater raises above the crest elevation and it normally causes submergence once the tailwater level passes the critical depth at the crest of the weir [7,17]. The degree of submergence can be estimated by careful observation of the water surface profile. Observations of water surface at different submergence levels indicated two distinct flow patterns in submerged sharp-crested weirs that was initially classified as impinging jet and surface flow regimes [14]. [8] analyzed the variations of water surface profiles over submerged sharp-crested weirs with different submergence ratios and defined four distinct regimes of impinging jet, surface jump, surface wave, and surface jet.

[18] characterized the onset of submergence by defining the modular limit as a stage when the free flow head increases by +1 mm due to tailwater rise. The definition of modular limit is somewhat arbitrary, and it is difficult to identify for large discharges because the upstream water surface begins to fluctuate. This definition did not consider the effects of channel and weir geometries. The experimental data in triangular weirs and weirs finite-crest length with upstream and downstream ramp(s) revealed that the modular limit varied with the ratio of the free-flow head to the total streamwise length of the weir [17]. Weirs of finite crest length with upstream and downstream ramps are known as embankment weirs in literature [1,19,20] and Azimi et al., 2013) [19]. conducted two series of laboratory experiments to study the hydraulics of submerged embankment weirs with the upstream and downstream ramps of 1V:1H and 1V:2H. Empirical correlations were proposed to directly estimate the flow discharge in submerged embankment weirs for t/h > 0.7 where h is the water head in submerged flow condition. He found that the free flow discharge is a function of upstream water head, but the submerged discharge is a function of submergence level, t/h [21]. studied the hydraulics of four embankment weirs with different weir heights ranging from 0.09 m to 0.36 m. It was found that submerged embankments with a higher ho/P, where P is the height of the weir, have a smaller discharge reduction due to submergence. Effects of crest length in embankment weirs with both upstream and downstream ramps of 1V:2H was studied in both free and submerged flow conditions [1]. It was found that the modular limit in submerged embankment weirs decreased linearly with the relative crest length, Ho/(Ho + L), where Ho is the total head and L is the crest length.

In submerged flow condition, the performance of weirs is quantified by the discharge reduction factor, ψ, which is a ratio of the submerged discharge, Qs, to the corresponding free-flow discharge, Qf, based on the upstream head, h [12]. In submerged-flow conditions, flow discharge can be estimated as:��=���

[1] proposed a formula to predict ψ that could be used for embankment weirs with different crest lengths ranging from 0 to 0.3 m as:�=(1−��)�where n is an exponent varying from 4 to 7 and Yt is the normalized submergence defined as:��=�ℎ−[0.85−(0.5��+�)]1−[0.85−(0.5��+�)]where H is the total upstream head in submerged-flow conditions [7]. proposed a simpler formula to predict ψ for weirs of finite-crest length as:�=[1−(�ℎ)�]�where m and n are exponents varying for different types of weirs. Hakim and Azimi (2017) employed regression analysis to propose values of n = 0.25 and m = 0.28 (ho/L)−2.425 for triangular weirs.

The discharge capacity of weirs decreases in submerged flow condition and the onset of submergence occurs at the modular limit. Therefore, the determination of modular limit in weirs with different geometries is critical to understanding the sensitivity of a particular weir model with tailwater level variations. The available definition of modular limit as when head water raises by +1 mm due to tailwater rise does not consider the effects of channel and weir geometries. Therefore, a new and more accurate definition of modular limit is proposed in this study to consider the effect of other geometry and approaching flow parameters. The second objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of upstream and downstream ramps and ramps slopes on the hydraulic performance of submerged Hump weirs. The flow patterns, velocity distributions, and energy dissipation rates were extracted from validated numerical data to better understand the discharge reduction mechanism in Hump weirs in both free and submerged flow conditions.

Section snippets

Governing equations

Numerical simulation has been employed as an efficient and effective method to analyze free surface flow problems and in particular investigating on the hydraulics of flow over weirs [22]. The weir models were developed in numerical domain and the water pressure and velocity field were simulated by employing the FLOW-3D solver (Flow Science, Inc., Santa Fe, USA). The numerical results were validated with the laboratory measurements and the effects of ramps slopes on the performance of Hump

Verification of numerical model

The experimental observations of Bazin [16,17] were used for model validation in free and submerged flow conditions, respectively. The weir height in the study of Bazin was P = 0.5 m and two ramp slopes of 1V:1H and 1V:2H were tested. The bed and sides of the channel were made of glass, and the roughness distribution of the bed and walls were uniform. The Hump weir models in the study of Seyed Hakim and Azimi (2017) had a weir height of 0.076 m and ramp slopes of 1V:2H in both upstream and

Conclusions

A series of numerical simulations was performed to study the hydraulics and velocity pattern downstream of a Hump weir with symmetrical ramp slopes. Effects of ramp slope and discharge on formation of modular limit and in submerged flow condition were tested by conducting a series of numerical simulations on Hump weirs with ramp slopes varying from 1V:1H to 1V:5H. A comparison between numerical results and experimental data indicated that the proposed numerical model is accurate with a mean

Author contributions

Arash Ahmadi: Software, Validation, Visualization, Writing – original draft. Amir Azimi: Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Uncited References

[30]; [31]; [32]; [33].

Declaration of competing interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

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Fig. 9 From: An Investigation on Hydraulic Aspects of Rectangular Labyrinth Pool and Weir Fishway Using FLOW-3D

An Investigation on Hydraulic Aspects of Rectangular Labyrinth Pool and Weir Fishway Using FLOW-3D

Abstract

웨어의 두 가지 서로 다른 배열(즉, 직선형 웨어와 직사각형 미로 웨어)을 사용하여 웨어 모양, 웨어 간격, 웨어의 오리피스 존재, 흐름 영역에 대한 바닥 경사와 같은 기하학적 매개변수의 영향을 평가했습니다.

유량과 수심의 관계, 수심 평균 속도의 변화와 분포, 난류 특성, 어도에서의 에너지 소산. 흐름 조건에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위해 FLOW-3D® 소프트웨어를 사용하여 전산 유체 역학 시뮬레이션을 수행했습니다.

수치 모델은 계산된 표면 프로파일과 속도를 문헌의 실험적으로 측정된 값과 비교하여 검증되었습니다. 수치 모델과 실험 데이터의 결과, 급락유동의 표면 프로파일과 표준화된 속도 프로파일에 대한 평균 제곱근 오차와 평균 절대 백분율 오차가 각각 0.014m와 3.11%로 나타나 수치 모델의 능력을 확인했습니다.

수영장과 둑의 흐름 특성을 예측합니다. 각 모델에 대해 L/B = 1.83(L: 웨어 거리, B: 수로 폭) 값에서 급락 흐름이 발생할 수 있고 L/B = 0.61에서 스트리밍 흐름이 발생할 수 있습니다. 직사각형 미로보 모델은 기존 모델보다 무차원 방류량(Q+)이 더 큽니다.

수중 흐름의 기존 보와 직사각형 미로 보의 경우 Q는 각각 1.56과 1.47h에 비례합니다(h: 보 위 수심). 기존 웨어의 풀 내 평균 깊이 속도는 직사각형 미로 웨어의 평균 깊이 속도보다 높습니다.

그러나 주어진 방류량, 바닥 경사 및 웨어 간격에 대해 난류 운동 에너지(TKE) 및 난류 강도(TI) 값은 기존 웨어에 비해 직사각형 미로 웨어에서 더 높습니다. 기존의 웨어는 직사각형 미로 웨어보다 에너지 소산이 더 낮습니다.

더 낮은 TKE 및 TI 값은 미로 웨어 상단, 웨어 하류 벽 모서리, 웨어 측벽과 채널 벽 사이에서 관찰되었습니다. 보와 바닥 경사면 사이의 거리가 증가함에 따라 평균 깊이 속도, 난류 운동 에너지의 평균값 및 난류 강도가 증가하고 수영장의 체적 에너지 소산이 감소했습니다.

둑에 개구부가 있으면 평균 깊이 속도와 TI 값이 증가하고 풀 내에서 가장 높은 TKE 범위가 감소하여 두 모델 모두에서 물고기를 위한 휴식 공간이 더 넓어지고(TKE가 낮아짐) 에너지 소산율이 감소했습니다.

Two different arrangements of the weir (i.e., straight weir and rectangular labyrinth weir) were used to evaluate the effects of geometric parameters such as weir shape, weir spacing, presence of an orifice at the weir, and bed slope on the flow regime and the relationship between discharge and depth, variation and distribution of depth-averaged velocity, turbulence characteristics, and energy dissipation at the fishway. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed using FLOW-3D® software to examine the effects on flow conditions. The numerical model was validated by comparing the calculated surface profiles and velocities with experimentally measured values from the literature. The results of the numerical model and experimental data showed that the root-mean-square error and mean absolute percentage error for the surface profiles and normalized velocity profiles of plunging flows were 0.014 m and 3.11%, respectively, confirming the ability of the numerical model to predict the flow characteristics of the pool and weir. A plunging flow can occur at values of L/B = 1.83 (L: distance of the weir, B: width of the channel) and streaming flow at L/B = 0.61 for each model. The rectangular labyrinth weir model has larger dimensionless discharge values (Q+) than the conventional model. For the conventional weir and the rectangular labyrinth weir at submerged flow, Q is proportional to 1.56 and 1.47h, respectively (h: the water depth above the weir). The average depth velocity in the pool of a conventional weir is higher than that of a rectangular labyrinth weir. However, for a given discharge, bed slope, and weir spacing, the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulence intensity (TI) values are higher for a rectangular labyrinth weir compared to conventional weir. The conventional weir has lower energy dissipation than the rectangular labyrinth weir. Lower TKE and TI values were observed at the top of the labyrinth weir, at the corner of the wall downstream of the weir, and between the side walls of the weir and the channel wall. As the distance between the weirs and the bottom slope increased, the average depth velocity, the average value of turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulence intensity increased, and the volumetric energy dissipation in the pool decreased. The presence of an opening in the weir increased the average depth velocity and TI values and decreased the range of highest TKE within the pool, resulted in larger resting areas for fish (lower TKE), and decreased the energy dissipation rates in both models.

1 Introduction

Artificial barriers such as detour dams, weirs, and culverts in lakes and rivers prevent fish from migrating and completing the upstream and downstream movement cycle. This chain is related to the life stage of the fish, its location, and the type of migration. Several riverine fish species instinctively migrate upstream for spawning and other needs. Conversely, downstream migration is a characteristic of early life stages [1]. A fish ladder is a waterway that allows one or more fish species to cross a specific obstacle. These structures are constructed near detour dams and other transverse structures that have prevented such migration by allowing fish to overcome obstacles [2]. The flow pattern in fish ladders influences safe and comfortable passage for ascending fish. The flow’s strong turbulence can reduce the fish’s speed, injure them, and delay or prevent them from exiting the fish ladder. In adult fish, spawning migrations are usually complex, and delays are critical to reproductive success [3].

Various fish ladders/fishways include vertical slots, denil, rock ramps, and pool weirs [1]. The choice of fish ladder usually depends on many factors, including water elevation, space available for construction, and fish species. Pool and weir structures are among the most important fish ladders that help fish overcome obstacles in streams or rivers and swim upstream [1]. Because they are easy to construct and maintain, this type of fish ladder has received considerable attention from researchers and practitioners. Such a fish ladder consists of a sloping-floor channel with series of pools directly separated by a series of weirs [4]. These fish ladders, with or without underwater openings, are generally well-suited for slopes of 10% or less [12]. Within these pools, flow velocities are low and provide resting areas for fish after they enter the fish ladder. After resting in the pools, fish overcome these weirs by blasting or jumping over them [2]. There may also be an opening in the flooded portion of the weir through which the fish can swim instead of jumping over the weir. Design parameters such as the length of the pool, the height of the weir, the slope of the bottom, and the water discharge are the most important factors in determining the hydraulic structure of this type of fish ladder [3]. The flow over the weir depends on the flow depth at a given slope S0 and the pool length, either “plunging” or “streaming.” In plunging flow, the water column h over each weir creates a water jet that releases energy through turbulent mixing and diffusion mechanisms [5]. The dimensionless discharges for plunging (Q+) and streaming (Q*) flows are shown in Fig. 1, where Q is the total discharge, B is the width of the channel, w is the weir height, S0 is the slope of the bottom, h is the water depth above the weir, d is the flow depth, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The maximum velocity occurs near the top of the weir for plunging flow. At the water’s surface, it drops to about half [6].

figure 1
Fig. 1

Extensive experimental studies have been conducted to investigate flow patterns for various physical geometries (i.e., bed slope, pool length, and weir height) [2]. Guiny et al. [7] modified the standard design by adding vertical slots, orifices, and weirs in fishways. The efficiency of the orifices and vertical slots was related to the velocities at their entrances. In the laboratory experiments of Yagci [8], the three-dimensional (3D) mean flow and turbulence structure of a pool weir fishway combined with an orifice and a slot is investigated. It is shown that the energy dissipation per unit volume and the discharge have a linear relationship.

Considering the beneficial characteristics reported in the limited studies of researchers on the labyrinth weir in the pool-weir-type fishway, and knowing that the characteristics of flow in pool-weir-type fishways are highly dependent on the geometry of the weir, an alternative design of the rectangular labyrinth weir instead of the straight weirs in the pool-weir-type fishway is investigated in this study [79]. Kim [10] conducted experiments to compare the hydraulic characteristics of three different weir types in a pool-weir-type fishway. The results show that a straight, rectangular weir with a notch is preferable to a zigzag or trapezoidal weir. Studies on natural fish passes show that pass ability can be improved by lengthening the weir’s crest [7]. Zhong et al. [11] investigated the semi-rigid weir’s hydraulic performance in the fishway’s flow field with a pool weir. The results showed that this type of fishway performed better with a lower invert slope and a smaller radius ratio but with a larger pool spacing.

Considering that an alternative method to study the flow characteristics in a fishway with a pool weir is based on numerical methods and modeling from computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which can easily change the geometry of the fishway for different flow fields, this study uses the powerful package CFD and the software FLOW-3D to evaluate the proposed weir design and compare it with the conventional one to extend the application of the fishway. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the hydraulic performance of the rectangular labyrinth pool and the weir with submerged openings in different hydraulic configurations. The primary objective of creating a new weir configuration for suitable flow patterns is evaluated based on the swimming capabilities of different fish species. Specifically, the following questions will be answered: (a) How do the various hydraulic and geometric parameters relate to the effects of water velocity and turbulence, expressed as turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulence intensity (TI) within the fishway, i.e., are conventional weirs more affected by hydraulics than rectangular labyrinth weirs? (b) Which weir configurations have the greatest effect on fish performance in the fishway? (c) In the presence of an orifice plate, does the performance of each weir configuration differ with different weir spacing, bed gradients, and flow regimes from that without an orifice plate?

2 Materials and Methods

2.1 Physical Model Configuration

This paper focuses on Ead et al. [6]’s laboratory experiments as a reference, testing ten pool weirs (Fig. 2). The experimental flume was 6 m long, 0.56 m wide, and 0.6 m high, with a bottom slope of 10%. Field measurements were made at steady flow with a maximum flow rate of 0.165 m3/s. Discharge was measured with magnetic flow meters in the inlets and water level with point meters (see Ead et al. [6]. for more details). Table 1 summarizes the experimental conditions considered for model calibration in this study.

figure 2
Fig. 2

Table 1 Experimental conditions considered for calibration

Full size table

2.2 Numerical Models

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using FLOW-3D® v11.2 to validate a series of experimental liner pool weirs by Ead et al. [6] and to investigate the effects of the rectangular labyrinth pool weir with an orifice. The dimensions of the channel and data collection areas in the numerical models are the same as those of the laboratory model. Two types of pool weirs were considered: conventional and labyrinth. The proposed rectangular labyrinth pool weirs have a symmetrical cross section and are sized to fit within the experimental channel. The conventional pool weir model had a pool length of l = 0.685 and 0.342 m, a weir height of w = 0.141 m, a weir width of B = 0.56 m, and a channel slope of S0 = 5 and 10%. The rectangular labyrinth weirs have the same front width as the offset, i.e., a = b = c = 0.186 m. A square underwater opening with a width of 0.05 m and a depth of 0.05 m was created in the middle of the weir. The weir configuration considered in the present study is shown in Fig. 3.

figure 3
Fig. 3

2.3 Governing Equations

FLOW-3D® software solves the Navier–Stokes–Reynolds equations for three-dimensional analysis of incompressible flows using the fluid-volume method on a gridded domain. FLOW -3D® uses an advanced free surface flow tracking algorithm (TruVOF) developed by Hirt and Nichols [12], where fluid configurations are defined in terms of a VOF function F (xyzt). In this case, F (fluid fraction) represents the volume fraction occupied by the fluid: F = 1 in cells filled with fluid and F = 0 in cells without fluid (empty areas) [413]. The free surface area is at an intermediate value of F. (Typically, F = 0.5, but the user can specify a different intermediate value.) The equations in Cartesian coordinates (xyz) applicable to the model are as follows:

�f∂�∂�+∂(���x)∂�+∂(���y)∂�+∂(���z)∂�=�SOR

(1)

∂�∂�+1�f(��x∂�∂�+��y∂�∂�+��z∂�∂�)=−1�∂�∂�+�x+�x

(2)

∂�∂�+1�f(��x∂�∂�+��y∂�∂�+��z∂�∂�)=−1�∂�∂�+�y+�y

(3)

∂�∂�+1�f(��x∂�∂�+��y∂�∂�+��z∂�∂�)=−1�∂�∂�+�z+�z

(4)

where (uvw) are the velocity components, (AxAyAz) are the flow area components, (Gx, Gy, Gz) are the mass accelerations, and (fxfyfz) are the viscous accelerations in the directions (xyz), ρ is the fluid density, RSOR is the spring term, Vf is the volume fraction associated with the flow, and P is the pressure. The kε turbulence model (RNG) was used in this study to solve the turbulence of the flow field. This model is a modified version of the standard kε model that improves performance. The model is a two-equation model; the first equation (Eq. 5) expresses the turbulence’s energy, called turbulent kinetic energy (k) [14]. The second equation (Eq. 6) is the turbulent dissipation rate (ε), which determines the rate of dissipation of kinetic energy [15]. These equations are expressed as follows Dasineh et al. [4]:

∂(��)∂�+∂(����)∂��=∂∂��[������∂�∂��]+��−�ε

(5)

∂(�ε)∂�+∂(�ε��)∂��=∂∂��[�ε�eff∂ε∂��]+�1εε��k−�2ε�ε2�

(6)

In these equations, k is the turbulent kinetic energy, ε is the turbulent energy consumption rate, Gk is the generation of turbulent kinetic energy by the average velocity gradient, with empirical constants αε = αk = 1.39, C1ε = 1.42, and C2ε = 1.68, eff is the effective viscosity, μeff = μ + μt [15]. Here, μ is the hydrodynamic density coefficient, and μt is the turbulent density of the fluid.

2.4 Meshing and the Boundary Conditions in the Model Setup

The numerical area is divided into three mesh blocks in the X-direction. The meshes are divided into different sizes, a containing mesh block for the entire spatial domain and a nested block with refined cells for the domain of interest. Three different sizes were selected for each of the grid blocks. By comparing the accuracy of their results based on the experimental data, the reasonable mesh for the solution domain was finally selected. The convergence index method (GCI) evaluated the mesh sensitivity analysis. Based on this method, many researchers, such as Ahmadi et al. [16] and Ahmadi et al. [15], have studied the independence of numerical results from mesh size. Three different mesh sizes with a refinement ratio (r) of 1.33 were used to perform the convergence index method. The refinement ratio is the ratio between the larger and smaller mesh sizes (r = Gcoarse/Gfine). According to the recommendation of Celik et al. [17], the recommended number for the refinement ratio is 1.3, which gives acceptable results. Table 2 shows the characteristics of the three mesh sizes selected for mesh sensitivity analysis.Table 2 Characteristics of the meshes tested in the convergence analysis

Full size table

The results of u1 = umax (u1 = velocity component along the x1 axis and umax = maximum velocity of u1 in a section perpendicular to the invert of the fishway) at Q = 0.035 m3/s, × 1/l = 0.66, and Y1/b = 0 in the pool of conventional weir No. 4, obtained from the output results of the software, were used to evaluate the accuracy of the calculation range. As shown in Fig. 4x1 = the distance from a given weir in the x-direction, Y1 = the water depth measured in the y-direction, Y0 = the vertical distance in the Cartesian coordinate system, h = the water column at the crest, b = the distance between the two points of maximum velocity umax and zero velocity, and l = the pool length.

figure 4
Fig. 4

The apparent index of convergence (p) in the GCI method is calculated as follows:

�=ln⁡(�3−�2)(�2−�1)/ln⁡(�)

(7)

f1f2, and f3 are the hydraulic parameters obtained from the numerical simulation (f1 corresponds to the small mesh), and r is the refinement ratio. The following equation defines the convergence index of the fine mesh:

GCIfine=1.25|ε|��−1

(8)

Here, ε = (f2 − f1)/f1 is the relative error, and f2 and f3 are the values of hydraulic parameters considered for medium and small grids, respectively. GCI12 and GCI23 dimensionless indices can be calculated as:

GCI12=1.25|�2−�1�1|��−1

(9)

Then, the independence of the network is preserved. The convergence index of the network parameters obtained by Eqs. (7)–(9) for all three network variables is shown in Table 3. Since the GCI values for the smaller grid (GCI12) are lower compared to coarse grid (GCI23), it can be concluded that the independence of the grid is almost achieved. No further change in the grid size of the solution domain is required. The calculated values (GCI23/rpGCI12) are close to 1, which shows that the numerical results obtained are within the convergence range. As a result, the meshing of the solution domain consisting of a block mesh with a mesh size of 0.012 m and a block mesh within a larger block mesh with a mesh size of 0.009 m was selected as the optimal mesh (Fig. 5).Table 3 GCI calculation

Full size table

figure 5
Fig. 5

The boundary conditions applied to the area are shown in Fig. 6. The boundary condition of specific flow rate (volume flow rate-Q) was used for the inlet of the flow. For the downstream boundary, the flow output (outflow-O) condition did not affect the flow in the solution area. For the Zmax boundary, the specified pressure boundary condition was used along with the fluid fraction = 0 (P). This type of boundary condition considers free surface or atmospheric pressure conditions (Ghaderi et al. [19]). The wall boundary condition is defined for the bottom of the channel, which acts like a virtual wall without friction (W). The boundary between mesh blocks and walls were considered a symmetrical condition (S).

figure 6
Fig. 6

The convergence of the steady-state solutions was controlled during the simulations by monitoring the changes in discharge at the inlet boundary conditions. Figure 7 shows the time series plots of the discharge obtained from the Model A for the three main discharges from the numerical results. The 8 s to reach the flow equilibrium is suitable for the case of the fish ladder with pool and weir. Almost all discharge fluctuations in the models are insignificant in time, and the flow has reached relative stability. The computation time for the simulations was between 6 and 8 h using a personal computer with eight cores of a CPU (Intel Core i7-7700K @ 4.20 GHz and 16 GB RAM).

figure 7
Fig. 7

3 Results

3.1 Verification of Numerical Results

Quantitative outcomes, including free surface and normalized velocity profiles obtained using FLOW-3D software, were reviewed and compared with the results of Ead et al. [6]. The fourth pool was selected to present the results and compare the experiment and simulation. For each quantity, the percentage of mean absolute error (MAPE (%)) and root-mean-square error (RMSE) are calculated. Equations (10) and (11) show the method used to calculate the errors.

MAPE(%)100×1�∑1�|�exp−�num�exp|

(10)

RMSE(−)1�∑1�(�exp−�num)2

(11)

Here, Xexp is the value of the laboratory data, Xnum is the numerical data value, and n is the amount of data. As shown in Fig. 8, let x1 = distance from a given weir in the x-direction and Y1 = water depth in the y-direction from the bottom. The trend of the surface profiles for each of the numerical results is the same as that of the laboratory results. The surface profiles of the plunging flows drop after the flow enters and then rises to approach the next weir. The RMSE and MAPE error values for Model A are 0.014 m and 3.11%, respectively, indicating acceptable agreement between numerical and laboratory results. Figure 9 shows the velocity vectors and plunging flow from the numerical results, where x and y are horizontal and vertical to the flow direction, respectively. It can be seen that the jet in the fish ladder pool has a relatively high velocity. The two vortices, i.e., the enclosed vortex rotating clockwise behind the weir and the surface vortex rotating counterclockwise above the jet, are observed for the regime of incident flow. The point where the jet meets the fish passage bed is shown in the figure. The normalized velocity profiles upstream and downstream of the impact points are shown in Fig. 10. The figure shows that the numerical results agree well with the experimental data of Ead et al. [6].

figure 8
Fig. 8
figure 9
Fig. 9
figure 10
Fig. 10

3.2 Flow Regime and Discharge-Depth Relationship

Depending on the geometric shape of the fishway, including the distance of the weir, the slope of the bottom, the height of the weir, and the flow conditions, the flow regime in the fishway is divided into three categories: dipping, transitional, and flow regimes [4]. In the plunging flow regime, the flow enters the pool through the weir, impacts the bottom of the fishway, and forms a hydraulic jump causing two eddies [220]. In the streamwise flow regime, the surface of the flow passing over the weir is almost parallel to the bottom of the channel. The transitional regime has intermediate flow characteristics between the submerged and flow regimes. To predict the flow regime created in the fishway, Ead et al. [6] proposed two dimensionless parameters, Qt* and L/w, where Qt* is the dimensionless discharge, L is the distance between weirs, and w is the height of the weir:

��∗=���0���

(12)

Q is the total discharge, B is the width of the channel, S0 is the slope of the bed, and g is the gravity acceleration. Figure 11 shows different ranges for each flow regime based on the slope of the bed and the distance between the pools in this study. The results of Baki et al. [21], Ead et al. [6] and Dizabadi et al. [22] were used for this comparison. The distance between the pools affects the changes in the regime of the fish ladder. So, if you decrease the distance between weirs, the flow regime more likely becomes. This study determined all three flow regimes in a fish ladder. When the corresponding range of Qt* is less than 0.6, the flow regime can dip at values of L/B = 1.83. If the corresponding range of Qt* is greater than 0.5, transitional flow may occur at L/B = 1.22. On the other hand, when Qt* is greater than 1, streamwise flow can occur at values of L/B = 0.61. These observations agree well with the results of Baki et al. [21], Ead et al. [6] and Dizabadi et al. [22].

figure 11
Fig. 11

For plunging flows, another dimensionless discharge (Q+) versus h/w given by Ead et al. [6] was used for further evaluation:

�+=��ℎ�ℎ=23�d�

(13)

where h is the water depth above the weir, and Cd is the discharge coefficient. Figure 12a compares the numerical and experimental results of Ead et al. [6]. In this figure, Rehbock’s empirical equation is used to estimate the discharge coefficient of Ead et al. [6].

�d=0.57+0.075ℎ�

(14)

figure 12
Fig. 12

The numerical results for the conventional weir (Model A) and the rectangular labyrinth weir (Model B) of this study agree well with the laboratory results of Ead et al. [6]. When comparing models A and B, it is also found that a rectangular labyrinth weir has larger Q + values than the conventional weir as the length of the weir crest increases for a given channel width and fixed headwater elevation. In Fig. 12b, Models A and B’s flow depth plot shows the plunging flow regime. The power trend lines drawn through the data are the best-fit lines. The data shown in Fig. 12b are for different bed slopes and weir geometries. For the conventional weir and the rectangular labyrinth weir at submerged flow, Q can be assumed to be proportional to 1.56 and 1.47h, respectively. In the results of Ead et al. [6], Q is proportional to 1.5h. If we assume that the flow through the orifice is Qo and the total outflow is Q, the change in the ratio of Qo/Q to total outflow for models A and B can be shown in Fig. 13. For both models, the flow through the orifice decreases as the total flow increases. A logarithmic trend line was also found between the total outflow and the dimensionless ratio Qo/Q.

figure 13
Fig. 13

3.3 Depth-Averaged Velocity Distributions

To ensure that the target fish species can pass the fish ladder with maximum efficiency, the average velocity in the fish ladder should be low enough [4]. Therefore, the average velocity in depth should be as much as possible below the critical swimming velocities of the target fishes at a constant flow depth in the pool [20]. The contour plot of depth-averaged velocity was used instead of another direction, such as longitudinal velocity because fish are more sensitive to depth-averaged flow velocity than to its direction under different hydraulic conditions. Figure 14 shows the distribution of depth-averaged velocity in the pool for Models A and B in two cases with and without orifice plates. Model A’s velocity within the pool differs slightly in the spanwise direction. However, no significant variation in velocity was observed. The flow is gradually directed to the sides as it passes through the rectangular labyrinth weir. This increases the velocity at the sides of the channel. Therefore, the high-velocity zone is located at the sides. The low velocity is in the downstream apex of the weir. This area may be suitable for swimming target fish. The presence of an opening in the weir increases the flow velocity at the opening and in the pool’s center, especially in Model A. The flow velocity increase caused by the models’ opening varied from 7.7 to 12.48%. Figure 15 illustrates the effect of the inverted slope on the averaged depth velocity distribution in the pool at low and high discharge. At constant discharge, flow velocity increases with increasing bed slope. In general, high flow velocity was found in the weir toe sidewall and the weir and channel sidewalls.

figure 14
Fig. 14
figure 15
Fig. 15

On the other hand, for a constant bed slope, the high-velocity area of the pool increases due to the increase in runoff. For both bed slopes and different discharges, the most appropriate path for fish to travel from upstream to downstream is through the middle of the cross section and along the top of the rectangular labyrinth weirs. The maximum dominant velocities for Model B at S0 = 5% were 0.83 and 1.01 m/s; at S0 = 10%, they were 1.12 and 1.61 m/s at low and high flows, respectively. The low mean velocities for the same distance and S0 = 5 and 10% were 0.17 and 0.26 m/s, respectively.

Figure 16 shows the contour of the averaged depth velocity for various distances from the weir at low and high discharge. The contour plot shows a large variation in velocity within short distances from the weir. At L/B = 0.61, velocities are low upstream and downstream of the top of the weir. The high velocities occur in the side walls of the weir and the channel. At L/B = 1.22, the low-velocity zone displaces the higher velocity in most of the pool. Higher velocities were found only on the sides of the channel. As the discharge increases, the velocity zone in the pool becomes wider. At L/B = 1.83, there is an area of higher velocities only upstream of the crest and on the sides of the weir. At high discharge, the prevailing maximum velocities for L/B = 0.61, 1.22, and 1.83 were 1.46, 1.65, and 1.84 m/s, respectively. As the distance between weirs increases, the range of maximum velocity increases.

figure 16
Fig. 16

On the other hand, the low mean velocity for these distances was 0.27, 0.44, and 0.72 m/s, respectively. Thus, the low-velocity zone decreases with increasing distance between weirs. Figure 17 shows the pattern distribution of streamlines along with the velocity contour at various distances from the weir for Q = 0.05 m3/s. A stream-like flow is generally formed in the pool at a small distance between weirs (L/B = 0.61). The rotation cell under the jet forms clockwise between the two weirs. At the distances between the spillways (L/B = 1.22), the transition regime of the flow is formed. The transition regime occurs when or shortly after the weir is flooded. The rotation cell under the jet is clockwise smaller than the flow regime and larger than the submergence regime. At a distance L/B = 1.83, a plunging flow is formed so that the plunging jet dips into the pool and extends downstream to the center of the pool. The clockwise rotation of the cell is bounded by the dipping jet of the weir and is located between the bottom and the side walls of the weir and the channel.

figure 17
Fig. 17

Figure 18 shows the average depth velocity bar graph for each weir at different bed slopes and with and without orifice plates. As the distance between weirs increases, all models’ average depth velocity increases. As the slope of the bottom increases and an orifice plate is present, the average depth velocity in the pool increases. In addition, the average pool depth velocity increases as the discharge increases. Among the models, Model A’s average depth velocity is higher than Model B’s. The variation in velocity ranged from 8.11 to 12.24% for the models without an orifice plate and from 10.26 to 16.87% for the models with an orifice plate.

figure 18
Fig. 18

3.4 Turbulence Characteristics

The turbulent kinetic energy is one of the important parameters reflecting the turbulent properties of the flow field [23]. When the k value is high, more energy and a longer transit time are required to migrate the target species. The turbulent kinetic energy is defined as follows:

�=12(�x′2+�y′2+�z′2)

(15)

where uxuy, and uz are fluctuating velocities in the xy, and z directions, respectively. An illustration of the TKE and the effects of the geometric arrangement of the weir and the presence of an opening in the weir is shown in Fig. 19. For a given bed slope, in Model A, the highest TKE values are uniformly distributed in the weir’s upstream portion in the channel’s cross section. In contrast, for the rectangular labyrinth weir (Model B), the highest TKE values are concentrated on the sides of the pool between the crest of the weir and the channel wall. The highest TKE value in Models A and B is 0.224 and 0.278 J/kg, respectively, at the highest bottom slope (S0 = 10%). In the downstream portion of the conventional weir and within the crest of the weir and the walls of the rectangular labyrinth, there was a much lower TKE value that provided the best conditions for fish to recover in the pool between the weirs. The average of the lowest TKE for bottom slopes of 5 and 10% in Model A is 0.041 and 0.056 J/kg, and for Model B, is 0.047 and 0.064 J/kg. The presence of an opening in the weirs reduces the area of the highest TKE within the pool. It also increases the resting areas for fish (lower TKE). The highest TKE at the highest bottom slope in Models A and B with an orifice is 0.208 and 0.191 J/kg, respectively.

figure 19
Fig. 19

Figure 20 shows the effect of slope on the longitudinal distribution of TKE in the pools. TKE values significantly increase for a given discharge with an increasing bottom slope. Thus, for a low bed slope (S0 = 5%), a large pool area has expanded with average values of 0.131 and 0.168 J/kg for low and high discharge, respectively. For a bed slope of S0 = 10%, the average TKE values are 0.176 and 0.234 J/kg. Furthermore, as the discharge increases, the area with high TKE values within the pool increases. Lower TKE values are observed at the apex of the labyrinth weir, at the corner of the wall downstream of the weir, and between the side walls of the weir and the channel wall for both bottom slopes. The effect of distance between weirs on TKE is shown in Fig. 21. Low TKE values were observed at low discharge and short distances between weirs. Low TKE values are located at the top of the rectangular labyrinth weir and the downstream corner of the weir wall. There is a maximum value of TKE at the large distances between weirs, L/B = 1.83, along the center line of the pool, where the dip jet meets the bottom of the bed. At high discharge, the maximum TKE value for the distance L/B = 0.61, 1.22, and 1.83 was 0.246, 0.322, and 0.417 J/kg, respectively. In addition, the maximum TKE range increases with the distance between weirs.

figure 20
Fig. 20
figure 21
Fig. 21

For TKE size, the average value (TKEave) is plotted against q in Fig. 22. For all models, the TKE values increase with increasing q. For example, in models A and B with L/B = 0.61 and a slope of 10%, the TKE value increases by 41.66 and 86.95%, respectively, as q increases from 0.1 to 0.27 m2/s. The TKE values in Model B are higher than Model A for a given discharge, bed slope, and weir distance. The TKEave in Model B is higher compared to Model A, ranging from 31.46 to 57.94%. The presence of an orifice in the weir reduces the TKE values in both weirs. The intensity of the reduction is greater in Model B. For example, in Models A and B with L/B = 0.61 and q = 0.1 m2/s, an orifice reduces TKEave values by 60.35 and 19.04%, respectively. For each model, increasing the bed slope increases the TKEave values in the pool. For example, for Model B with q = 0.18 m2/s, increasing the bed slope from 5 to 10% increases the TKEave value by 14.34%. Increasing the distance between weirs increases the TKEave values in the pool. For example, in Model B with S0 = 10% and q = 0.3 m2/s, the TKEave in the pool increases by 34.22% if you increase the distance between weirs from L/B = 0.61 to L/B = 0.183.

figure 22
Fig. 22

Cotel et al. [24] suggested that turbulence intensity (TI) is a suitable parameter for studying fish swimming performance. Figure 23 shows the plot of TI and the effects of the geometric arrangement of the weir and the presence of an orifice. In Model A, the highest TI values are found upstream of the weirs and are evenly distributed across the cross section of the channel. The TI values increase as you move upstream to downstream in the pool. For the rectangular labyrinth weir, the highest TI values were concentrated on the sides of the pool, between the top of the weir and the side wall of the channel, and along the top of the weir. Downstream of the conventional weir, within the apex of the weir, and at the corners of the walls of the rectangular labyrinth weir, the percentage of TI was low. At the highest discharge, the average range of TI in Models A and B was 24–45% and 15–62%, respectively. The diversity of TI is greater in the rectangular labyrinth weir than the conventional weir. Fish swimming performance is reduced due to higher turbulence intensity. However, fish species may prefer different disturbance intensities depending on their swimming abilities; for example, Salmo trutta prefers a disturbance intensity of 18–53% [25]. Kupferschmidt and Zhu [26] found a higher range of TI for fishways, such as natural rock weirs, of 40–60%. The presence of an orifice in the weir increases TI values within the pool, especially along the middle portion of the cross section of the fishway. With an orifice in the weir, the average range of TI in Models A and B was 28–59% and 22–73%, respectively.

figure 23
Fig. 23

The effect of bed slope on TI variation is shown in Fig. 24. TI increases in different pool areas as the bed slope increases for a given discharge. For a low bed slope (S0 = 5%), a large pool area has increased from 38 to 63% and from 56 to 71% for low and high discharge, respectively. For a bed slope of S0 = 10%, the average values of TI are 45–67% and 61–73% for low and high discharge, respectively. Therefore, as runoff increases, the area with high TI values within the pool increases. A lower TI is observed for both bottom slopes in the corner of the wall, downstream of the crest walls, and between the side walls in the weir and channel. Figure 25 compares weir spacing with the distribution of TI values within the pool. The TI values are low at low flows and short distances between weirs. A maximum value of TI occurs at long spacing and where the plunging stream impinges on the bed and the area around the bed. TI ranges from 36 to 57%, 58–72%, and 47–76% for the highest flow in a wide pool area for L/B = 0.61, 1.22, and 1.83, respectively.

figure 24
Fig. 24
figure 25
Fig. 25

The average value of turbulence intensity (TIave) is plotted against q in Fig. 26. The increase in TI values with the increase in q values is seen in all models. For example, the average values of TI for Models A and B at L/B = 0.61 and slope of 10% increased from 23.9 to 33.5% and from 42 to 51.8%, respectively, with the increase in q from 0.1 to 0.27 m2/s. For a given discharge, a given gradient, and a given spacing of weirs, the TIave is higher in Model B than Model A. The presence of an orifice in the weirs increases the TI values in both types. For example, in Models A and B with L/B = 0.61 and q = 0.1 m2/s, the presence of an orifice increases TIave from 23.9 to 37.1% and from 42 to 48.8%, respectively. For each model, TIave in the pool increases with increasing bed slope. For Model B with q = 0.18 m2/s, TIave increases from 37.5 to 45.8% when you increase the invert slope from 5 to 10%. Increasing the distance between weirs increases the TIave in the pool. In Model B with S0 = 10% and q = 0.3 m2/s, the TIave in the pool increases from 51.8 to 63.7% as the distance between weirs increases from L/B = 0.61 to L/B = 0.183.

figure 26
Fig. 26

3.5 Energy Dissipation

To facilitate the passage of various target species through the pool of fishways, it is necessary to pay attention to the energy dissipation of the flow and to keep the flow velocity in the pool slow. The average volumetric energy dissipation (k) in the pool is calculated using the following basic formula:

�=����0��

(16)

where ρ is the water density, and H is the average water depth of the pool. The change in k versus Q for all models at two bottom slopes, S0 = 5%, and S0 = 10%, is shown in Fig. 27. Like the results of Yagci [8] and Kupferschmidt and Zhu [26], at a constant bottom slope, the energy dissipation in the pool increases with increasing discharge. The trend of change in k as a function of Q from the present study at a bottom gradient of S0 = 5% is also consistent with the results of Kupferschmidt and Zhu [26] for the fishway with rock weir. The only difference between the results is the geometry of the fishway and the combination of boulders instead of a solid wall. Comparison of the models shows that the conventional model has lower energy dissipation than the rectangular labyrinth for a given discharge. Also, increasing the distance between weirs decreases the volumetric energy dissipation for each model with the same bed slope. Increasing the slope of the bottom leads to an increase in volumetric energy dissipation, and an opening in the weir leads to a decrease in volumetric energy dissipation for both models. Therefore, as a guideline for volumetric energy dissipation, if the value within the pool is too high, the increased distance of the weir, the decreased slope of the bed, or the creation of an opening in the weir would decrease the volumetric dissipation rate.

figure 27
Fig. 27

To evaluate the energy dissipation inside the pool, the general method of energy difference in two sections can use:

ε=�1−�2�1

(17)

where ε is the energy dissipation rate, and E1 and E2 are the specific energies in Sects. 1 and 2, respectively. The distance between Sects. 1 and 2 is the same. (L is the distance between two upstream and downstream weirs.) Figure 28 shows the changes in ε relative to q (flow per unit width). The rectangular labyrinth weir (Model B) has a higher energy dissipation rate than the conventional weir (Model A) at a constant bottom gradient. For example, at S0 = 5%, L/B = 0.61, and q = 0.08 m3/s.m, the energy dissipation rate in Model A (conventional weir) was 0.261. In Model B (rectangular labyrinth weir), however, it was 0.338 (22.75% increase). For each model, the energy dissipation rate within the pool increases as the slope of the bottom increases. For Model B with L/B = 1.83 and q = 0.178 m3/s.m, the energy dissipation rate at S0 = 5% and 10% is 0.305 and 0.358, respectively (14.8% increase). Figure 29 shows an orifice’s effect on the pools’ energy dissipation rate. With an orifice in the weir, both models’ energy dissipation rates decreased. Thus, the reduction in energy dissipation rate varied from 7.32 to 9.48% for Model A and from 8.46 to 10.57 for Model B.

figure 28
Fig. 28
figure 29
Fig. 29

4 Discussion

This study consisted of entirely of numerical analysis. Although this study was limited to two weirs, the hydraulic performance and flow characteristics in a pooled fishway are highlighted by the rectangular labyrinth weir and its comparison with the conventional straight weir. The study compared the numerical simulations with laboratory experiments in terms of surface profiles, velocity vectors, and flow characteristics in a fish ladder pool. The results indicate agreement between the numerical and laboratory data, supporting the reliability of the numerical model in capturing the observed phenomena.

When the configuration of the weir changes to a rectangular labyrinth weir, the flow characteristics, the maximum and minimum area, and even the location of each hydraulic parameter change compared to a conventional weir. In the rectangular labyrinth weir, the flow is gradually directed to the sides as it passes the weir. This increases the velocity at the sides of the channel [21]. Therefore, the high-velocity area is located on the sides. In the downstream apex of the weir, the flow velocity is low, and this area may be suitable for swimming target fish. However, no significant change in velocity was observed at the conventional weir within the fish ladder. This resulted in an average increase in TKE of 32% and an average increase in TI of about 17% compared to conventional weirs.

In addition, there is a slight difference in the flow regime for both weir configurations. In addition, the rectangular labyrinth weir has a higher energy dissipation rate for a given discharge and constant bottom slope than the conventional weir. By reducing the distance between the weirs, this becomes even more intense. Finally, the presence of an orifice in both configurations of the weir increased the flow velocity at the orifice and in the middle of the pool, reducing the highest TKE value and increasing the values of TI within the pool of the fish ladder. This resulted in a reduction in volumetric energy dissipation for both weir configurations.

The results of this study will help the reader understand the direct effects of the governing geometric parameters on the hydraulic characteristics of a fishway with a pool and weir. However, due to the limited configurations of the study, further investigation is needed to evaluate the position of the weir’s crest on the flow direction and the difference in flow characteristics when combining boulders instead of a solid wall for this type of labyrinth weir [26]. In addition, hydraulic engineers and biologists must work together to design an effective fishway with rectangular labyrinth configurations. The migration habits of the target species should be considered when designing the most appropriate design [27]. Parametric studies and field observations are recommended to determine the perfect design criteria.

The current study focused on comparing a rectangular labyrinth weir with a conventional straight weir. Further research can explore other weir configurations, such as variations in crest position, different shapes of labyrinth weirs, or the use of boulders instead of solid walls. This would help understand the influence of different geometric parameters on hydraulic characteristics.

5 Conclusions

A new layout of the weir was evaluated, namely a rectangular labyrinth weir compared to a straight weir in a pool and weir system. The differences between the weirs were highlighted, particularly how variations in the geometry of the structures, such as the shape of the weir, the spacing of the weir, the presence of an opening at the weir, and the slope of the bottom, affect the hydraulics within the structures. The main findings of this study are as follows:

  • The calculated dimensionless discharge (Qt*) confirmed three different flow regimes: when the corresponding range of Qt* is smaller than 0.6, the regime of plunging flow occurs for values of L/B = 1.83. (L: distance of the weir; B: channel width). When the corresponding range of Qt* is greater than 0.5, transitional flow occurs at L/B = 1.22. On the other hand, if Qt* is greater than 1, the streaming flow is at values of L/B = 0.61.
  • For the conventional weir and the rectangular labyrinth weir with the plunging flow, it can be assumed that the discharge (Q) is proportional to 1.56 and 1.47h, respectively (h: water depth above the weir). This information is useful for estimating the discharge based on water depth in practical applications.
  • In the rectangular labyrinth weir, the high-velocity zone is located on the side walls between the top of the weir and the channel wall. A high-velocity variation within short distances of the weir. Low velocity occurs within the downstream apex of the weir. This area may be suitable for swimming target fish.
  • As the distance between weirs increased, the zone of maximum velocity increased. However, the zone of low speed decreased. The prevailing maximum velocity for a rectangular labyrinth weir at L/B = 0.61, 1.22, and 1.83 was 1.46, 1.65, and 1.84 m/s, respectively. The low mean velocities for these distances were 0.27, 0.44, and 0.72 m/s, respectively. This finding highlights the importance of weir spacing in determining the flow characteristics within the fishway.
  • The presence of an orifice in the weir increased the flow velocity at the orifice and in the middle of the pool, especially in a conventional weir. The increase ranged from 7.7 to 12.48%.
  • For a given bottom slope, in a conventional weir, the highest values of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) are uniformly distributed in the upstream part of the weir in the cross section of the channel. In contrast, for the rectangular labyrinth weir, the highest TKE values were concentrated on the sides of the pool between the crest of the weir and the channel wall. The highest TKE value for the conventional and the rectangular labyrinth weir was 0.224 and 0.278 J/kg, respectively, at the highest bottom slope (S0 = 10%).
  • For a given discharge, bottom slope, and weir spacing, the average values of TI are higher for the rectangular labyrinth weir than for the conventional weir. At the highest discharge, the average range of turbulence intensity (TI) for the conventional and rectangular labyrinth weirs was between 24 and 45% and 15% and 62%, respectively. This reveals that the rectangular labyrinth weir may generate more turbulent flow conditions within the fishway.
  • For a given discharge and constant bottom slope, the rectangular labyrinth weir has a higher energy dissipation rate than the conventional weir (22.75 and 34.86%).
  • Increasing the distance between weirs decreased volumetric energy dissipation. However, increasing the gradient increased volumetric energy dissipation. The presence of an opening in the weir resulted in a decrease in volumetric energy dissipation for both model types.

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비선형 파력의 영향에 따른 잔해 언덕 방파제 형상의 효과에 대한 수치 분석

비선형 파력의 영향에 따른 잔해 언덕 방파제 형상의 효과에 대한 수치 분석

Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Rubble Mound Breakwater Geometry Under the Effect of Nonlinear Wave Force

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Abstract

Assessing the interaction of waves and porous offshore structures such as rubble mound breakwaters plays a critical role in designing such structures optimally. This study focused on the effect of the geometric parameters of a sloped rubble mound breakwater, including the shape of the armour, method of its arrangement, and the breakwater slope. Thus, three main design criteria, including the wave reflection coefficient (Kr), transmission coefficient (Kt), and depreciation wave energy coefficient (Kd), are discussed. Based on the results, a decrease in wavelength reduced the Kr and increased the Kt and Kd. The rubble mound breakwater with the Coreloc armour layer could exhibit the lowest Kr compared to other armour geometries. In addition, a decrease in the breakwater slope reduced the Kr and Kd by 3.4 and 1.25%, respectively. In addition, a decrease in the breakwater slope from 33 to 25° increased the wave breaking height by 6.1% on average. Further, a decrease in the breakwater slope reduced the intensity of turbulence depreciation. Finally, the armour geometry and arrangement of armour layers on the breakwater with its different slopes affect the wave behaviour and interaction between the wave and breakwater. Thus, layering on the breakwater and the correct use of the geometric shapes of the armour should be considered when designing such structures.

파도와 잔해 더미 방파제와 같은 다공성 해양 구조물의 상호 작용을 평가하는 것은 이러한 구조물을 최적으로 설계하는 데 중요한 역할을 합니다. 본 연구는 경사진 잔해 둔덕 방파제의 기하학적 매개변수의 효과에 초점을 맞추었는데, 여기에는 갑옷의 형태, 배치 방법, 방파제 경사 등이 포함된다. 따라서 파동 반사 계수(Kr), 투과 계수(Kt) 및 감가상각파 에너지 계수(Kd)에 대해 논의합니다. 결과에 따르면 파장이 감소하면 K가 감소합니다.r그리고 K를 증가시켰습니다t 및 Kd. Coreloc 장갑 층이 있는 잔해 언덕 방파제는 가장 낮은 K를 나타낼 수 있습니다.r 다른 갑옷 형상과 비교했습니다. 또한 방파제 경사가 감소하여 K가 감소했습니다.r 및 Kd 각각 3.4%, 1.25% 증가했다. 또한 방파제 경사가 33°에서 25°로 감소하여 파도 파쇄 높이가 평균 6.1% 증가했습니다. 또한, 방파제 경사의 감소는 난류 감가상각의 강도를 감소시켰다. 마지막으로, 경사가 다른 방파제의 장갑 형상과 장갑 층의 배열은 파도 거동과 파도와 방파제 사이의 상호 작용에 영향을 미칩니다. 따라서 이러한 구조를 설계 할 때 방파제에 층을 쌓고 갑옷의 기하학적 모양을 올바르게 사용하는 것을 고려해야합니다.

Keywords

  • Rubble mound breakwater
  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Armour layer
  • Wave reflection coefficient
  • Wave transmission coefficient
  • Wave energy dissipation coefficient

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Figure 4. Rectangular stepped spillway with (a) three baffle arrangement (b) five baffle arrangement

Prediction of Energy Dissipation over Stepped Spillwaywith Baffles Using Machine Learning Techniques

Saurabh Pujari*
, Vijay Kaushik, S. Anbu Kumar
Department of Civil Engineering, Delhi Technological University, India
Received February 23, 2023; Revised April 25, 2023; Accepted June 11, 2023
Cite This Paper in the Following Citation Styles
(a): [1] Saurabh Pujari, Vijay Kaushik, S. Anbu Kumar , “Prediction of Energy Dissipation over Stepped Spillway with
Baffles Using Machine Learning Techniques,” Civil Engineering and Architecture, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp. 2377 – 2391, 2023.
DOI: 10.13189/cea.2023.110510.
(b): Saurabh Pujari, Vijay Kaushik, S. Anbu Kumar (2023). Prediction of Energy Dissipation over Stepped Spillway with
Baffles Using Machine Learning Techniques. Civil Engineering and Architecture, 11(5), 2377 – 2391. DOI:
10.13189/cea.2023.110510.
Copyright©2023 by authors, all rights reserved. Authors agree that this article remains permanently open access under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract

In river engineering, the stepped spillway of a dam is an important component that may be used in various ways. It is necessary to conduct research dealing with flood control in order to investigate the method, in which energy is lost along the tiered spillways. In the past, several research projects on stepped spillways without baffles have been carried out utilizing a range of research approaches. In the present study, machine learning techniques such as Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Regression Tree (RT) are used to analyze the energy dissipation on rectangular stepped spillways that make use of baffles in a variety of configurations and at a range of channel slopes. The results of many experiments indicate that the amount of energy that is lost increases with the number of baffles that are present in flat channels with slopes and rises. In order to evaluate the efficiency and usefulness of the suggested model, the statistical indices that were developed for the experimental research are used to validate the models that were created for the study. The findings indicate that the suggested SVM model properly predicted the amount of energy that was dissipated when contrasted with RT and the method that had been developed in the past. This study verifies the use of machine learning techniques in this industry, and it is unique in that it anticipates energy dissipation along stepped spillways utilizing baffle designs. In addition, this work validates the use of machine learning methods in this field.

Keywords

Rectangular Stepped Spillways, Baffle Arrangements, Channel Slope, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Regression Tree (RT)

Introduction

To regulate water flows downstream of a dam, a spillway structure is employed, with stepped spillways preventing water from overflowing and causing damage to the dam. These spillways consist of a channel with built-in steps or drops. Flow patterns observed include nappe flow, transition flow, and skimming flow [1]. Numerous scholars have looked at the energy dissipation in stepped spillways [2-4]. Boes and Hager [5] looked at the benefits of stepped spillways, such as their simplicity of construction, less danger of cavitation, and smaller stilling basins at downstream dam toes owing to considerable energy loss along the chute. Hazzab and Chafic [7] conducted an experimental study on energy dissipation in stepped spillways and reported on flow configurations. Additionally, the Manksvill dam spillway was examined using a 1:25 scale physical wooden model [6]. For moderately inclined stepped channels, Stefan and Chanson [8] explored air-water flow measurements. Daniel [9] discussed how the existence of steps and step heights affect stepped spillways’ ability to dissipate energy. A comparison of the smooth invert chute flow with the self aerated stepped spillway. The energy dissipation in stepped spillways was investigated using various methods. Katourany [10] compared experimental findings to conventional USBR outcomes to examine the effects of different baffle widths, spacing between baffle rows, and step heights of baffled aprons. Salmasi et al. [11] assessed the energy dissipation of through-flow and over-flow in gabion stepped spillways, discovering that gabion spillways with pervious surfaces dissipated energy more efficiently than those with concrete walls. Other forms of stepped spillways, such as inclined steps and steps with end sills, were also quantitatively studied for energy dissipation [12]. Saedi and Asareh [13] examined how the number of drop stairs affected energy dissipation in stepped drops and suggested using stepped drops to increase energy dissipation by providing flow path roughness. Al-Husseini [14] found that decreasing the number of steps and downstream slopes led to an increase in flow energy dissipation, and that the use of cascade spillways reduced energy dissipation compared to the original step spillway. MARS and ANN methods were used to estimate energy dissipation in flow across stepped spillways under skimming flow conditions, with both models proving reliable [15]. Frederic et al. [16] evaluated the energy dissipation effectiveness and stability of the Mekin Dam spillway by confirming that flow did not result in transitional flow and by calculating safety factors at various intervals. A numerical model was developed to validate a physical model examining the impact of geometrical parameters on the dissipation rate in flows through stepped spillways [17]. The regulation of the rates of dissipation is studied using a particular kind of fuzzy inference system (FIS). The findings are compared with a predefined numerical database to determine the predicted energy dissipation under various circumstances. The findings show that the suggested FIS may be a useful tool for the operational management of dissipator structures while taking various geometric characteristics into account. Nasralla [18] studied the four phases of the spillway and conducted eighteen runs to enhance energy dissipation through the contraction-stepped spillway. The study considered alternative baffle placements, heights, and widths. The results showed that downstream baffles on the stepped spillway of the stilling basin improve energy dissipation. Using the Flow 3D software, Ikinciogullari [19] quantitatively analyzed the energy dissipation capabilities of trapezoidal stepped spillways using four distinct models and three different discharges. The findings showed that trapezoidal stepped spillways are up to 30% more efficient in dissipating energy than traditional stepped spillways. In previous works, only a few machine learning algorithms were used to forecast energy dissipation across a rectangular stepped spillway without baffles. Therefore, this study used machine learning approaches such as Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Regression Tree (RT) to predict energy dissipation across a rectangular stepped spillway with varied rectangular-shaped baffle configurations at different channel slopes. The study compared these models using statistical analysis to assess their efficiency in predicting energy dissipation over rectangular stepped spillways with baffles. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Experimental Setup The experiments were carried out at the Hydraulics laboratory of Delhi Technological University. The tests were performed in a rectangular tilting flume of 8m long, 0.30m wide and 0.40m deep which has a facility to make it horizontal and sloping as well (shown in Figure 1). The flume consists of an inlet section, an outlet section, and a collecting tank at the downstream end which is used to measure the discharge. Figure 2 depicts the model of a rectangular stepped spillway prepared using an acrylic sheet having a width of 0.30m, a height of 0.20m and a base length of 0.40m. A total of four steps were designed with a step height of 0.05m, the step length is 0.10m and rectangular-shaped baffles of length 0.10m and height of 0.05m were arranged in different manner. Figure 3 represents the different baffle arrangements used in the experimental work. At first, the experiment was conducted for no baffle condition. Thereafter the experiment was conducted for the first arrangement of three baffles, in which two baffles were placed at a distance of 0.10m from the toe of the spillway and a distance of 0.10m was maintained between the first two baffles and the third baffle was placed between the first two baffles at a distance of 0.20m from the toe of the spillway (figure 4a). After that, the experiment was conducted for the third arrangement of baffles which consists of five baffles, two more baffles were introduced at a distance of 0.30m from the toe of the spillway and a distance of 0.10m was maintained between them (figure 4b). The baffles used in the experiment were rectangular shaped which had a height of 0.05m and length of 0.10m. The experiments were conducted for five different discharges 2 l/s, 4 l/s, 6 l/s, 8 l/s and 10 l/s. For the purpose of determining the head values both upstream and downstream of the spillway model, a point gauge with a precision of 0.1mm was used. In order to determine the average velocities of the upstream and downstream portions, respectively, a pitot static tube was used in conjunction with a digital manometer.

Figure 1. Rectangular tilting flume
Figure 2. Dimensions of classical stepped spillway
Figure 3. Arrangements of baffles in classical stepped spillway
Figure 4. Rectangular stepped spillway with (a) three baffle arrangement (b) five baffle arrangement
The distribution of the computed maximum current speed during the entire duration of the NAMI DANCE and FLOW-3D simulations. The resolution of computational domain is 10 m

Performance Comparison of NAMI DANCE and FLOW-3D® Models in Tsunami Propagation, Inundation and Currents using NTHMP Benchmark Problems

NTHMP 벤치마크 문제를 사용하여 쓰나미 전파, 침수 및 해류에서 NAMI DANCE 및 FLOW-3D® 모델의 성능 비교

Pure and Applied Geophysics volume 176, pages3115–3153 (2019)Cite this article

Abstract

Field observations provide valuable data regarding nearshore tsunami impact, yet only in inundation areas where tsunami waves have already flooded. Therefore, tsunami modeling is essential to understand tsunami behavior and prepare for tsunami inundation. It is necessary that all numerical models used in tsunami emergency planning be subject to benchmark tests for validation and verification. This study focuses on two numerical codes, NAMI DANCE and FLOW-3D®, for validation and performance comparison. NAMI DANCE is an in-house tsunami numerical model developed by the Ocean Engineering Research Center of Middle East Technical University, Turkey and Laboratory of Special Research Bureau for Automation of Marine Research, Russia. FLOW-3D® is a general purpose computational fluid dynamics software, which was developed by scientists who pioneered in the design of the Volume-of-Fluid technique. The codes are validated and their performances are compared via analytical, experimental and field benchmark problems, which are documented in the ‘‘Proceedings and Results of the 2011 National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) Model Benchmarking Workshop’’ and the ‘‘Proceedings and Results of the NTHMP 2015 Tsunami Current Modeling Workshop”. The variations between the numerical solutions of these two models are evaluated through statistical error analysis.

현장 관찰은 연안 쓰나미 영향에 관한 귀중한 데이터를 제공하지만 쓰나미 파도가 이미 범람한 침수 지역에서만 가능합니다. 따라서 쓰나미 모델링은 쓰나미 행동을 이해하고 쓰나미 범람에 대비하는 데 필수적입니다.

쓰나미 비상 계획에 사용되는 모든 수치 모델은 검증 및 검증을 위한 벤치마크 테스트를 받아야 합니다. 이 연구는 검증 및 성능 비교를 위해 NAMI DANCE 및 FLOW-3D®의 두 가지 숫자 코드에 중점을 둡니다.

NAMI DANCE는 터키 중동 기술 대학의 해양 공학 연구 센터와 러시아 해양 연구 자동화를 위한 특별 조사국 연구소에서 개발한 사내 쓰나미 수치 모델입니다. FLOW-3D®는 Volume-of-Fluid 기술의 설계를 개척한 과학자들이 개발한 범용 전산 유체 역학 소프트웨어입니다.

코드의 유효성이 검증되고 분석, 실험 및 현장 벤치마크 문제를 통해 코드의 성능이 비교되며, 이는 ‘2011년 NTHMP(National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program) 모델 벤치마킹 워크숍의 절차 및 결과’와 ”절차 및 NTHMP 2015 쓰나미 현재 모델링 워크숍 결과”. 이 두 모델의 수치 해 사이의 변동은 통계적 오류 분석을 통해 평가됩니다.

The distribution of the computed maximum current speed during the entire duration of the NAMI DANCE and FLOW-3D simulations. The resolution of computational domain is 10 m
The distribution of the computed maximum current speed during the entire duration of the NAMI DANCE and FLOW-3D simulations. The resolution of computational domain is 10 m

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Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Dr. Andrey Zaytsev due to his undeniable contributions to the development of in-house numerical model, NAMI DANCE. The Turkish branch of Flow Science, Inc. is also acknowledged. Finally, the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), who provided most of the benchmark data, is appreciated. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

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  1. Deniz Velioglu SogutPresent address: 1212 Computer Science, Department of Civil Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, USA

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  1. Middle East Technical University, 06800, Ankara, TurkeyDeniz Velioglu Sogut & Ahmet Cevdet Yalciner

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Correspondence to Deniz Velioglu Sogut.

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Velioglu Sogut, D., Yalciner, A.C. Performance Comparison of NAMI DANCE and FLOW-3D® Models in Tsunami Propagation, Inundation and Currents using NTHMP Benchmark Problems. Pure Appl. Geophys. 176, 3115–3153 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-018-1907-9

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  • Received22 December 2017
  • Revised16 May 2018
  • Accepted24 May 2018
  • Published07 June 2018
  • Issue Date01 July 2019
  • DOIhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-018-1907-9

Keywords

  • Tsunami
  • depth-averaged shallow water
  • Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes
  • benchmarking
  • NAMI DANCE
  • FLOW-3D®
Effects of surface roughness on overflow discharge of embankment weirs

표면 거칠기가 제방 둑의 오버플로 배출에 미치는 영향

Effects of surface roughness on overflow discharge of embankment weirs

Abstract

A numerical study was performed on the embankment weir overflows with various surface roughness and tailwater submergence, to better understand the effects of weir roughness on discharge performances under the free and submerged conditions. The variation of flow regime is captured, from the free overflow, submerged hydraulic jump, to surface flow with increasing tailwater depth. A roughness factor is introduced to reflect the reduction in discharge caused by weir roughness. The roughness factor decreases with the roughness height, and it also depends on the tailwater depth, highlighting various relations of the roughness factor with the roughness height between different flow regimes, which is linear for the free overflow and submerged hydraulic jump while exponential for the surface flow. Accordingly, the effects of weir roughness on overflow discharge appear nonnegligible for the significant roughness height and the surface flow regime occurring under considerable tailwater submergence. The established empirical expressions of discharge coefficient and submergence and roughness factors make it possible to predict the discharge over embankment weirs considering both tailwater submergence and surface roughness.

자유 및 침수 조건에서 방류 성능에 대한 둑 거칠기의 영향을 더 잘 이해하기 위해 다양한 표면 거칠기와 테일워터 침수를 갖는 제방 둑 범람에 대한 수치 연구가 수행되었습니다.

자유 범람, 수중 수압 점프, 테일워터 깊이가 증가하는 표면 유동에 이르기까지 유동 체제의 변화가 캡처됩니다. 위어 거칠기로 인한 배출 감소를 반영하기 위해 거칠기 계수가 도입되었습니다.

조도 계수는 조도 높이와 함께 감소하고, 또한 테일워터 깊이에 따라 달라지며, 서로 다른 흐름 영역 사이의 조도 높이와 조도 계수의 다양한 관계를 강조합니다.

이는 자유 범람 및 수중 수압 점프에 대해 선형인 반면 표면에 대해 지수적입니다. 흐름. 따라서 월류 방류에 대한 웨어 조도의 영향은 상당한 조도 높이와 상당한 방수 침수 하에서 발생하는 표면 흐름 체제에 대해 무시할 수 없는 것으로 보입니다.

방류계수와 침수 및 조도계수의 확립된 실증식은 방류수 침수와 지표조도를 모두 고려한 제방보 위의 방류량을 예측할 수 있게 합니다.

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Figure 11. Sketch of scour mechanism around USAF under random waves.

Scour Characteristics and Equilibrium Scour Depth Prediction around Umbrella Suction Anchor Foundation under Random Waves

by Ruigeng Hu 1,Hongjun Liu 2,Hao Leng 1,Peng Yu 3 andXiuhai Wang 1,2,*

1College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266000, China

2Key Lab of Marine Environment and Ecology (Ocean University of China), Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266000, China

3Qingdao Geo-Engineering Survering Institute, Qingdao 266100, China

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 20219(8), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080886

Received: 6 July 2021 / Revised: 8 August 2021 / Accepted: 13 August 2021 / Published: 17 August 2021

(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)

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Abstract

A series of numerical simulation were conducted to study the local scour around umbrella suction anchor foundation (USAF) under random waves. In this study, the validation was carried out firstly to verify the accuracy of the present model. Furthermore, the scour evolution and scour mechanism were analyzed respectively. In addition, two revised models were proposed to predict the equilibrium scour depth Seq around USAF. At last, a parametric study was carried out to study the effects of the Froude number Fr and Euler number Eu for the Seq. The results indicate that the present numerical model is accurate and reasonable for depicting the scour morphology under random waves. The revised Raaijmakers’s model shows good agreement with the simulating results of the present study when KCs,p < 8. The predicting results of the revised stochastic model are the most favorable for n = 10 when KCrms,a < 4. The higher Fr and Eu both lead to the more intensive horseshoe vortex and larger Seq.

Keywords: 

scournumerical investigationrandom wavesequilibrium scour depthKC number

1. Introduction

The rapid expansion of cities tends to cause social and economic problems, such as environmental pollution and traffic jam. As a kind of clean energy, offshore wind power has developed rapidly in recent years. The foundation of offshore wind turbine (OWT) supports the upper tower, and suffers the cyclic loading induced by waves, tides and winds, which exerts a vital influence on the OWT system. The types of OWT foundation include the fixed and floating foundation, and the fixed foundation was used usually for nearshore wind turbine. After the construction of fixed foundation, the hydrodynamic field changes in the vicinity of the foundation, leading to the horseshoe vortex formation and streamline compression at the upside and sides of foundation respectively [1,2,3,4]. As a result, the neighboring soil would be carried away by the shear stress induced by vortex, and the scour hole would emerge in the vicinity of foundation. The scour holes increase the cantilever length, and weaken the lateral bearing capacity of foundation [5,6,7,8,9]. Moreover, the natural frequency of OWT system increases with the increase of cantilever length, causing the resonance occurs when the system natural frequency equals the wave or wind frequency [10,11,12]. Given that, an innovative foundation called umbrella suction anchor foundation (USAF) has been designed for nearshore wind power. The previous studies indicated the USAF was characterized by the favorable lateral bearing capacity with the low cost [6,13,14]. The close-up of USAF is shown in Figure 1, and it includes six parts: 1-interal buckets, 2-external skirt, 3-anchor ring, 4-anchor branch, 5-supporting rod, 6-telescopic hook. The detailed description and application method of USAF can be found in reference [13].

Jmse 09 00886 g001 550

Figure 1. The close-up of umbrella suction anchor foundation (USAF).

Numerical and experimental investigations of scour around OWT foundation under steady currents and waves have been extensively studied by many researchers [1,2,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24]. The seabed scour can be classified as two types according to Shields parameter θ, i.e., clear bed scour (θ < θcr) or live bed scour (θ > θcr). Due to the set of foundation, the adverse hydraulic pressure gradient exists at upstream foundation edges, resulting in the streamline separation between boundary layer flow and seabed. The separating boundary layer ascended at upstream anchor edges and developed into the horseshoe vortex. Then, the horseshoe vortex moved downstream gradually along the periphery of the anchor, and the vortex shed off continually at the lee-side of the anchor, i.e., wake vortex. The core of wake vortex is a negative pressure center, liking a vacuum cleaner. Hence, the soil particles were swirled into the negative pressure core and carried away by wake vortexes. At the same time, the onset of scour at rear side occurred. Finally, the wake vortex became downflow when the turbulence energy could not support the survival of wake vortex. According to Tavouktsoglou et al. [25], the scale of pile wall boundary layer is proportional to 1/ln(Rd) (Rd is pile Reynolds), which means the turbulence intensity induced by the flow-structure interaction would decrease with Rd increases, but the effects of Rd can be neglected only if the flow around the foundation is fully turbulent [26]. According to previous studies [1,15,27,28,29,30,31,32], the scour development around pile foundation under waves was significantly influenced by Shields parameter θ and KC number simultaneously (calculated by Equation (1)). Sand ripples widely existed around pile under waves in the case of live bed scour, and the scour morphology is related with θ and KC. Compared with θKC has a greater influence on the scour morphology [21,27,28]. The influence mechanism of KC on the scour around the pile is reflected in two aspects: the horseshoe vortex at upstream and wake vortex shedding at downstream.

KC=UwmTD��=�wm��(1)

where, Uwm is the maximum velocity of the undisturbed wave-induced oscillatory flow at the sea bottom above the wave boundary layer, T is wave period, and D is pile diameter.

There are two prerequisites to satisfy the formation of horseshoe vortex at upstream pile edges: (1) the incoming flow boundary layer with sufficient thickness and (2) the magnitude of upstream adverse pressure gradient making the boundary layer separating [1,15,16,18,20]. The smaller KC results the lower adverse pressure gradient, and the boundary layer cannot separate, herein, there is almost no horseshoe vortex emerging at upside of pile. Sumer et al. [1,15] carried out several sets of wave flume experiments under regular and irregular waves respectively, and the experiment results show that there is no horseshoe vortex when KC is less than 6. While the scale and lifespan of horseshoe vortex increase evidently with the increase of KC when KC is larger than 6. Moreover, the wake vortex contributes to the scour at lee-side of pile. Similar with the case of horseshoe vortex, there is no wake vortex when KC is less than 6. The wake vortex is mainly responsible for scour around pile when KC is greater than 6 and less than O(100), while horseshoe vortex controls scour nearly when KC is greater than O(100).

Sumer et al. [1] found that the equilibrium scour depth was nil around pile when KC was less than 6 under regular waves for live bed scour, while the equilibrium scour depth increased with the increase of KC. Based on that, Sumer proposed an equilibrium scour depth predicting equation (Equation (2)). Carreiras et al. [33] revised Sumer’s equation with m = 0.06 for nonlinear waves. Different with the findings of Sumer et al. [1] and Carreiras et al. [33], Corvaro et al. [21] found the scour still occurred for KC ≈ 4, and proposed the revised equilibrium scour depth predicting equation (Equation (3)) for KC > 4.

Rudolph and Bos [2] conducted a series of wave flume experiments to investigate the scour depth around monopile under waves only, waves and currents combined respectively, indicting KC was one of key parameters in influencing equilibrium scour depth, and proposed the equilibrium scour depth predicting equation (Equation (4)) for low KC (1 < KC < 10). Through analyzing the extensive data from published literatures, Raaijmakers and Rudolph [34] developed the equilibrium scour depth predicting equation (Equation (5)) for low KC, which was suitable for waves only, waves and currents combined. Khalfin [35] carried out several sets of wave flume experiments to study scour development around monopile, and proposed the equilibrium scour depth predicting equation (Equation (6)) for low KC (0.1 < KC < 3.5). Different with above equations, the Khalfin’s equation considers the Shields parameter θ and KC number simultaneously in predicting equilibrium scour depth. The flow reversal occurred under through in one wave period, so sand particles would be carried away from lee-side of pile to upside, resulting in sand particles backfilled into the upstream scour hole [20,29]. Considering the backfilling effects, Zanke et al. [36] proposed the equilibrium scour depth predicting equation (Equation (7)) around pile by theoretical analysis, and the equation is suitable for the whole range of KC number under regular waves and currents combined.

S/D=1.3(1−exp([−m(KC−6)])�/�=1.3(1−exp(−�(��−6))(2)

where, m = 0.03 for linear waves.

S/D=1.3(1−exp([−0.02(KC−4)])�/�=1.3(1−exp(−0.02(��−4))(3)

S/D=1.3γKwaveKhw�/�=1.3��wave�ℎw(4)

where, γ is safety factor, depending on design process, typically γ = 1.5, Kwave is correction factor considering wave action, Khw is correction factor considering water depth.

S/D=1.5[tanh(hwD)]KwaveKhw�/�=1.5tanh(ℎw�)�wave�ℎw(5)

where, hw is water depth.

S/D=0.0753(θθcr−−−√−0.5)0.69KC0.68�/�=0.0753(��cr−0.5)0.69��0.68(6)

where, θ is shields parameter, θcr is critical shields parameter.

S/D=2.5(1−0.5u/uc)xrelxrel=xeff/(1+xeff)xeff=0.03(1−0.35ucr/u)(KC−6)⎫⎭⎬⎪⎪�/�=2.5(1−0.5�/��)��������=����/(1+����)����=0.03(1−0.35�cr/�)(��−6)(7)

where, u is near-bed orbital velocity amplitude, uc is critical velocity corresponding the onset of sediment motion.

S/D=1.3{1−exp[−0.03(KC2lnn+36)1/2−6]}�/�=1.31−exp−0.03(��2ln�+36)1/2−6(8)

where, n is the 1/n’th highest wave for random waves

For predicting equilibrium scour depth under irregular waves, i.e., random waves, Sumer and Fredsøe [16] found it’s suitable to take Equation (2) to predict equilibrium scour depth around pile under random waves with the root-mean-square (RMS) value of near-bed orbital velocity amplitude Um and peak wave period TP to calculate KC. Khalfin [35] recommended the RMS wave height Hrms and peak wave period TP were used to calculate KC for Equation (6). References [37,38,39,40] developed a series of stochastic theoretical models to predict equilibrium scour depth around pile under random waves, nonlinear random waves plus currents respectively. The stochastic approach thought the 1/n’th highest wave were responsible for scour in vicinity of pile under random waves, and the KC was calculated in Equation (8) with Um and mean zero-crossing wave period Tz. The results calculated by Equation (8) agree well with experimental values of Sumer and Fredsøe [16] if the 1/10′th highest wave was used. To author’s knowledge, the stochastic approach proposed by Myrhaug and Rue [37] is the only theoretical model to predict equilibrium scour depth around pile under random waves for the whole range of KC number in published documents. Other methods of predicting scour depth under random waves are mainly originated from the equation for regular waves-only, waves and currents combined, which are limited to the large KC number, such as KC > 6 for Equation (2) and KC > 4 for Equation (3) respectively. However, situations with relatively low KC number (KC < 4) often occur in reality, for example, monopile or suction anchor for OWT foundations in ocean environment. Moreover, local scour around OWT foundations under random waves has not yet been investigated fully. Therefore, further study are still needed in the aspect of scour around OWT foundations with low KC number under random waves. Given that, this study presents the scour sediment model around umbrella suction anchor foundation (USAF) under random waves. In this study, a comparison of equilibrium scour depth around USAF between this present numerical models and the previous theoretical models and experimental results was presented firstly. Then, this study gave a comprehensive analysis for the scour mechanisms around USAF. After that, two revised models were proposed according to the model of Raaijmakers and Rudolph [34] and the stochastic model developed by Myrhaug and Rue [37] respectively to predict the equilibrium scour depth. Finally, a parametric study was conducted to study the effects of the Froude number (Fr) and Euler number (Eu) to equilibrium scour depth respectively.

2. Numerical Method

2.1. Governing Equations of Flow

The following equations adopted in present model are already available in Flow 3D software. The authors used these theoretical equations to simulate scour in random waves without modification. The incompressible viscous fluid motion satisfies the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation, so the present numerical model solves RANS equations:

∂u∂t+1VF(uAx∂u∂x+vAy∂u∂y+wAz∂u∂z)=−1ρf∂p∂x+Gx+fx∂�∂�+1��(���∂�∂�+���∂�∂�+���∂�∂�)=−1�f∂�∂�+��+��(9)

∂v∂t+1VF(uAx∂v∂x+vAy∂v∂y+wAz∂v∂z)=−1ρf∂p∂y+Gy+fy∂�∂�+1��(���∂�∂�+���∂�∂�+���∂�∂�)=−1�f∂�∂�+��+��(10)

∂w∂t+1VF(uAx∂w∂x+vAy∂w∂y+wAz∂w∂z)=−1ρf∂p∂z+Gz+fz∂�∂�+1��(���∂�∂�+���∂�∂�+���∂�∂�)=−1�f∂�∂�+��+��(11)

where, VF is the volume fraction; uv, and w are the velocity components in xyz direction respectively with Cartesian coordinates; Ai is the area fraction; ρf is the fluid density, fi is the viscous fluid acceleration, Gi is the fluid body acceleration (i = xyz).

2.2. Turbulent Model

The turbulence closure is available by the turbulent model, such as one-equation, the one-equation k-ε model, the standard k-ε model, RNG k-ε turbulent model and large eddy simulation (LES) model. The LES model requires very fine mesh grid, so the computational time is large, which hinders the LES model application in engineering. The RNG k-ε model can reduce computational time greatly with high accuracy in the near-wall region. Furthermore, the RNG k-ε model computes the maximum turbulent mixing length dynamically in simulating sediment scour model. Therefore, the RNG k-ε model was adopted to study the scour around anchor under random waves [41,42].

∂kT∂T+1VF(uAx∂kT∂x+vAy∂kT∂y+wAz∂kT∂z)=PT+GT+DiffkT−εkT∂��∂�+1��(���∂��∂�+���∂��∂�+���∂��∂�)=��+��+������−���(12)

∂εT∂T+1VF(uAx∂εT∂x+vAy∂εT∂y+wAz∂εT∂z)=CDIS1εTkT(PT+CDIS3GT)+Diffε−CDIS2ε2TkT∂��∂�+1��(���∂��∂�+���∂��∂�+���∂��∂�)=����1����(��+����3��)+�����−����2��2��(13)

where, kT is specific kinetic energy involved with turbulent velocity, GT is the turbulent energy generated by buoyancy; εT is the turbulent energy dissipating rate, PT is the turbulent energy, Diffε and DiffkT are diffusion terms associated with VFAiCDIS1CDIS2 and CDIS3 are dimensionless parameters, and CDIS1CDIS3 have default values of 1.42, 0.2 respectively. CDIS2 can be obtained from PT and kT.

2.3. Sediment Scour Model

The sand particles may suffer four processes under waves, i.e., entrainment, bed load transport, suspended load transport, and deposition, so the sediment scour model should depict the above processes efficiently. In present numerical simulation, the sediment scour model includes the following aspects:

2.3.1. Entrainment and Deposition

The combination of entrainment and deposition determines the net scour rate of seabed in present sediment scour model. The entrainment lift velocity of sand particles was calculated as [43]:

ulift,i=αinsd0.3∗(θ−θcr)1.5∥g∥di(ρi−ρf)ρf−−−−−−−−−−−−√�lift,i=�����*0.3(�−�cr)1.5���(��−�f)�f(14)

where, αi is the entrainment parameter, ns is the outward point perpendicular to the seabed, d* is the dimensionless diameter of sand particles, which was calculated by Equation (15), θcr is the critical Shields parameter, g is the gravity acceleration, di is the diameter of sand particles, ρi is the density of seabed species.

d∗=di(∥g∥ρf(ρi−ρf)μ2f)1/3�*=��(��f(��−�f)�f2)1/3(15)

where μf is the fluid dynamic viscosity.

In Equation (14), the entrainment parameter αi confirms the rate at which sediment erodes when the given shear stress is larger than the critical shear stress, and the recommended value 0.018 was adopted according to the experimental data of Mastbergen and Von den Berg [43]. ns is the outward pointing normal to the seabed interface, and ns = (0,0,1) according to the Cartesian coordinates used in present numerical model.

The shields parameter was obtained from the following equation:

θ=U2f,m(ρi/ρf−1)gd50�=�f,m2(��/�f−1)��50(16)

where, Uf,m is the maximum value of the near-bed friction velocity; d50 is the median diameter of sand particles. The detailed calculation procedure of θ was available in Soulsby [44].

The critical shields parameter θcr was obtained from the Equation (17) [44]

θcr=0.31+1.2d∗+0.055[1−exp(−0.02d∗)]�cr=0.31+1.2�*+0.0551−exp(−0.02�*)(17)

The sand particles begin to deposit on seabed when the turbulence energy weaken and cann’t support the particles suspending. The setting velocity of the particles was calculated from the following equation [44]:

usettling,i=νfdi[(10.362+1.049d3∗)0.5−10.36]�settling,�=�f��(10.362+1.049�*3)0.5−10.36(18)

where νf is the fluid kinematic viscosity.

2.3.2. Bed Load Transport

This is called bed load transport when the sand particles roll or bounce over the seabed and always have contact with seabed. The bed load transport velocity was computed by [45]:

ubedload,i=qb,iδicb,ifb�bedload,�=�b,����b,��b(19)

where, qb,i is the bed load transport rate, which was obtained from Equation (20), δi is the bed load thickness, which was calculated by Equation (21), cb,i is the volume fraction of sand i in the multiple species, fb is the critical packing fraction of the seabed.

qb,i=8[∥g∥(ρi−ρfρf)d3i]1/2�b,�=8�(��−�f�f)��31/2(20)

δi=0.3d0.7∗(θθcr−1)0.5di��=0.3�*0.7(��cr−1)0.5��(21)

2.3.3. Suspended Load Transport

Through the following transport equation, the suspended sediment concentration could be acquired.

∂Cs,i∂t+∇(us,iCs,i)=∇∇(DfCs,i)∂�s,�∂�+∇(�s,��s,�)=∇∇(�f�s,�)(22)

where, Cs,i is the suspended sand particles mass concentration of sand i in the multiple species, us,i is the sand particles velocity of sand iDf is the diffusivity.

The velocity of sand i in the multiple species could be obtained from the following equation:

us,i=u¯¯+usettling,ics,i�s,�=�¯+�settling,��s,�(23)

where, u¯�¯ is the velocity of mixed fluid-particles, which can be calculated by the RANS equation with turbulence model, cs,i is the suspended sand particles volume concentration, which was computed from Equation (24).

cs,i=Cs,iρi�s,�=�s,���(24)

3. Model Setup

The seabed-USAF-wave three-dimensional scour numerical model was built using Flow-3D software. As shown in Figure 2, the model includes sandy seabed, USAF model, sea water, two baffles and porous media. The dimensions of USAF are shown in Table 1. The sandy bed (210 m in length, 30 m in width and 11 m in height) is made up of uniform fine sand with median diameter d50 = 0.041 cm. The USAF model includes upper steel tube with the length of 20 m, which was installed in the middle of seabed. The location of USAF is positioned at 140 m from the upstream inflow boundary and 70 m from the downstream outflow boundary. Two baffles were installed at two ends of seabed. In order to eliminate the wave reflection basically, the porous media was set at the outflow side on the seabed.

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Figure 2. (a) The sketch of seabed-USAF-wave three-dimensional model; (b) boundary condation:Wv-wave boundary, S-symmetric boundary, O-outflow boundary; (c) USAF model.

Table 1. Numerical simulating cases.

Table

3.1. Mesh Geometric Dimensions

In the simulation of the scour under the random waves, the model includes the umbrella suction anchor foundation, seabed and fluid. As shown in Figure 3, the model mesh includes global mesh grid and nested mesh grid, and the total number of grids is 1,812,000. The basic procedure for building mesh grid consists of two steps. Step 1: Divide the global mesh using regular hexahedron with size of 0.6 × 0.6. The global mesh area is cubic box, embracing the seabed and whole fluid volume, and the dimensions are 210 m in length, 30 m in width and 32 m in height. The details of determining the grid size can see the following mesh sensitivity section. Step 2: Set nested fine mesh grid in vicinity of the USAF with size of 0.3 × 0.3 so as to shorten the computation cost and improve the calculation accuracy. The encryption range is −15 m to 15 m in x direction, −15 m to 15 m in y direction and 0 m to 32 m in z direction, respectively. In order to accurately capture the free-surface dynamics, such as the fluid-air interface, the volume of fluid (VOF) method was adopted for tracking the free water surface. One specific algorithm called FAVORTM (Fractional Area/Volume Obstacle Representation) was used to define the fractional face areas and fractional volumes of the cells which are open to fluid flow.

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Figure 3. The sketch of mesh grid.

3.2. Boundary Conditions

As shown in Figure 2, the initial fluid length is 210 m as long as seabed. A wave boundary was specified at the upstream offshore end. The details of determining the random wave spectrum can see the following wave parameters section. The outflow boundary was set at the downstream onshore end. The symmetry boundary was used at the top and two sides of the model. The symmetric boundaries were the better strategy to improve the computation efficiency and save the calculation cost [46]. At the seabed bottom, the wall boundary was adopted, which means the u = v = w= 0. Besides, the upper steel tube of USAF was set as no-slip condition.

3.3. Wave Parameters

The random waves with JONSWAP wave spectrum were used for all simulations as realistic representation of offshore conditions. The unidirectional JONSWAP frequency spectrum was described as [47]:

S(ω)=αg2ω5exp[−54(ωpω)4]γexp[−(ω−ωp)22σ2ω2p]�(�)=��2�5exp−54(�p�)4�exp−(�−�p)22�2�p2(25)

where, α is wave energy scale parameter, which is calculated by Equation (26), ω is frequency, ωp is wave spectrum peak frequency, which can be obtained from Equation (27). γ is wave spectrum peak enhancement factor, in this study γ = 3.3. σ is spectral width factor, σ equals 0.07 for ω ≤ ωp and 0.09 for ω > ωp respectively.

α=0.0076(gXU2)−0.22�=0.0076(���2)−0.22(26)

ωp=22(gU)(gXU2)−0.33�p=22(��)(���2)−0.33(27)

where, X is fetch length, U is average wind velocity at 10 m height from mean sea level.

In present numerical model, the input key parameters include X and U for wave boundary with JONSWAP wave spectrum. The objective wave height and period are available by different combinations of X and U. In this study, we designed 9 cases with different wave heights, periods and water depths for simulating scour around USAF under random waves (see Table 2). For random waves, the wave steepness ε and Ursell number Ur were acquired form Equations (28) and (29) respectively

ε=2πgHsT2a�=2���s�a2(28)

Ur=Hsk2h3w�r=�s�2ℎw3(29)

where, Hs is significant wave height, Ta is average wave period, k is wave number, hw is water depth. The Shield parameter θ satisfies θ > θcr for all simulations in current study, indicating the live bed scour prevails.

Table 2. Numerical simulating cases.

Table

3.4. Mesh Sensitivity

In this section, a mesh sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of mesh grid size to results and make sure the calculation is mesh size independent and converged. Three mesh grid size were chosen: Mesh 1—global mesh grid size of 0.75 × 0.75, nested fine mesh grid size of 0.4 × 0.4, and total number of grids 1,724,000, Mesh 2—global mesh grid size of 0.6 × 0.6, nested fine mesh grid size of 0.3 × 0.3, and total number of grids 1,812,000, Mesh 3—global mesh grid size of 0.4 × 0.4, nested fine mesh grid size of 0.2 × 0.2, and total number of grids 1,932,000. The near-bed shear velocity U* is an important factor for influencing scour process [1,15], so U* at the position of (4,0,11.12) was evaluated under three mesh sizes. As the Figure 4 shown, the maximum error of shear velocity ∆U*1,2 is about 39.8% between the mesh 1 and mesh 2, and 4.8% between the mesh 2 and mesh 3. According to the mesh sensitivity criterion adopted by Pang et al. [48], it’s reasonable to think the results are mesh size independent and converged with mesh 2. Additionally, the present model was built according to prototype size, and the mesh size used in present model is larger than the mesh size adopted by Higueira et al. [49] and Corvaro et al. [50]. If we choose the smallest cell size, it will take too much time. For example, the simulation with Mesh3 required about 260 h by using a computer with Intel Xeon Scalable Gold 4214 CPU @24 Cores, 2.2 GHz and 64.00 GB RAM. Therefore, in this case, considering calculation accuracy and computation efficiency, the mesh 2 was chosen for all the simulation in this study.

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Figure 4. Comparison of near-bed shear velocity U* with different mesh grid size.

The nested mesh block was adopted for seabed in vicinity of the USAF, which was overlapped with the global mesh block. When two mesh blocks overlap each other, the governing equations are by default solved on the mesh block with smaller average cell size (i.e., higher grid resolution). It is should be noted that the Flow 3D software used the moving mesh captures the scour evolution and automatically adjusts the time step size to be as large as possible without exceeding any of the stability limits, affecting accuracy, or unduly increasing the effort required to enforce the continuity condition [51].

3.5. Model Validation

In order to verify the reliability of the present model, the results of present study were compared with the experimental data of Khosronejad et al. [52]. The experiment was conducted in an open channel with a slender vertical pile under unidirectional currents. The comparison of scour development between the present results and the experimental results is shown in Figure 5. The Figure 5 reveals that the present results agree well with the experimental data of Khosronejad et al. [52]. In the first stage, the scour depth increases rapidly. After that, the scour depth achieves a maximum value gradually. The equilibrium scour depth calculated by the present model is basically corresponding with the experimental results of Khosronejad et al. [52], although scour depth in the present model is slightly larger than the experimental results at initial stage.

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Figure 5. Comparison of time evolution of scour between the present study and Khosronejad et al. [52], Petersen et al. [17].

Secondly, another comparison was further conducted between the results of present study and the experimental data of Petersen et al. [17]. The experiment was carried out in a flume with a circular vertical pile in combined waves and current. Figure 4 shows a comparison of time evolution of scour depth between the simulating and the experimental results. As Figure 5 indicates, the scour depth in this study has good overall agreement with the experimental results proposed in Petersen et al. [17]. The equilibrium scour depth calculated by the present model is 0.399 m, which equals to the experimental value basically. Overall, the above verifications prove the present model is accurate and capable in dealing with sediment scour under waves.

In addition, in order to calibrate and validate the present model for hydrodynamic parameters, the comparison of water surface elevation was carried out with laboratory experiments conducted by Stahlmann [53] for wave gauge No. 3. The Figure 6 depicts the surface wave profiles between experiments and numerical model results. The comparison indicates that there is a good agreement between the model results and experimental values, especially the locations of wave crest and trough. Comparison of the surface elevation instructs the present model has an acceptable relative error, and the model is a calibrated in terms of the hydrodynamic parameters.

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Figure 6. Comparison of surface elevation between the present study and Stahlmann [53].

Finally, another comparison was conducted for equilibrium scour depth or maximum scour depth under random waves with the experimental data of Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Schendel et al. [22]. The Figure 7 shows the comparison between the numerical results and experimental data of Run01, Run05, Run21 and Run22 in Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and test A05 and A09 in Schendel et al. [22]. As shown in Figure 7, the equilibrium scour depth or maximum scour depth distributed within the ±30 error lines basically, meaning the reliability and accuracy of present model for predicting equilibrium scour depth around foundation in random waves. However, compared with the experimental values, the present model overestimated the equilibrium scour depth generally. Given that, a calibration for scour depth was carried out by multiplying the mean reduced coefficient 0.85 in following section.

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Figure 7. Comparison of equilibrium (or maximum) scour depth between the present study and Sumer and Fredsøe [16], Schendel et al. [22].

Through the various examination for hydrodynamic and morphology parameters, it can be concluded that the present model is a validated and calibrated model for scour under random waves. Thus, the present numerical model would be utilized for scour simulation around foundation under random waves.

4. Numerical Results and Discussions

4.1. Scour Evolution

Figure 8 displays the scour evolution for case 1–9. As shown in Figure 8a, the scour depth increased rapidly at the initial stage, and then slowed down at the transition stage, which attributes to the backfilling occurred in scour holes under live bed scour condition, resulting in the net scour decreasing. Finally, the scour reached the equilibrium state when the amount of sediment backfilling equaled to that of scouring in the scour holes, i.e., the net scour transport rate was nil. Sumer and Fredsøe [16] proposed the following formula for the scour development under waves

St=Seq(1−exp(−t/Tc))�t=�eq(1−exp(−�/�c))(30)

where Tc is time scale of scour process.

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Figure 8. Time evolution of scour for case 1–9: (a) Case 1–5; (b) Case 6–9.

The computing time is 3600 s and the scour development curves in Figure 8 kept fluctuating, meaning it’s still not in equilibrium scour stage in these cases. According to Sumer and Fredsøe [16], the equilibrium scour depth can be acquired by fitting the data with Equation (30). From Figure 8, it can be seen that the scour evolution obtained from Equation (30) is consistent with the present study basically at initial stage, but the scour depth predicted by Equation (30) developed slightly faster than the simulating results and the Equation (30) overestimated the scour depth to some extent. Overall, the whole tendency of the results calculated by Equation (30) agrees well with the simulating results of the present study, which means the Equation (30) is applicable to depict the scour evolution around USAF under random waves.

4.2. Scour Mechanism under Random Waves

The scour morphology and scour evolution around USAF are similar under random waves in case 1~9. Taking case 7 as an example, the scour morphology is shown in Figure 9.

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Figure 9. Scour morphology under different times for case 7.

From Figure 9, at the initial stage (t < 1200 s), the scour occurred at upstream foundation edges between neighboring anchor branches. The maximum scour depth appeared at the lee-side of the USAF. Correspondingly, the sediments deposited at the periphery of the USAF, and the location of the maximum accretion depth was positioned at an angle of about 45° symmetrically with respect to the wave propagating direction in the lee-side of the USAF. After that, when t > 2400 s, the location of the maximum scour depth shifted to the upside of the USAF at an angle of about 45° with respect to the wave propagating direction.

According to previous studies [1,15,16,19,30,31], the horseshoe vortex, streamline compression and wake vortex shedding were responsible for scour around foundation. The Figure 10 displays the distribution of flow velocity in vicinity of foundation, which reflects the evolving processes of horseshoe vertex.

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Figure 10. Velocity profile around USAF: (a) Flow runup and down stream at upstream anchor edges; (b) Horseshoe vortex at upstream anchor edges; (c) Flow reversal during wave through stage at lee side.

As shown in Figure 10, the inflow tripped to the upstream edges of the USAF and it was blocked by the upper tube of USAF. Then, the downflow formed the horizontal axis clockwise vortex and rolled on the seabed bypassing the tube, that is, the horseshoe vortex (Figure 11). The Figure 12 displays the turbulence intensity around the tube on the seabed. From Figure 12, it can be seen that the turbulence intensity was high-intensity with respect to the region of horseshoe vortex. This phenomenon occurred because of drastic water flow momentum exchanging in the horseshoe vortex. As a result, it created the prominent shear stress on the seabed, causing the local scour at the upstream edges of USAF. Besides, the horseshoe vortex moved downstream gradually along the periphery of the tube and the wake vortex shed off continually at the lee-side of the USAF, i.e., wake vortex.

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Figure 11. Sketch of scour mechanism around USAF under random waves.

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Figure 12. Turbulence intensity: (a) Turbulence intensity of horseshoe vortex; (b) Turbulence intensity of wake vortex; (c) Turbulence intensity of accretion area.

The core of wake vortex is a negative pressure center, liking a vacuum cleaner [11,42]. Hence, the soil particles were swirled into the negative pressure core and carried away by wake vortex. At the same time, the onset of scour at rear side occurred. Finally, the wake vortex became downflow at the downside of USAF. As is shown in Figure 12, the turbulence intensity was low where the downflow occurred at lee-side, which means the turbulence energy may not be able to support the survival of wake vortex, leading to accretion happening. As mentioned in previous section, the formation of horseshoe vortex was dependent with adverse pressure gradient at upside of foundation. As shown in Figure 13, the evaluated range of pressure distribution is −15 m to 15 m in x direction. The t = 450 s and t = 1800 s indicate that the wave crest and trough arrived at the upside and lee-side of the foundation respectively, and the t = 350 s was neither the wave crest nor trough. The adverse gradient pressure reached the maximum value at t = 450 s corresponding to the wave crest phase. In this case, it’s helpful for the wave boundary separating fully from seabed, which leads to the formation of horseshoe vortex with high turbulence intensity. Therefore, the horseshoe vortex is responsible for the local scour between neighboring anchor branches at upside of USAF. What’s more, due to the combination of the horseshoe vortex and streamline compression, the maximum scour depth occurred at the upside of the USAF with an angle of about 45° corresponding to the wave propagating direction. This is consistent with the findings of Pang et al. [48] and Sumer et al. [1,15] in case of regular waves. At the wave trough phase (t = 1800 s), the pressure gradient became positive at upstream USAF edges, which hindered the separating of wave boundary from seabed. In the meantime, the flow reversal occurred (Figure 10) and the adverse gradient pressure appeared at downstream USAF edges, but the magnitude of adverse gradient pressure at lee-side was lower than the upstream gradient pressure under wave crest. In this way, the intensity of horseshoe vortex behind the USAF under wave trough was low, which explains the difference of scour depth at upstream and downstream, i.e., the scour asymmetry. In other words, the scour asymmetry at upside and downside of USAF was attributed to wave asymmetry for random waves, and the phenomenon became more evident for nonlinear waves [21]. Briefly speaking, the vortex system at wave crest phase was mainly related to the scour process around USAF under random waves.

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Figure 13. Pressure distribution around USAF.

4.3. Equilibrium Scour Depth

The KC number is a key parameter for horseshoe vortex emerging and evolving under waves. According to Equation (1), when pile diameter D is fixed, the KC depends on the maximum near-bed velocity Uwm and wave period T. For random waves, the Uwm can be denoted by the root-mean-square (RMS) value of near-bed velocity amplitude Uwm,rms or the significant value of near-bed velocity amplitude Uwm,s. The Uwm,rms and Uwm,s for all simulating cases of the present study are listed in Table 3 and Table 4. The T can be denoted by the mean up zero-crossing wave period Ta, peak wave period Tp, significant wave period Ts, the maximum wave period Tm, 1/10′th highest wave period Tn = 1/10 and 1/5′th highest wave period Tn = 1/5 for random waves, so the different combinations of Uwm and T will acquire different KC. The Table 3 and Table 4 list 12 types of KC, for example, the KCrms,s was calculated by Uwm,rms and Ts. Sumer and Fredsøe [16] conducted a series of wave flume experiments to investigate the scour depth around monopile under random waves, and found the equilibrium scour depth predicting equation (Equation (2)) for regular waves was applicable for random waves with KCrms,p. It should be noted that the Equation (2) is only suitable for KC > 6 under regular waves or KCrms,p > 6 under random waves.

Table 3. Uwm,rms and KC for case 1~9.

Table

Table 4. Uwm,s and KC for case 1~9.

Table

Raaijmakers and Rudolph [34] proposed the equilibrium scour depth predicting model (Equation (5)) around pile under waves, which is suitable for low KC. The format of Equation (5) is similar with the formula proposed by Breusers [54], which can predict the equilibrium scour depth around pile at different scour stages. In order to verify the applicability of Raaijmakers’s model for predicting the equilibrium scour depth around USAF under random waves, a validation of the equilibrium scour depth Seq between the present study and Raaijmakers’s equation was conducted. The position where the scour depth Seq was evaluated is the location of the maximum scour depth, and it was depicted in Figure 14. The Figure 15 displays the comparison of Seq with different KC between the present study and Raaijmakers’s model.

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Figure 14. Sketch of the position where the Seq was evaluated.

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Figure 15. Comparison of the equilibrium scour depth between the present model and the model of Raaijmakers and Rudolph [34]: (aKCrms,sKCrms,a; (bKCrms,pKCrms,m; (cKCrms,n = 1/10KCrms,n = 1/5; (dKCs,sKCs,a; (eKCs,pKCs,m; (fKCs,n = 1/10KCs,n = 1/5.

As shown in Figure 15, there is an error in predicting Seq between the present study and Raaijmakers’s model, and Raaijmakers’s model underestimates the results generally. Although the error exists, the varying trend of Seq with KC obtained from Raaijmakers’s model is consistent with the present study basically. What’s more, the error is minimum and the Raaijmakers’s model is of relatively high accuracy for predicting scour around USAF under random waves by using KCs,p. Based on this, a further revision was made to eliminate the error as much as possible, i.e., add the deviation value ∆S/D in the Raaijmakers’s model. The revised equilibrium scour depth predicting equation based on Raaijmakers’s model can be written as

S′eq/D=1.95[tanh(hD)](1−exp(−0.012KCs,p))+ΔS/D�eq′/�=1.95tanh(ℎ�)(1−exp(−0.012��s,p))+∆�/�(31)

As the Figure 16 shown, through trial-calculation, when ∆S/D = 0.05, the results calculated by Equation (31) show good agreement with the simulating results of the present study. The maximum error is about 18.2% and the engineering requirements have been met basically. In order to further verify the accuracy of the revised model for large KC (KCs,p > 4) under random waves, a validation between the revised model and the previous experimental results [21]. The experiment was conducted in a flume (50 m in length, 1.0 m in width and 1.3 m in height) with a slender vertical pile (D = 0.1 m) under random waves. The seabed is composed of 0.13 m deep layer of sand with d50 = 0.6 mm and the water depth is 0.5 m for all tests. The significant wave height is 0.12~0.21 m and the KCs,p is 5.52~11.38. The comparison between the predicting results by Equation (31) and the experimental results of Corvaro et al. [21] is shown in Figure 17. From Figure 17, the experimental data evenly distributes around the predicted results and the prediction accuracy is favorable when KCs,p < 8. However, the gap between the predicting results and experimental data becomes large and the Equation (31) overestimates the equilibrium scour depth to some extent when KCs,p > 8.

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Figure 16. Comparison of Seq between the simulating results and the predicting values by Equation (31).

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Figure 17. Comparison of Seq/D between the Experimental results of Corvaro et al. [21] and the predicting values by Equation (31).

In ocean environment, the waves are composed of a train of sinusoidal waves with different frequencies and amplitudes. The energy of constituent waves with very large and very small frequencies is relatively low, and the energy of waves is mainly concentrated in a certain range of moderate frequencies. Myrhaug and Rue [37] thought the 1/n’th highest wave was responsible for scour and proposed the stochastic model to predict the equilibrium scour depth around pile under random waves for full range of KC. Noteworthy is that the KC was denoted by KCrms,a in the stochastic model. To verify the application of the stochastic model for predicting scour depth around USAF, a validation between the simulating results of present study and predicting results by the stochastic model with n = 2,3,5,10,20,500 was carried out respectively.

As shown in Figure 18, compared with the simulating results, the stochastic model underestimates the equilibrium scour depth around USAF generally. Although the error exists, the varying trend of Seq with KCrms,a obtained from the stochastic model is consistent with the present study basically. What’s more, the gap between the predicting values by stochastic model and the simulating results decreases with the increase of n, but for large n, for example n = 500, the varying trend diverges between the predicting values and simulating results, meaning it’s not feasible only by increasing n in stochastic model to predict the equilibrium scour depth around USAF.

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Figure 18. Comparison of Seq between the simulating results and the predicting values by Equation (8).

The Figure 19 lists the deviation value ∆Seq/D′ between the predicting values and simulating results with different KCrms,a and n. Then, fitted the relationship between the ∆S′and n under different KCrms,a, and the fitting curve can be written by Equation (32). The revised stochastic model (Equation (33)) can be acquired by adding ∆Seq/D′ to Equation (8).

ΔSeq/D=0.052*exp(−n/6.566)+0.068∆�eq/�=0.052*exp(−�/6.566)+0.068(32)

S′eq¯/D=S′eq/D+0.052*exp(−n/6.566)+0.068�eq′¯/�=�eq′/�+0.052*exp(−�/6.566)+0.068(33)

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Figure 19. The fitting line between ∆S′and n.

The comparison between the predicting results by Equation (33) and the simulating results of present study is shown in Figure 20. According to the Figure 20, the varying trend of Seq with KCrms,a obtained from the stochastic model is consistent with the present study basically. Compared with predicting results by the stochastic model, the results calculated by Equation (33) is favorable. Moreover, comparison with simulating results indicates that the predicting results are the most favorable for n = 10, which is consistent with the findings of Myrhaug and Rue [37] for equilibrium scour depth predicting around slender pile in case of random waves.

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Figure 20. Comparison of Seq between the simulating results and the predicting values by Equation (33).

In order to further verify the accuracy of the Equation (33) for large KC (KCrms,a > 4) under random waves, a validation was conducted between the Equation (33) and the previous experimental results of Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Corvaro et al. [21]. The details of experiments conducted by Corvaro et al. [21] were described in above section. Sumer and Fredsøe [16] investigated the local scour around pile under random waves. The experiments were conducted in a wave basin with a slender vertical pile (D = 0.032, 0.055 m). The seabed is composed of 0.14 m deep layer of sand with d50 = 0.2 mm and the water depth was maintained at 0.5 m. The JONSWAP wave spectrum was used and the KCrms,a was 5.29~16.95. The comparison between the predicting results by Equation (33) and the experimental results of Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Corvaro et al. [21] are shown in Figure 21. From Figure 21, contrary to the case of low KCrms,a (KCrms,a < 4), the error between the predicting values and experimental results increases with decreasing of n for KCrms,a > 4. Therefore, the predicting results are the most favorable for n = 2 when KCrms,a > 4.

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Figure 21. Comparison of Seq between the experimental results of Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Corvaro et al. [21] and the predicting values by Equation (33).

Noteworthy is that the present model was built according to prototype size, so the errors between the numerical results and experimental data of References [16,21] may be attribute to the scale effects. In laboratory experiments on scouring process, it is typically impossible to ensure a rigorous similarity of all physical parameters between the model and prototype structure, leading to the scale effects in the laboratory experiments. To avoid a cohesive behaviour, the bed material was not scaled geometrically according to model scale. As a consequence, the relatively large-scaled sediments sizes may result in the overestimation of bed load transport and underestimation of suspended load transport compared with field conditions. What’s more, the disproportional scaled sediment presumably lead to the difference of bed roughness between the model and prototype, and thus large influences for wave boundary layer on the seabed and scour process. Besides, according to Corvaro et al. [21] and Schendel et al. [55], the pile Reynolds numbers and Froude numbers both affect the scour depth for the condition of non fully developed turbulent flow in laboratory experiments.

4.4. Parametric Study

4.4.1. Influence of Froude Number

As described above, the set of foundation leads to the adverse pressure gradient appearing at upstream, leading to the wave boundary layer separating from seabed, then horseshoe vortex formatting and the horseshoe vortex are mainly responsible for scour around foundation (see Figure 22). The Froude number Fr is the key parameter to influence the scale and intensity of horseshoe vortex. The Fr under waves can be calculated by the following formula [42]

Fr=UwgD−−−√�r=�w��(34)

where Uw is the mean water particle velocity during 1/4 cycle of wave oscillation, obtained from the following formula. Noteworthy is that the root-mean-square (RMS) value of near-bed velocity amplitude Uwm,rms is used for calculating Uwm.

Uw=1T/4∫0T/4Uwmsin(t/T)dt=2πUwm�w=1�/4∫0�/4�wmsin(�/�)��=2��wm(35)

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Figure 22. Sketch of flow field at upstream USAF edges.

Tavouktsoglou et al. [25] proposed the following formula between Fr and the vertical location of the stagnation y

yh∝Fer�ℎ∝�r�(36)

where e is constant.

The Figure 23 displays the relationship between Seq/D and Fr of the present study. In order to compare with the simulating results, the experimental data of Corvaro et al. [21] was also depicted in Figure 23. As shown in Figure 23, the equilibrium scour depth appears a logarithmic increase as Fr increases and approaches the mathematical asymptotic value, which is also consistent with the experimental results of Corvaro et al. [21]. According to Figure 24, the adverse pressure gradient pressure at upstream USAF edges increases with the increase of Fr, which is benefit for the wave boundary layer separating from seabed, resulting in the high-intensity horseshoe vortex, hence, causing intensive scour around USAF. Based on the previous study of Tavouktsoglou et al. [25] for scour around pile under currents, the high Fr leads to the stagnation point is closer to the mean sea level for shallow water, causing the stronger downflow kinetic energy. As mentioned in previous section, the energy of downflow at upstream makes up the energy of the subsequent horseshoe vortex, so the stronger downflow kinetic energy results in the more intensive horseshoe vortex. Therefore, the higher Fr leads to the more intensive horseshoe vortex by influencing the position of stagnation point y presumably. Qi and Gao [19] carried out a series of flume tests to investigate the scour around pile under regular waves, and proposed the fitting formula between Seq/D and Fr as following

lg(Seq/D)=Aexp(B/Fr)+Clg(�eq/�)=�exp(�/�r)+�(37)

where AB and C are constant.

Jmse 09 00886 g023 550

Figure 23. The fitting curve between Seq/D and Fr.

Jmse 09 00886 g024 550

Figure 24. Sketch of adverse pressure gradient at upstream USAF edges.

Took the Equation (37) to fit the simulating results with A = −0.002, B = 0.686 and C = −0.808, and the results are shown in Figure 23. From Figure 23, the simulating results evenly distribute around the Equation (37) and the varying trend of Seq/D and Fr in present study is consistent with Equation (37) basically, meaning the Equation (37) is applicable to express the relationship of Seq/D with Fr around USAF under random waves.

4.4.2. Influence of Euler Number

The Euler number Eu is the influencing factor for the hydrodynamic field around foundation. The Eu under waves can be calculated by the following formula. The Eu can be represented by the Equation (38) for uniform cylinders [25]. The root-mean-square (RMS) value of near-bed velocity amplitude Um,rms is used for calculating Um.

Eu=U2mgD�u=�m2��(38)

where Um is depth-averaged flow velocity.

The Figure 25 displays the relationship between Seq/D and Eu of the present study. In order to compare with the simulating results, the experimental data of Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Corvaro et al. [21] were also plotted in Figure 25. As shown in Figure 25, similar with the varying trend of Seq/D and Fr, the equilibrium scour depth appears a logarithmic increase as Eu increases and approaches the mathematical asymptotic value, which is also consistent with the experimental results of Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Corvaro et al. [21]. According to Figure 24, the adverse pressure gradient pressure at upstream USAF edges increases with the increasing of Eu, which is benefit for the wave boundary layer separating from seabed, inducing the high-intensity horseshoe vortex, hence, causing intensive scour around USAF.

Jmse 09 00886 g025 550

Figure 25. The fitting curve between Seq/D and Eu.

Therefore, the variation of Fr and Eu reflect the magnitude of adverse pressure gradient pressure at upstream. Given that, the Equation (37) also was used to fit the simulating results with A = 8.875, B = 0.078 and C = −9.601, and the results are shown in Figure 25. From Figure 25, the simulating results evenly distribute around the Equation (37) and the varying trend of Seq/D and Eu in present study is consistent with Equation (37) basically, meaning the Equation (37) is also applicable to express the relationship of Seq/D with Eu around USAF under random waves. Additionally, according to the above description of Fr, it can be inferred that the higher Fr and Eu both lead to the more intensive horseshoe vortex by influencing the position of stagnation point y presumably.

5. Conclusions

A series of numerical models were established to investigate the local scour around umbrella suction anchor foundation (USAF) under random waves. The numerical model was validated for hydrodynamic and morphology parameters by comparing with the experimental data of Khosronejad et al. [52], Petersen et al. [17], Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Schendel et al. [22]. Based on the simulating results, the scour evolution and scour mechanisms around USAF under random waves were analyzed respectively. Two revised models were proposed according to the model of Raaijmakers and Rudolph [34] and the stochastic model developed by Myrhaug and Rue [37] to predict the equilibrium scour depth around USAF under random waves. Finally, a parametric study was carried out with the present model to study the effects of the Froude number Fr and Euler number Eu to the equilibrium scour depth around USAF under random waves. The main conclusions can be described as follows.(1)

The packed sediment scour model and the RNG k−ε turbulence model were used to simulate the sand particles transport processes and the flow field around UASF respectively. The scour evolution obtained by the present model agrees well with the experimental results of Khosronejad et al. [52], Petersen et al. [17], Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Schendel et al. [22], which indicates that the present model is accurate and reasonable for depicting the scour morphology around UASF under random waves.(2)

The vortex system at wave crest phase is mainly related to the scour process around USAF under random waves. The maximum scour depth appeared at the lee-side of the USAF at the initial stage (t < 1200 s). Subsequently, when t > 2400 s, the location of the maximum scour depth shifted to the upside of the USAF at an angle of about 45° with respect to the wave propagating direction.(3)

The error is negligible and the Raaijmakers’s model is of relatively high accuracy for predicting scour around USAF under random waves when KC is calculated by KCs,p. Given that, a further revision model (Equation (31)) was proposed according to Raaijmakers’s model to predict the equilibrium scour depth around USAF under random waves and it shows good agreement with the simulating results of the present study when KCs,p < 8.(4)

Another further revision model (Equation (33)) was proposed according to the stochastic model established by Myrhaug and Rue [37] to predict the equilibrium scour depth around USAF under random waves, and the predicting results are the most favorable for n = 10 when KCrms,a < 4. However, contrary to the case of low KCrms,a, the predicting results are the most favorable for n = 2 when KCrms,a > 4 by the comparison with experimental results of Sumer and Fredsøe [16] and Corvaro et al. [21].(5)

The same formula (Equation (37)) is applicable to express the relationship of Seq/D with Eu or Fr, and it can be inferred that the higher Fr and Eu both lead to the more intensive horseshoe vortex and larger Seq.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, H.L. (Hongjun Liu); Data curation, R.H. and P.Y.; Formal analysis, X.W. and H.L. (Hao Leng); Funding acquisition, X.W.; Writing—original draft, R.H. and P.Y.; Writing—review & editing, X.W. and H.L. (Hao Leng); The final manuscript has been approved by all the authors. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

This research was funded by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (grant number 202061027) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 41572247).

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Hu, R.; Liu, H.; Leng, H.; Yu, P.; Wang, X. Scour Characteristics and Equilibrium Scour Depth Prediction around Umbrella Suction Anchor Foundation under Random Waves. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 20219, 886. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080886

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Hu R, Liu H, Leng H, Yu P, Wang X. Scour Characteristics and Equilibrium Scour Depth Prediction around Umbrella Suction Anchor Foundation under Random Waves. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(8):886. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080886Chicago/Turabian Style

Hu, Ruigeng, Hongjun Liu, Hao Leng, Peng Yu, and Xiuhai Wang. 2021. “Scour Characteristics and Equilibrium Scour Depth Prediction around Umbrella Suction Anchor Foundation under Random Waves” Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 8: 886. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080886

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Study on Hydrodynamic Performance of Unsymmetrical Double Vertical Slotted Barriers

침수된 강성 식생을 갖는 개방 수로 흐름의 특성에 대한 3차원 수치 시뮬레이션

A 3-D numerical simulation of the characteristics of open channel flows with submerged rigid vegetation

Journal of Hydrodynamics volume 33, pages833–843 (2021)Cite this article

Abstract

이 백서는 Flow-3D를 적용하여 다양한 흐름 배출 및 식생 시나리오가 흐름 속도(세로, 가로 및 수직 속도 포함)에 미치는 영향을 조사합니다.

실험적 측정을 통한 검증 후 식생직경, 식생높이, 유량방류량에 대한 민감도 분석을 수행하였다. 종방향 속도의 경우 흐름 구조에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 것은 배출보다는 식생 직경에서 비롯됩니다.

그러나 식생 높이는 수직 분포의 변곡점을 결정합니다. 식생지 내 두 지점, 즉 상류와 하류의 횡속도를 비교하면 수심에 따른 대칭적인 패턴을 확인할 수 있다. 식생 지역의 가로 및 세로 유체 순환 패턴을 포함하여 흐름 또는 식생 시나리오와 관계없이 수직 속도에 대해서도 동일한 패턴이 관찰됩니다.

또한 식생의 직경이 클수록 이러한 패턴이 더 분명해집니다. 상부 순환은 초목 캐노피 근처에서 발생합니다. 식생지역의 가로방향과 세로방향의 순환에 관한 이러한 발견은 침수식생을 통한 3차원 유동구조를 밝혀준다.

This paper applies the Flow-3D to investigate the impacts of different flow discharge and vegetation scenarios on the flow velocity (including the longitudinal, transverse and vertical velocities). After the verification by using experimental measurements, a sensitivity analysis is conducted for the vegetation diameter, the vegetation height and the flow discharge. For the longitudinal velocity, the greatest impact on the flow structure originates from the vegetation diameter, rather than the discharge. The vegetation height, however, determines the inflection point of the vertical distribution. Comparing the transverse velocities at two positions in the vegetated area, i.e., the upstream and the downstream, a symmetric pattern is identified along the water depth. The same pattern is also observed for the vertical velocity regardless of the flow or vegetation scenario, including both transverse and vertical fluid circulation patterns in the vegetated area. Moreover, the larger the vegetation diameter is, the more evident these patterns become. The upper circulation occurs near the vegetation canopy. These findings regarding the circulations along the transverse and vertical directions in the vegetated region shed light on the 3-D flow structure through the submerged vegetation.

Key words

  • Submerged rigid vegetation
  • longitudinal velocity
  • transverse velocity
  • vertical velocity
  • open channel

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Figure 2 Modeling the plant with cylindrical tubes at the bottom of the canal.

Optimized Vegetation Density to Dissipate Energy of Flood Flow in Open Canals

열린 운하에서 홍수 흐름의 에너지를 분산시키기 위해 최적화된 식생 밀도

Mahdi Feizbahr,1Navid Tonekaboni,2Guang-Jun Jiang,3,4and Hong-Xia Chen3,4
Academic Editor: Mohammad Yazdi

Abstract

강을 따라 식생은 조도를 증가시키고 평균 유속을 감소시키며, 유동 에너지를 감소시키고 강 횡단면의 유속 프로파일을 변경합니다. 자연의 많은 운하와 강은 홍수 동안 초목으로 덮여 있습니다. 운하의 조도는 식물의 영향을 많이 받기 때문에 홍수시 유동저항에 큰 영향을 미친다. 식물로 인한 흐름에 대한 거칠기 저항은 흐름 조건과 식물에 따라 달라지므로 모델은 유속, 유속 깊이 및 수로를 따라 식생 유형의 영향을 고려하여 유속을 시뮬레이션해야 합니다. 총 48개의 모델을 시뮬레이션하여 근관의 거칠기 효과를 조사했습니다. 결과는 속도를 높임으로써 베드 속도를 감소시키는 식생의 영향이 무시할만하다는 것을 나타냅니다.

Abstract

Vegetation along the river increases the roughness and reduces the average flow velocity, reduces flow energy, and changes the flow velocity profile in the cross section of the river. Many canals and rivers in nature are covered with vegetation during the floods. Canal’s roughness is strongly affected by plants and therefore it has a great effect on flow resistance during flood. Roughness resistance against the flow due to the plants depends on the flow conditions and plant, so the model should simulate the current velocity by considering the effects of velocity, depth of flow, and type of vegetation along the canal. Total of 48 models have been simulated to investigate the effect of roughness in the canal. The results indicated that, by enhancing the velocity, the effect of vegetation in decreasing the bed velocity is negligible, while when the current has lower speed, the effect of vegetation on decreasing the bed velocity is obviously considerable.

1. Introduction

Considering the impact of each variable is a very popular field within the analytical and statistical methods and intelligent systems [114]. This can help research for better modeling considering the relation of variables or interaction of them toward reaching a better condition for the objective function in control and engineering [1527]. Consequently, it is necessary to study the effects of the passive factors on the active domain [2836]. Because of the effect of vegetation on reducing the discharge capacity of rivers [37], pruning plants was necessary to improve the condition of rivers. One of the important effects of vegetation in river protection is the action of roots, which cause soil consolidation and soil structure improvement and, by enhancing the shear strength of soil, increase the resistance of canal walls against the erosive force of water. The outer limbs of the plant increase the roughness of the canal walls and reduce the flow velocity and deplete the flow energy in vicinity of the walls. Vegetation by reducing the shear stress of the canal bed reduces flood discharge and sedimentation in the intervals between vegetation and increases the stability of the walls [3841].

One of the main factors influencing the speed, depth, and extent of flood in this method is Manning’s roughness coefficient. On the other hand, soil cover [42], especially vegetation, is one of the most determining factors in Manning’s roughness coefficient. Therefore, it is expected that those seasonal changes in the vegetation of the region will play an important role in the calculated value of Manning’s roughness coefficient and ultimately in predicting the flood wave behavior [4345]. The roughness caused by plants’ resistance to flood current depends on the flow and plant conditions. Flow conditions include depth and velocity of the plant, and plant conditions include plant type, hardness or flexibility, dimensions, density, and shape of the plant [46]. In general, the issue discussed in this research is the optimization of flood-induced flow in canals by considering the effect of vegetation-induced roughness. Therefore, the effect of plants on the roughness coefficient and canal transmission coefficient and in consequence the flow depth should be evaluated [4748].

Current resistance is generally known by its roughness coefficient. The equation that is mainly used in this field is Manning equation. The ratio of shear velocity to average current velocity  is another form of current resistance. The reason for using the  ratio is that it is dimensionless and has a strong theoretical basis. The reason for using Manning roughness coefficient is its pervasiveness. According to Freeman et al. [49], the Manning roughness coefficient for plants was calculated according to the Kouwen and Unny [50] method for incremental resistance. This method involves increasing the roughness for various surface and plant irregularities. Manning’s roughness coefficient has all the factors affecting the resistance of the canal. Therefore, the appropriate way to more accurately estimate this coefficient is to know the factors affecting this coefficient [51].

To calculate the flow rate, velocity, and depth of flow in canals as well as flood and sediment estimation, it is important to evaluate the flow resistance. To determine the flow resistance in open ducts, Manning, Chézy, and Darcy–Weisbach relations are used [52]. In these relations, there are parameters such as Manning’s roughness coefficient (n), Chézy roughness coefficient (C), and Darcy–Weisbach coefficient (f). All three of these coefficients are a kind of flow resistance coefficient that is widely used in the equations governing flow in rivers [53].

The three relations that express the relationship between the average flow velocity (V) and the resistance and geometric and hydraulic coefficients of the canal are as follows:where nf, and c are Manning, Darcy–Weisbach, and Chézy coefficients, respectively. V = average flow velocity, R = hydraulic radius, Sf = slope of energy line, which in uniform flow is equal to the slope of the canal bed,  = gravitational acceleration, and Kn is a coefficient whose value is equal to 1 in the SI system and 1.486 in the English system. The coefficients of resistance in equations (1) to (3) are related as follows:

Based on the boundary layer theory, the flow resistance for rough substrates is determined from the following general relation:where f = Darcy–Weisbach coefficient of friction, y = flow depth, Ks = bed roughness size, and A = constant coefficient.

On the other hand, the relationship between the Darcy–Weisbach coefficient of friction and the shear velocity of the flow is as follows:

By using equation (6), equation (5) is converted as follows:

Investigation on the effect of vegetation arrangement on shear velocity of flow in laboratory conditions showed that, with increasing the shear Reynolds number (), the numerical value of the  ratio also increases; in other words the amount of roughness coefficient increases with a slight difference in the cases without vegetation, checkered arrangement, and cross arrangement, respectively [54].

Roughness in river vegetation is simulated in mathematical models with a variable floor slope flume by different densities and discharges. The vegetation considered submerged in the bed of the flume. Results showed that, with increasing vegetation density, canal roughness and flow shear speed increase and with increasing flow rate and depth, Manning’s roughness coefficient decreases. Factors affecting the roughness caused by vegetation include the effect of plant density and arrangement on flow resistance, the effect of flow velocity on flow resistance, and the effect of depth [4555].

One of the works that has been done on the effect of vegetation on the roughness coefficient is Darby [56] study, which investigates a flood wave model that considers all the effects of vegetation on the roughness coefficient. There are currently two methods for estimating vegetation roughness. One method is to add the thrust force effect to Manning’s equation [475758] and the other method is to increase the canal bed roughness (Manning-Strickler coefficient) [455961]. These two methods provide acceptable results in models designed to simulate floodplain flow. Wang et al. [62] simulate the floodplain with submerged vegetation using these two methods and to increase the accuracy of the results, they suggested using the effective height of the plant under running water instead of using the actual height of the plant. Freeman et al. [49] provided equations for determining the coefficient of vegetation roughness under different conditions. Lee et al. [63] proposed a method for calculating the Manning coefficient using the flow velocity ratio at different depths. Much research has been done on the Manning roughness coefficient in rivers, and researchers [496366] sought to obtain a specific number for n to use in river engineering. However, since the depth and geometric conditions of rivers are completely variable in different places, the values of Manning roughness coefficient have changed subsequently, and it has not been possible to choose a fixed number. In river engineering software, the Manning roughness coefficient is determined only for specific and constant conditions or normal flow. Lee et al. [63] stated that seasonal conditions, density, and type of vegetation should also be considered. Hydraulic roughness and Manning roughness coefficient n of the plant were obtained by estimating the total Manning roughness coefficient from the matching of the measured water surface curve and water surface height. The following equation is used for the flow surface curve:where  is the depth of water change, S0 is the slope of the canal floor, Sf is the slope of the energy line, and Fr is the Froude number which is obtained from the following equation:where D is the characteristic length of the canal. Flood flow velocity is one of the important parameters of flood waves, which is very important in calculating the water level profile and energy consumption. In the cases where there are many limitations for researchers due to the wide range of experimental dimensions and the variety of design parameters, the use of numerical methods that are able to estimate the rest of the unknown results with acceptable accuracy is economically justified.

FLOW-3D software uses Finite Difference Method (FDM) for numerical solution of two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow. This software is dedicated to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and is provided by Flow Science [67]. The flow is divided into networks with tubular cells. For each cell there are values of dependent variables and all variables are calculated in the center of the cell, except for the velocity, which is calculated at the center of the cell. In this software, two numerical techniques have been used for geometric simulation, FAVOR™ (Fractional-Area-Volume-Obstacle-Representation) and the VOF (Volume-of-Fluid) method. The equations used at this model for this research include the principle of mass survival and the magnitude of motion as follows. The fluid motion equations in three dimensions, including the Navier–Stokes equations with some additional terms, are as follows:where  are mass accelerations in the directions xyz and  are viscosity accelerations in the directions xyz and are obtained from the following equations:

Shear stresses  in equation (11) are obtained from the following equations:

The standard model is used for high Reynolds currents, but in this model, RNG theory allows the analytical differential formula to be used for the effective viscosity that occurs at low Reynolds numbers. Therefore, the RNG model can be used for low and high Reynolds currents.

Weather changes are high and this affects many factors continuously. The presence of vegetation in any area reduces the velocity of surface flows and prevents soil erosion, so vegetation will have a significant impact on reducing destructive floods. One of the methods of erosion protection in floodplain watersheds is the use of biological methods. The presence of vegetation in watersheds reduces the flow rate during floods and prevents soil erosion. The external organs of plants increase the roughness and decrease the velocity of water flow and thus reduce its shear stress energy. One of the important factors with which the hydraulic resistance of plants is expressed is the roughness coefficient. Measuring the roughness coefficient of plants and investigating their effect on reducing velocity and shear stress of flow is of special importance.

Roughness coefficients in canals are affected by two main factors, namely, flow conditions and vegetation characteristics [68]. So far, much research has been done on the effect of the roughness factor created by vegetation, but the issue of plant density has received less attention. For this purpose, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of vegetation density on flow velocity changes.

In a study conducted using a software model on three density modes in the submerged state effect on flow velocity changes in 48 different modes was investigated (Table 1).

Table 1 

The studied models.

The number of cells used in this simulation is equal to 1955888 cells. The boundary conditions were introduced to the model as a constant speed and depth (Figure 1). At the output boundary, due to the presence of supercritical current, no parameter for the current is considered. Absolute roughness for floors and walls was introduced to the model (Figure 1). In this case, the flow was assumed to be nonviscous and air entry into the flow was not considered. After  seconds, this model reached a convergence accuracy of .

Figure 1 

The simulated model and its boundary conditions.

Due to the fact that it is not possible to model the vegetation in FLOW-3D software, in this research, the vegetation of small soft plants was studied so that Manning’s coefficients can be entered into the canal bed in the form of roughness coefficients obtained from the studies of Chow [69] in similar conditions. In practice, in such modeling, the effect of plant height is eliminated due to the small height of herbaceous plants, and modeling can provide relatively acceptable results in these conditions.

48 models with input velocities proportional to the height of the regular semihexagonal canal were considered to create supercritical conditions. Manning coefficients were applied based on Chow [69] studies in order to control the canal bed. Speed profiles were drawn and discussed.

Any control and simulation system has some inputs that we should determine to test any technology [7077]. Determination and true implementation of such parameters is one of the key steps of any simulation [237881] and computing procedure [8286]. The input current is created by applying the flow rate through the VFR (Volume Flow Rate) option and the output flow is considered Output and for other borders the Symmetry option is considered.

Simulation of the models and checking their action and responses and observing how a process behaves is one of the accepted methods in engineering and science [8788]. For verification of FLOW-3D software, the results of computer simulations are compared with laboratory measurements and according to the values of computational error, convergence error, and the time required for convergence, the most appropriate option for real-time simulation is selected (Figures 2 and 3 ).

Figure 2 

Modeling the plant with cylindrical tubes at the bottom of the canal.

Figure 3 

Velocity profiles in positions 2 and 5.

The canal is 7 meters long, 0.5 meters wide, and 0.8 meters deep. This test was used to validate the application of the software to predict the flow rate parameters. In this experiment, instead of using the plant, cylindrical pipes were used in the bottom of the canal.

The conditions of this modeling are similar to the laboratory conditions and the boundary conditions used in the laboratory were used for numerical modeling. The critical flow enters the simulation model from the upstream boundary, so in the upstream boundary conditions, critical velocity and depth are considered. The flow at the downstream boundary is supercritical, so no parameters are applied to the downstream boundary.

The software well predicts the process of changing the speed profile in the open canal along with the considered obstacles. The error in the calculated speed values can be due to the complexity of the flow and the interaction of the turbulence caused by the roughness of the floor with the turbulence caused by the three-dimensional cycles in the hydraulic jump. As a result, the software is able to predict the speed distribution in open canals.

2. Modeling Results

After analyzing the models, the results were shown in graphs (Figures 414 ). The total number of experiments in this study was 48 due to the limitations of modeling.


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Figure 4 

Flow velocity profiles for canals with a depth of 1 m and flow velocities of 3–3.3 m/s. Canal with a depth of 1 meter and a flow velocity of (a) 3 meters per second, (b) 3.1 meters per second, (c) 3.2 meters per second, and (d) 3.3 meters per second.

Figure 5 

Canal diagram with a depth of 1 meter and a flow rate of 3 meters per second.

Figure 6 

Canal diagram with a depth of 1 meter and a flow rate of 3.1 meters per second.

Figure 7 

Canal diagram with a depth of 1 meter and a flow rate of 3.2 meters per second.

Figure 8 

Canal diagram with a depth of 1 meter and a flow rate of 3.3 meters per second.


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Figure 9 

Flow velocity profiles for canals with a depth of 2 m and flow velocities of 4–4.3 m/s. Canal with a depth of 2 meters and a flow rate of (a) 4 meters per second, (b) 4.1 meters per second, (c) 4.2 meters per second, and (d) 4.3 meters per second.

Figure 10 

Canal diagram with a depth of 2 meters and a flow rate of 4 meters per second.

Figure 11 

Canal diagram with a depth of 2 meters and a flow rate of 4.1 meters per second.

Figure 12 

Canal diagram with a depth of 2 meters and a flow rate of 4.2 meters per second.

Figure 13 

Canal diagram with a depth of 2 meters and a flow rate of 4.3 meters per second.


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Figure 14 

Flow velocity profiles for canals with a depth of 3 m and flow velocities of 5–5.3 m/s. Canal with a depth of 2 meters and a flow rate of (a) 4 meters per second, (b) 4.1 meters per second, (c) 4.2 meters per second, and (d) 4.3 meters per second.

To investigate the effects of roughness with flow velocity, the trend of flow velocity changes at different depths and with supercritical flow to a Froude number proportional to the depth of the section has been obtained.

According to the velocity profiles of Figure 5, it can be seen that, with the increasing of Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases.

According to Figures 5 to 8, it can be found that, with increasing the Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases. But this deceleration is more noticeable than the deceleration of the models 1 to 12, which can be justified by increasing the speed and of course increasing the Froude number.

According to Figure 10, we see that, with increasing Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases.

According to Figure 11, we see that, with increasing Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases. But this deceleration is more noticeable than the deceleration of Figures 510, which can be justified by increasing the speed and, of course, increasing the Froude number.

With increasing Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases (Figure 12). But this deceleration is more noticeable than the deceleration of the higher models (Figures 58 and 1011), which can be justified by increasing the speed and, of course, increasing the Froude number.

According to Figure 13, with increasing Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases. But this deceleration is more noticeable than the deceleration of Figures 5 to 12, which can be justified by increasing the speed and, of course, increasing the Froude number.

According to Figure 15, with increasing Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases.

Figure 15 

Canal diagram with a depth of 3 meters and a flow rate of 5 meters per second.

According to Figure 16, with increasing Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases. But this deceleration is more noticeable than the deceleration of the higher model, which can be justified by increasing the speed and, of course, increasing the Froude number.

Figure 16 

Canal diagram with a depth of 3 meters and a flow rate of 5.1 meters per second.

According to Figure 17, it is clear that, with increasing Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases. But this deceleration is more noticeable than the deceleration of the higher models, which can be justified by increasing the speed and, of course, increasing the Froude number.

Figure 17 

Canal diagram with a depth of 3 meters and a flow rate of 5.2 meters per second.

According to Figure 18, with increasing Manning’s coefficient, the canal bed speed decreases. But this deceleration is more noticeable than the deceleration of the higher models, which can be justified by increasing the speed and, of course, increasing the Froude number.

Figure 18 

Canal diagram with a depth of 3 meters and a flow rate of 5.3 meters per second.

According to Figure 19, it can be seen that the vegetation placed in front of the flow input velocity has negligible effect on the reduction of velocity, which of course can be justified due to the flexibility of the vegetation. The only unusual thing is the unexpected decrease in floor speed of 3 m/s compared to higher speeds.


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Figure 19 

Comparison of velocity profiles with the same plant densities (depth 1 m). Comparison of velocity profiles with (a) plant densities of 25%, depth 1 m; (b) plant densities of 50%, depth 1 m; and (c) plant densities of 75%, depth 1 m.

According to Figure 20, by increasing the speed of vegetation, the effect of vegetation on reducing the flow rate becomes more noticeable. And the role of input current does not have much effect in reducing speed.


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Figure 20 

Comparison of velocity profiles with the same plant densities (depth 2 m). Comparison of velocity profiles with (a) plant densities of 25%, depth 2 m; (b) plant densities of 50%, depth 2 m; and (c) plant densities of 75%, depth 2 m.

According to Figure 21, it can be seen that, with increasing speed, the effect of vegetation on reducing the bed flow rate becomes more noticeable and the role of the input current does not have much effect. In general, it can be seen that, by increasing the speed of the input current, the slope of the profiles increases from the bed to the water surface and due to the fact that, in software, the roughness coefficient applies to the channel floor only in the boundary conditions, this can be perfectly justified. Of course, it can be noted that, due to the flexible conditions of the vegetation of the bed, this modeling can show acceptable results for such grasses in the canal floor. In the next directions, we may try application of swarm-based optimization methods for modeling and finding the most effective factors in this research [27815188994]. In future, we can also apply the simulation logic and software of this research for other domains such as power engineering [9599].


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Figure 21 

Comparison of velocity profiles with the same plant densities (depth 3 m). Comparison of velocity profiles with (a) plant densities of 25%, depth 3 m; (b) plant densities of 50%, depth 3 m; and (c) plant densities of 75%, depth 3 m.

3. Conclusion

The effects of vegetation on the flood canal were investigated by numerical modeling with FLOW-3D software. After analyzing the results, the following conclusions were reached:(i)Increasing the density of vegetation reduces the velocity of the canal floor but has no effect on the velocity of the canal surface.(ii)Increasing the Froude number is directly related to increasing the speed of the canal floor.(iii)In the canal with a depth of one meter, a sudden increase in speed can be observed from the lowest speed and higher speed, which is justified by the sudden increase in Froude number.(iv)As the inlet flow rate increases, the slope of the profiles from the bed to the water surface increases.(v)By reducing the Froude number, the effect of vegetation on reducing the flow bed rate becomes more noticeable. And the input velocity in reducing the velocity of the canal floor does not have much effect.(vi)At a flow rate between 3 and 3.3 meters per second due to the shallow depth of the canal and the higher landing number a more critical area is observed in which the flow bed velocity in this area is between 2.86 and 3.1 m/s.(vii)Due to the critical flow velocity and the slight effect of the roughness of the horseshoe vortex floor, it is not visible and is only partially observed in models 1-2-3 and 21.(viii)As the flow rate increases, the effect of vegetation on the rate of bed reduction decreases.(ix)In conditions where less current intensity is passing, vegetation has a greater effect on reducing current intensity and energy consumption increases.(x)In the case of using the flow rate of 0.8 cubic meters per second, the velocity distribution and flow regime show about 20% more energy consumption than in the case of using the flow rate of 1.3 cubic meters per second.

Nomenclature

n:Manning’s roughness coefficient
C:Chézy roughness coefficient
f:Darcy–Weisbach coefficient
V:Flow velocity
R:Hydraulic radius
g:Gravitational acceleration
y:Flow depth
Ks:Bed roughness
A:Constant coefficient
:Reynolds number
y/∂x:Depth of water change
S0:Slope of the canal floor
Sf:Slope of energy line
Fr:Froude number
D:Characteristic length of the canal
G:Mass acceleration
:Shear stresses.

Data Availability

All data are included within the paper.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Contract no. 71761030 and Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia under Contract no. 2019LH07003.

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Strain rate magnitude at the free surface, illustrating Kelvin-Helmoltz (KH) shear instabilities.

On the reef scale hydrodynamics at Sodwana Bay, South Africa

Environmental Fluid Mechanics (2022)Cite this article

Abstract

The hydrodynamics of coral reefs strongly influences their biological functioning, impacting processes such as nutrient availability and uptake, recruitment success and bleaching. For example, coral reefs located in oligotrophic regions depend on upwelling for nutrient supply. Coral reefs at Sodwana Bay, located on the east coast of South Africa, are an example of high latitude marginal reefs. These reefs are subjected to complex hydrodynamic forcings due to the interaction between the strong Agulhas current and the highly variable topography of the region. In this study, we explore the reef scale hydrodynamics resulting from the bathymetry for two steady current scenarios at Two-Mile Reef (TMR) using a combination of field data and numerical simulations. The influence of tides or waves was not considered for this study as well as reef-scale roughness. Tilt current meters with onboard temperature sensors were deployed at selected locations within TMR. We used field observations to identify the dominant flow conditions on the reef for numerical simulations that focused on the hydrodynamics driven by mean currents. During the field campaign, southerly currents were the predominant flow feature with occasional flow reversals to the north. Northerly currents were associated with greater variability towards the southern end of TMR. Numerical simulations showed that Jesser Point was central to the development of flow features for both the northerly and southerly current scenarios. High current variability in the south of TMR during reverse currents is related to the formation of Kelvin-Helmholtz type shear instabilities along the outer edge of an eddy formed north of Jesser Point. Furthermore, downward vertical velocities were computed along the offshore shelf at TMR during southerly currents. Current reversals caused a change in vertical velocities to an upward direction due to the orientation of the bathymetry relative to flow directions.

Highlights

  • A predominant southerly current was measured at Two-Mile Reef with occasional reversals towards the north.
  • Field observations indicated that northerly currents are spatially varied along Two-Mile Reef.
  • Simulation of reverse currents show the formation of a separated flow due to interaction with Jesser Point with Kelvin–Helmholtz type shear instabilities along the seaward edge.

지금까지 Sodwana Bay에서 자세한 암초 규모 유체 역학을 모델링하려는 시도는 없었습니다. 이러한 모델의 결과는 규모가 있는 산호초 사이의 흐름이 산호초 건강에 어떤 영향을 미치는지 탐색하는 데 사용할 수 있습니다. 이 연구에서는 Sodwana Bay의 유체역학을 탐색하는 데 사용할 수 있는 LES 모델을 개발하기 위한 단계별 접근 방식을 구현합니다. 여기서 우리는 이 초기 단계에서 파도와 조수의 영향을 배제하면서 Agulhas 해류의 유체역학에 초점을 맞춥니다. 이 접근법은 흐름의 첫 번째 LES를 제시하고 Sodwana Bay의 산호초에서 혼합함으로써 향후 연구의 기초를 제공합니다.

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Figure 1 | Laboratory channel dimensions.

강화된 조도 계수 및 인버트 레벨 변화가 있는 90도 측면 턴아웃에서의 유동에 대한 실험적 및 수치적 연구

Experimental and numerical study of flow at a 90 degree lateral turnout with enhanced roughness coefficient and invert level changes

Maryam Bagheria, Seyed M. Ali Zomorodianb, Masih Zolghadrc, H. Md. Azamathulla d,*
and C. Venkata Siva Rama Prasade
a Hydraulic Structures, Department of Water Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
b Department of Water Engineering, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
c Department of Water Sciences Engineering, College of Agriculture, Jahrom University, Jahrom, Iran
d Civil & Environmental Engineering, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Port of Spain, Trinidad
e Department of Civil Engineering, St. Peters Engineering College, Hyderabad, India
*Corresponding author. E-mail: azmatheditor@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

측면 분기기(흡입구)의 상류측에서 유동 분리는 분기기 입구에서 맴돌이 전류를 일으키는 중요한 문제입니다. 이는 흐름의 유효 폭, 분기 용량 및 효율성을 감소시킵니다. 따라서 분리구역의 크기를 파악하고 그 크기를 줄이기 위한 방안을 제시하는 것이 필수적이다.

본 연구에서는 분리 구역의 크기를 줄이기 위한 방법으로 분출구 입구에 7가지 유형의 조면화 요소와 4가지 다른 방류가 있는 3가지 다른 베드 인버트 레벨의 설치(총 84회 실험)를 조사했습니다. 또한 3D 전산 유체 역학(CFD) 모델을 사용하여 분리 구역의 흐름 패턴과 치수를 평가했습니다.

결과는 조도 계수를 향상시키면 분리 영역 치수를 최대 38%까지 줄일 수 있는 반면 드롭 구현 효과는 사용된 조도 계수에 따라 이 영역을 다르게 축소할 수 있음을 보여주었습니다. 두 방법을 결합하면 분리 구역 치수를 최대 63%까지 줄일 수 있습니다.

Flow separation at the upstream side of lateral turnouts (intakes) is a critical issue causing eddy currents at the turnout entrance. It reduces the effective width of flow, turnout capacity and efficiency. Therefore, it is essential to identify the dimensions of the separation zone and propose remedies to reduce its dimensions.

Installation of 7 types of roughening elements at the turnout entrance and 3 different bed invert levels, with 4 different discharges (making a total of 84 experiments) were examined in this study as a method to reduce the dimensions of the separation zone. Additionally, a 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model was utilized to evaluate the flow pattern and dimensions of the separation zone.

Results showed that enhancing the roughness coefficient can reduce the separation zone dimensions up to 38% while the drop implementation effect can scale down this area differently based on the roughness coefficient used. Combining both methods can reduce the separation zone dimensions up to 63%.

Key words

discharge ratio, flow separation zone, intake, three dimensional simulation

Experimental and numerical study of flow at a 90 degree lateral turnout with enhanced
roughness coefficient and invert level changes
Experimental and numerical study of flow at a 90 degree lateral turnout with enhanced roughness coefficient and invert level changes
Figure 1 | Laboratory channel dimensions.
Figure 1 | Laboratory channel dimensions.
Figure 2 | Roughness plates.
Figure 2 | Roughness plates.
Figure 4 | Effect of roughness on separation zone dimensions.
Figure 4 | Effect of roughness on separation zone dimensions.
Figure 10 | Comparision of the vortex area (software output) for three roughnesses (0.009, 0.023 and 0.032).
Figure 10 | Comparision of the vortex area (software output) for three roughnesses (0.009, 0.023 and 0.032).
Figure 11 | Comparison of vortex area in 3D mode (tecplot output) with two roughnesses (a) 0.009 and (b) 0.032.
Figure 11 | Comparison of vortex area in 3D mode (tecplot output) with two roughnesses (a) 0.009 and (b) 0.032.
Figure 12 | Velocity vector for flow condition Q¼22 l/s, near surface.
Figure 12 | Velocity vector for flow condition Q¼22 l/s, near surface.

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Figure 14. Defects: (a) Unmelt defects(Scheme NO.4);(b) Pores defects(Scheme NO.1); (c); Spattering defect (Scheme NO.3); (d) Low overlapping rate defects(Scheme NO.5).

Molten pool structure, temperature and velocity
flow in selective laser melting AlCu5MnCdVA alloy

용융 풀 구조, 선택적 온도 및 속도 흐름 레이저 용융 AlCu5MnCdVA 합금

Pan Lu1 , Zhang Cheng-Lin2,6,Wang Liang3, Liu Tong4 and Liu Jiang-lin5
1 Aviation and Materials College, Anhui Technical College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wuhu Anhui 241000, People’s
Republic of China 2 School of Engineering Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui 230026, People’s Republic of China 3 Anhui Top Additive Manufacturing Technology Co., Ltd., Wuhu Anhui 241300, People’s Republic of China 4 Anhui Chungu 3D Printing Institute of Intelligent Equipment and Industrial Technology, Anhui 241300, People’s Republic of China 5 School of Mechanical and Transportation Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan Shanxi 030024, People’s Republic of
China 6 Author to whom any correspondence should be addressed.
E-mail: ahjdpanlu@126.com, jiao__zg@126.com, ahjdjxx001@126.com,tongliu1988@126.com and liujianglin@tyut.edu.cn

Keywords

SLM, molten pool, AlCu5MnCdVA alloy, heat flow, velocity flow, numerical simulation

Abstract

선택적 레이저 용융(SLM)은 열 전달, 용융, 상전이, 기화 및 물질 전달을 포함하는 복잡한 동적 비평형 프로세스인 금속 적층 제조(MAM)에서 가장 유망한 기술 중 하나가 되었습니다. 용융 풀의 특성(구조, 온도 흐름 및 속도 흐름)은 SLM의 최종 성형 품질에 결정적인 영향을 미칩니다. 이 연구에서는 선택적 레이저 용융 AlCu5MnCdVA 합금의 용융 풀 구조, 온도 흐름 및 속도장을 연구하기 위해 수치 시뮬레이션과 실험을 모두 사용했습니다.

그 결과 용융풀의 구조는 다양한 형태(깊은 오목 구조, 이중 오목 구조, 평면 구조, 돌출 구조 및 이상적인 평면 구조)를 나타냈으며, 용융 풀의 크기는 약 132 μm × 107 μm × 50 μm였습니다. : 용융풀은 초기에는 여러 구동력에 의해 깊이 15μm의 깊은 오목형상이었으나, 성형 후기에는 장력구배에 의해 높이 10μm의 돌출형상이 되었다. 용융 풀 내부의 금속 흐름은 주로 레이저 충격력, 금속 액체 중력, 표면 장력 및 반동 압력에 의해 구동되었습니다.

AlCu5MnCdVA 합금의 경우, 금속 액체 응고 속도가 매우 빠르며(3.5 × 10-4 S), 가열 속도 및 냉각 속도는 각각 6.5 × 107 K S-1 및 1.6 × 106 K S-1 에 도달했습니다. 시각적 표준으로 표면 거칠기를 선택하고, 낮은 레이저 에너지 AlCu5MnCdVA 합금 최적 공정 매개변수 창을 수치 시뮬레이션으로 얻었습니다: 레이저 출력 250W, 부화 공간 0.11mm, 층 두께 0.03mm, 레이저 스캔 속도 1.5m s-1 .

또한, 실험 프린팅과 수치 시뮬레이션과 비교할 때, 용융 풀의 폭은 각각 약 205um 및 약 210um이었고, 인접한 두 용융 트랙 사이의 중첩은 모두 약 65um이었다. 결과는 수치 시뮬레이션 결과가 실험 인쇄 결과와 기본적으로 일치함을 보여 수치 시뮬레이션 모델의 정확성을 입증했습니다.

Selective Laser Melting (SLM) has become one of the most promising technologies in Metal Additive Manufacturing (MAM), which is a complex dynamic non-equilibrium process involving heat transfer, melting, phase transition, vaporization and mass transfer. The characteristics of the molten pool (structure, temperature flow and velocity flow) have a decisive influence on the final forming quality of SLM. In this study, both numerical simulation and experiments were employed to study molten pool structure, temperature flow and velocity field in Selective Laser Melting AlCu5MnCdVA alloy. The results showed the structure of molten pool showed different forms(deep-concave structure, double-concave structure, plane structure, protruding structure and ideal planar structure), and the size of the molten pool was approximately 132 μm × 107 μm × 50 μm: in the early stage, molten pool was in a state of deep-concave shape with a depth of 15 μm due to multiple driving forces, while a protruding shape with a height of 10 μm duo to tension gradient in the later stages of forming. The metal flow inside the molten pool was mainly driven by laser impact force, metal liquid gravity, surface tension and recoil pressure. For AlCu5MnCdVA alloy, metal liquid solidification speed was extremely fast(3.5 × 10−4 S), the heating rate and cooling rate reached 6.5 × 107 K S−1 and 1.6 × 106 K S−1 , respectively. Choosing surface roughness as a visual standard, low-laser energy AlCu5MnCdVA alloy optimum process parameters window was obtained by numerical simulation: laser power 250 W, hatching space 0.11 mm, layer thickness 0.03 mm, laser scanning velocity 1.5 m s−1 . In addition, compared with experimental printing and numerical simulation, the width of the molten pool was about 205 um and about 210 um, respectively, and overlapping between two adjacent molten tracks was all about 65 um. The results showed that the numerical simulation results were basically consistent with the experimental print results, which proved the correctness of the numerical simulation model.

Figure 1. AlCu5MnCdVA powder particle size distribution.
Figure 1. AlCu5MnCdVA powder particle size distribution.
Figure 2. AlCu5MnCdVA powder
Figure 2. AlCu5MnCdVA powder
Figure 3. Finite element model and calculation domains of SLM.
Figure 3. Finite element model and calculation domains of SLM.
Figure 4. SLM heat transfer process.
Figure 4. SLM heat transfer process.
Figure 14. Defects: (a) Unmelt defects(Scheme NO.4);(b) Pores defects(Scheme NO.1); (c); Spattering defect (Scheme NO.3); (d) Low
overlapping rate defects(Scheme NO.5).
Figure 17. Two-pass molten tracks overlapping for Scheme NO.2.
Figure 17. Two-pass molten tracks overlapping for Scheme NO.2.

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Development of macro-defect-free PBF-EB-processed Ti–6Al–4V alloys with superior plasticity using PREP-synthesized powder and machine learning-assisted process optimization

Development of macro-defect-free PBF-EB-processed Ti–6Al–4V alloys with superior plasticity using PREP-synthesized powder and machine learning-assisted process optimization

Yunwei GuiabKenta Aoyagib Akihiko Chibab
aDepartment of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579, Japan
bInstitute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577, Japan

Received 14 October 2022, Revised 23 December 2022, Accepted 3 January 2023, Available online 5 January 2023.Show lessAdd to MendeleyShareCite

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2023.144595Get rights and content

Abstract

The elimination of internal macro-defects is a key issue in Ti–6Al–4V alloys fabricated via powder bed fusion using electron beams (PBF-EB), wherein internal macro-defects mainly originate from the virgin powder and inappropriate printing parameters. This study compares different types powders by combining support vector machine techniques to determine the most suitable powder for PBF-EB and to predict the processing window for the printing parameters without internal macro-defects. The results show that powders fabricated via plasma rotating electrode process have the best sphericity, flowability, and minimal porosity and are most suitable for printing. Surface roughness criterion was also applied to determine the quality of the even surfaces, and support vector machine was used to construct processing maps capable of predicting a wide range of four-dimensional printing parameters to obtain macro-defect-free samples, offering the possibility of subsequent development of Ti–6Al–4V alloys with excellent properties. The macro-defect-free samples exhibited good elongation, with the best overall mechanical properties being the ultimate tensile strength and elongation of 934.7 MPa and 24.3%, respectively. The elongation of the three macro-defect-free samples was much higher than that previously reported for additively manufactured Ti–6Al–4V alloys. The high elongation of the samples in this work is mainly attributed to the elimination of internal macro-defects.

Introduction

Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies can rapidly manufacture complex or custom parts, reducing process steps and saving manufacturing time [[1], [2], [3], [4]], and are widely used in the aerospace, automotive, and other precision industries [5,6]. Powder bed fusion using an electron beam (PBF-EB) is an additive manufacturing method that uses a high-energy electron beam to melt metal powders layer by layer to produce parts. In contrast to selective laser melting, PBF-EB involves the preparation of samples in a high vacuum environment, which effectively prevents the introduction of impurities such as O and N. It also involves a preheating process for the print substrate and powder, which reduces residual thermal stress on the sample and subsequent heat treatment processes [[2], [3], [4],7]. Due to these features and advantages, PBF-EB technology is a very important AM technology with great potential in metallic materials. Moreover, PBF-EB is the ideal AM technology for the manufacture of complex components made of many alloys, such as titanium alloys, nickel-based superalloys, aluminum alloys and stainless steels [[2], [3], [4],8].

Ti–6Al–4V alloy is one of the prevalent commercial titanium alloys possessing high specific strength, excellent mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance, and good biocompatibility [9,10]. It is widely used in applications requiring low density and excellent corrosion resistance, such as the aerospace industry and biomechanical applications [11,12]. The mechanical properties of PBF-EB-processed Ti–6Al–4V alloys are superior to those fabricated by casting or forging, because the rapid cooling rate in PBF-EB results in finer grains [[12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18]]. However, the PBF-EB-fabricated parts often include internal macro-defects, which compromises their mechanical properties [[19], [20], [21], [22]]. This study focused on the elimination of macro-defects, such as porosity, lack of fusion, incomplete penetration and unmelted powders, which distinguishes them from micro-defects such as vacancies, dislocations, grain boundaries and secondary phases, etc. Large-sized fusion defects cause a severe reduction in mechanical strength. Smaller defects, such as pores and cracks, lead to the initiation of fatigue cracking and rapidly accelerate the cracking process [23]. The issue of internal macro-defects must be addressed to expand the application of the PBF-EB technology. The main studies for controlling internal macro-defects are online monitoring of defects, remelting and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The literatures [24,25] report the use of infrared imaging or other imaging techniques to identify defects, but the monitoring of smaller sized defects is still not adequate. And in some cases remelting does not reduce the internal macro-defects of the part, but instead causes coarsening of the macrostructure and volatilization of some metal elements [23]. The HIP treatment does not completely eliminate the internal macro-defects, the original defect location may still act as a point of origin of the crack, and the subsequent treatment will consume more time and economic costs [23]. Therefore, optimizing suitable printing parameters to avoid internal macro-defects in printed parts at source is of great industrial value and research significance, and is an urgent issue in PBF-EB related technology.

There are two causes of internal macro-defects in the AM process: gas pores trapped in the virgin powder and the inappropriate printing parameters [7,23]. Gui et al. [26] classify internal macro-defects during PBF-EB process according to their shape, such as spherical defects, elongated shape defects, flat shape defects and other irregular shape defects. Of these, spherical defects mainly originate from raw material powders. Other shape defects mainly originate from lack of fusion or unmelted powders caused by unsuitable printing parameters, etc. The PBF-EB process requires powders with good flowability, and spherical powders are typically chosen as raw materials. The prevalent techniques for the fabrication of pre-alloyed powders are gas atomization (GA), plasma atomization (PA), and the plasma rotating electrode process (PREP) [27,28]. These methods yield powders with different characteristics that affect the subsequent fabrication. The selection of a suitable powder for PBF-EB is particularly important to produce Ti–6Al–4V alloys without internal macro-defects. The need to optimize several printing parameters such as beam current, scan speed, line offset, and focus offset make it difficult to eliminate internal macro-defects that occur during printing [23]. Most of the studies [11,12,22,[29], [30], [31], [32], [33]] on the optimization of AM processes for Ti–6Al–4V alloys have focused on samples with a limited set of parameters (e.g., power–scan speed) and do not allow for the guidance and development of unknown process windows for macro-defect-free samples. In addition, process optimization remains a time-consuming problem, with the traditional ‘trial and error’ method demanding considerable time and economic costs. The development of a simple and efficient method to predict the processing window for alloys without internal macro-defects is a key issue. In recent years, machine learning techniques have increasingly been used in the field of additive manufacturing and materials development [[34], [35], [36], [37]]. Aoyagi et al. [38] recently proposed a novel and efficient method based on a support vector machine (SVM) to optimize the two-dimensional process parameters (current and scan speed) and obtain PBF-EB-processed CoCr alloys without internal macro-defects. The method is one of the potential approaches toward effective optimization of more than two process parameters and makes it possible for the machine learning techniques to accelerate the development of alloys without internal macro-defects.

Herein, we focus on the elimination of internal macro-defects, such as pores, lack of fusion, etc., caused by raw powders and printing parameters. The Ti–6Al–4V powders produced by three different methods were compared, and the powder with the best sphericity, flowability, and minimal porosity was selected as the feedstock for subsequent printing. The relationship between the surface roughness and internal macro-defects in the Ti–6Al–4V components was also investigated. The combination of SVM and surface roughness indices (Sdr) predicted a wider four-dimensional processing window for obtaining Ti–6Al–4V alloys without internal macro-defects. Finally, we investigated the tensile properties of Ti–6Al–4V alloys at room temperature with different printing parameters, as well as the corresponding microstructures and fracture types.

Section snippets

Starting materials

Three types of Ti–6Al–4V alloy powders, produced by GA, PA, and PREP, were compared. The particle size distribution of the powders was determined using a laser particle size analyzer (LS230, Beckman Coulter, USA), and the flowability was measured using a Hall flowmeter (JIS-Z2502, Tsutsui Scientific Instruments Co., Ltd., Japan), according to the ASTM B213 standard. The powder morphology and internal macro-defects were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, JEOL JCM-6000) and X-ray 

Comparison of the characteristics of GA, PA, and PREP Ti–6Al–4V powders

The particle size distributions (PSDs) and flowability of the three types of Ti–6Al–4V alloy powders produced by GA, PA, and PREP are shown in Fig. 2. Although the average particle sizes are similar (89.4 μm for GA, 82.5 μm for PA, and 86.1μm for PREP), the particle size range is different for the three types of powder (6.2–174.8 μm for GA, 27.3–139.2 μm for PA, and 39.4–133.9 μm for PREP). The flowability of the GA, PA, and PREP powders was 30.25 ± 0.98, 26.54 ± 0.37, and 25.03 ± 0.22 (s/50

Conclusions

The characteristics of the three types of Ti–6Al–4V alloy powders produced via GA, PA, and PREP were compared. The PREP powder with the best sphericity, flowability, and low porosity was found to be the most favorable powder for subsequent printing of Ti–6Al–4V alloys without internal macro-defects. The quantitative criterion of Sdr <0.015 for even surfaces was also found to be applicable to Ti–6Al–4V alloys. The process maps of Ti–6Al–4V alloys include two regions, high beam current/scan speed 

Uncited references

[55]; [56]; [57]; [58]; [59]; [60]; [61]; [62]; [63]; [64]; [65].

CRediT authorship contribution statement

Yunwei Gui: Writing – original draft, Visualization, Validation, Investigation. Kenta Aoyagi: Writing – review & editing, Supervision, Resources, Methodology, Funding acquisition, Conceptualization. Akihiko Chiba: Supervision, Funding acquisition.

Declaration of competing interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Acknowledgments

This study was based on the results obtained from project JPNP19007, commissioned by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). This work was also supported by JSPS KAKENHI (Proposal No. 21K03801) and the Inter-University Cooperative Research Program (Proposal nos. 18G0418, 19G0411, and 20G0418) of the Cooperative Research and Development Center for Advanced Materials, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University. It was also supported by the Council for

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Sketch of approach channel and spillway of the Kamal-Saleh dam

CFD modeling of flow pattern in spillway’s approach channel

Sustainable Water Resources Management volume 1, pages245–251 (2015)Cite this article

Abstract

Analysis of behavior and hydraulic characteristics of flow over the dam spillway is a complicated task that takes lots of money and time in water engineering projects planning. To model those hydraulic characteristics, several methods such as physical and numerical methods can be used. Nowadays, by utilizing new methods in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and by the development of fast computers, the numerical methods have become accessible for use in the analysis of such sophisticated flows. The CFD softwares have the capability to analyze two- and three-dimensional flow fields. In this paper, the flow pattern at the guide wall of the Kamal-Saleh dam was modeled by Flow 3D. The results show that the current geometry of the left wall causes instability in the flow pattern and making secondary and vortex flow at beginning approach channel. This shape of guide wall reduced the performance of weir to remove the peak flood discharge.

댐 여수로 흐름의 거동 및 수리학적 특성 분석은 물 공학 프로젝트 계획에 많은 비용과 시간이 소요되는 복잡한 작업입니다. 이러한 수력학적 특성을 모델링하기 위해 물리적, 수치적 방법과 같은 여러 가지 방법을 사용할 수 있습니다. 요즘에는 전산유체역학(CFD)의 새로운 방법을 활용하고 빠른 컴퓨터의 개발로 이러한 정교한 흐름의 해석에 수치 방법을 사용할 수 있게 되었습니다. CFD 소프트웨어에는 2차원 및 3차원 유동장을 분석하는 기능이 있습니다. 본 논문에서는 Kamal-Saleh 댐 유도벽의 흐름 패턴을 Flow 3D로 모델링하였다. 결과는 왼쪽 벽의 현재 형상이 흐름 패턴의 불안정성을 유발하고 시작 접근 채널에서 2차 및 와류 흐름을 만드는 것을 보여줍니다. 이러한 형태의 안내벽은 첨두방류량을 제거하기 위해 둑의 성능을 저하시켰다.

Introduction

Spillways are one of the main structures used in the dam projects. Design of the spillway in all types of dams, specifically earthen dams is important because the inability of the spillway to remove probable maximum flood (PMF) discharge may cause overflow of water which ultimately leads to destruction of the dam (Das and Saikia et al. 2009; E 2013 and Novak et al. 2007). So study on the hydraulic characteristics of this structure is important. Hydraulic properties of spillway including flow pattern at the entrance of the guide walls and along the chute. Moreover, estimating the values of velocity and pressure parameters of flow along the chute is very important (Chanson 2004; Chatila and Tabbara 2004). The purpose of the study on the flow pattern is the effect of wall geometry on the creation transverse waves, flow instability, rotating and reciprocating flow through the inlet of spillway and its chute (Parsaie and Haghiabi 2015ab; Parsaie et al. 2015; Wang and Jiang 2010). The purpose of study on the values of velocity and pressure is to calculate the potential of the structure to occurrence of phenomena such as cavitation (Fattor and Bacchiega 2009; Ma et al. 2010). Sometimes, it can be seen that the spillway design parameters of pressure and velocity are very suitable, but geometry is considered not suitable for conducting walls causing unstable flow pattern over the spillway, rotating flows at the beginning of the spillway and its design reduced the flood discharge capacity (Fattor and Bacchiega 2009). Study on spillway is usually conducted using physical models (Su et al. 2009; Suprapto 2013; Wang and Chen 2009; Wang and Jiang 2010). But recently, with advances in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), study on hydraulic characteristics of this structure has been done with these techniques (Chatila and Tabbara 2004; Zhenwei et al. 2012). Using the CFD as a powerful technique for modeling the hydraulic structures can reduce the time and cost of experiments (Tabbara et al. 2005). In CFD field, the Navier–Stokes equation is solved by powerful numerical methods such as finite element method and finite volumes (Kim and Park 2005; Zhenwei et al. 2012). In order to obtain closed-form Navier–Stokes equations turbulence models, such k − ε and Re-Normalisation Group (RNG) models have been presented. To use the technique of computational fluid dynamics, software packages such as Fluent and Flow 3D, etc., are provided. Recently, these two software packages have been widely used in hydraulic engineering because the performance and their accuracy are very suitable (Gessler 2005; Kim 2007; Kim et al. 2012; Milési and Causse 2014; Montagna et al. 2011). In this paper, to assess the flow pattern at Kamal-Saleh guide wall, numerical method has been used. All the stages of numerical modeling were conducted in the Flow 3D software.

Materials and methods

Firstly, a three-dimensional model was constructed according to two-dimensional map that was prepared for designing the spillway. Then a small model was prepared with scale of 1:80 and entered into the Flow 3D software; all stages of the model construction was conducted in AutoCAD 3D. Flow 3D software numerically solved the Navier–Stokes equation by finite volume method. Below is a brief reference on the equations that used in the software. Figure 1 shows the 3D sketch of Kamal-Saleh spillway and Fig. 2 shows the uploading file of the Kamal-Saleh spillway in Flow 3D software.

figure 1
Fig. 1
figure 2
Fig. 2

Review of the governing equations in software Flow 3D

Continuity equation at three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates is given as Eq (1).

vf∂ρ∂t+∂∂x(uAx)+∂∂x(vAy)+∂∂x(wAz)=PSORρ,vf∂ρ∂t+∂∂x(uAx)+∂∂x(vAy)+∂∂x(wAz)=PSORρ,

(1)

where uvz are velocity component in the x, y, z direction; A xA yA z cross-sectional area of the flow; ρ fluid density; PSOR the source term; v f is the volume fraction of the fluid and three-dimensional momentum equations given in Eq (2).

∂u∂t+1vf(uAx∂u∂x+vAy∂u∂y+wAz∂u∂z)=−1ρ∂P∂x+Gx+fx∂v∂t+1vf(uAx∂v∂x+vAy∂v∂y+wAz∂v∂z)=−1ρ∂P∂y+Gy+fy∂w∂t+1vf(uAx∂w∂x+vAy∂w∂y+wAz∂w∂z)=−1ρ∂P∂y+Gz+fz,∂u∂t+1vf(uAx∂u∂x+vAy∂u∂y+wAz∂u∂z)=−1ρ∂P∂x+Gx+fx∂v∂t+1vf(uAx∂v∂x+vAy∂v∂y+wAz∂v∂z)=−1ρ∂P∂y+Gy+fy∂w∂t+1vf(uAx∂w∂x+vAy∂w∂y+wAz∂w∂z)=−1ρ∂P∂y+Gz+fz,

(2)

where P is the fluid pressure; G xG yG z the acceleration created by body fluids; f xf yf z viscosity acceleration in three dimensions and v f is related to the volume of fluid, defined by Eq. (3). For modeling of free surface profile the VOF technique based on the volume fraction of the computational cells has been used. Since the volume fraction F represents the amount of fluid in each cell, it takes value between 0 and 1.

∂F∂t+1vf[∂∂x(FAxu)+∂∂y(FAyv)+∂∂y(FAzw)]=0∂F∂t+1vf[∂∂x(FAxu)+∂∂y(FAyv)+∂∂y(FAzw)]=0

(3)

Turbulence models

Flow 3D offers five types of turbulence models: Prantl mixing length, k − ε equation, RNG models, Large eddy simulation model. Turbulence models that have been proposed recently are based on Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. This approach involves statistical methods to extract an averaged equation related to the turbulence quantities.

Steps of solving a problem in Flow 3D software

(1) Preparing the 3D model of spillway by AutoCAD software. (2) Uploading the file of 3D model in Flow 3D software and defining the problem in the software and checking the final mesh. (3) Choosing the basic equations that should be solved. (4) Defining the characteristics of fluid. (5) Defining the boundary conditions; it is notable that this software has a wide range of boundary conditions. (6) Initializing the flow field. (7) Adjusting the output. (8) Adjusting the control parameters, choice of the calculation method and solution formula. (9) Start of calculation. Figure 1 shows the 3D model of the Kamal-Saleh spillway; in this figure, geometry of the left and right guide wall is shown.

Figure 2 shows the uploading of the 3D spillway dam in Flow 3D software. Moreover, in this figure the considered boundary condition in software is shown. At the entrance and end of spillway, the flow rate or fluid elevation and outflow was considered as BC. The bottom of spillway was considered as wall and left and right as symmetry.

Model calibration

Calibration of the Flow 3D for modeling the effect of geometry of guide wall on the flow pattern is included for comparing the results of Flow 3D with measured water surface profile. Calibration the Flow 3D software could be conducted in two ways: first, changing the value of upstream boundary conditions is continued until the results of water surface profile of the Flow 3D along the spillway successfully covered the measurement water surface profile; second is the assessment the mesh sensitivity. Analyzing the size of mesh is a trial-and-error process where the size of mesh is evaluated form the largest to the smallest. With fining the size of mesh the accuracy of model is increased; whereas, the cost of computation is increased. In this research, the value of upstream boundary condition was adjusted with measured data during the experimental studies on the scaled model and the mesh size was equal to 1 × 1 × 1 cm3.

Results and discussion

The behavior of water in spillway is strongly affected by the flow pattern at the entrance of the spillway, the flow pattern formation at the entrance is affected by the guide wall, and choice of an optimized form for the guide wall has a great effect on rising the ability of spillway for easy passing the PMF, so any nonuniformity in flow in the approach channel can cause reduction of spillway capacity, reduction in discharge coefficient of spillway, and even probability of cavitation. Optimizing the flow guiding walls (in terms of length, angle and radius) can cause the loss of turbulence and flow disturbances on spillway. For this purpose, initially geometry proposed for model for the discharge of spillway dam, Kamal-Saleh, 80, 100, and 120 (L/s) were surveyed. These discharges of flow were considered with regard to the flood return period, 5, 100 and 1000 years. Geometric properties of the conducting guidance wall are given in Table 1.Table 1 Characteristics and dimensions of the guidance walls tested

Full size table

Results of the CFD simulation for passing the flow rate 80 (L/s) are shown in Fig. 3. Figure 3 shows the secondary flow and vortex at the left guide wall.

figure 3
Fig. 3

For giving more information about flow pattern at the left and right guide wall, Fig. 4 shows the flow pattern at the right side guide wall and Fig. 5 shows the flow pattern at the left side guide wall.

figure 4
Fig. 4
figure 5
Fig. 5

With regard to Figs. 4 and 5 and observing the streamlines, at discharge equal to 80 (L/s), the right wall has suitable performance but the left wall has no suitable performance and the left wall of the geometric design creates a secondary and circular flow, and vortex motion in the beginning of the entrance of spillway that creates cross waves at the beginning of spillway. By increasing the flow rate (Q = 100 L/s), at the inlet spillway secondary flows and vortex were removed, but the streamline is severely distorted. Results of the guide wall performances at the Q = 100 (L/s) are shown in Fig. 6.

figure 6
Fig. 6

Also more information about the performance of each guide wall can be derived from Figs. 7 and 8. These figures uphold that the secondary and vortex flows were removed, but the streamlines were fully diverted specifically near the left side guide wall.

figure 7
Fig. 7
figure 8
Fig. 8

As mentioned in the past, these secondary and vortex flows and diversion in streamline cause nonuniformity and create cross wave through the spillway. Figure 9 shows the cross waves at the crest of the spillway.

figure 9
Fig. 9

The performance of guide walls at the Q = 120 (L/s) also was assessed. The result of simulation is shown in Fig. 10. Figures 11 and 12 show a more clear view of the streamlines near to right and left side guide wall, respectively. As seen in Fig. 12, the left side wall still causes vortex flow and creation of and diversion in streamline.

figure 10
Fig. 10
figure 11
Fig. 11
figure 12
Fig. 12

The results of the affected left side guide wall shape on the cross wave creation are shown in Fig. 13. As seen from Fig. 3, the left side guide wall also causes cross wave at the spillway crest.

figure 13
Fig. 13

As can be seen clearly in Figs. 9 and 13, by moving from the left side to the right side of the spillway, the cross waves and the nonuniformity in flow is removed. By reviewing Figs. 9 and 13, it is found that the right side guide wall removes the cross waves and nonuniformity. With this point as aim, a geometry similar to the right side guide wall was considered instead of the left side guide wall. The result of simulation for Q = 120 (L/s) is shown in Fig. 14. As seen from this figure, the proposed geometry for the left side wall has suitable performance smoothly passing the flow through the approach channel and spillway.

figure 14
Fig. 14

More information about the proposed shape for the left guide wall is shown in Fig. 15. As seen from this figure, this shape has suitable performance for removing the cross waves and vortex flows.

figure 15
Fig. 15

Figure 16 shows the cross section of flow at the crest of spillway. As seen in this figure, the proposed shape for the left side guide wall is suitable for removing the cross waves and secondary flows.

figure 16
Fig. 16

Conclusion

Analysis of behavior and hydraulic properties of flow over the spillway dam is a complicated task which is cost and time intensive. Several techniques suitable to the purposes of study have been undertaken in this research. Physical modeling, usage of expert experience, usage of mathematical models on simulation flow in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional techniques, are some of the techniques utilized to study this phenomenon. The results of the modeling show that the CFD technique is a suitable tool for simulating the flow pattern in the guide wall. Using this tools helps the designer for developing the optimal shape for hydraulic structure which the flow pattern through them are important.

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  1. Department of Water Engineering, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad, IranAbbas Parsaie, Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi & Amir Moradinejad

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Correspondence to Abbas Parsaie.

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Parsaie, A., Haghiabi, A.H. & Moradinejad, A. CFD modeling of flow pattern in spillway’s approach channel. Sustain. Water Resour. Manag. 1, 245–251 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-015-0020-9

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  • Received28 April 2015
  • Accepted28 August 2015
  • Published15 September 2015
  • Issue DateSeptember 2015
  • DOIhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-015-0020-9

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Keywords

  • Approach channel
  • Kamal-Saleh dam
  • Guide wall
  • Flow pattern
  • Numerical modeling
  • Flow 3D software
    Figure 10. Flow distribution at the approach channel in PMF based on revised plan design. A. Hydarulic model test; B. Numerical simulation; C. Section view.

    Improvement of hydraulic stability for spillway using CFD model

    Hydraulic model test was used to analyze the rapidly varied flow on the spillway. But, it has some shortcomings such as error of scale effect and expensive costs. Recently, through the development of three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD), rapidly varied flow and turbulence can be simulated. In this study, the applicability of CFD model to simulate flow on the spillway was reviewed. The Karian dam in Indonesia was selected as the study area. The FLOW-3d model, which is well known to simulate a flow having a free surface, was used to analyze flow. The flow stability in approach channel was investigated with the initial plan design, and the results showed that the flow in approach channel is unstable in the initial plan design. To improve flow stability in the spillway, therefore, the revised plan design was formulated. The appropriateness of the revised design was examined by a numerical modeling. The results showed that the flow in spillway is stable in the revised design.

    여수로의 급격하게 변화하는 흐름을 분석하기 위해 수리학적 모델 테스트를 사용했습니다. 그러나 스케일 효과의 오차와 고가의 비용 등의 단점이 있다. 최근에는 3차원 전산유체역학(CFD)의 발달로 급변하는 유동과 난류를 모사할 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 여수로의 흐름을 시뮬레이션하기 위한 CFD 모델의 적용 가능성을 검토했습니다. 인도네시아의 Karian 댐이 연구 지역으로 선정되었습니다. 자유표면을 갖는 유동을 모의하는 것으로 잘 알려진 FLOW-3d 모델을 유동해석에 사용하였다. 접근수로의 흐름 안정성은 초기 계획설계와 함께 조사한 결과 초기 계획설계에서 접근수로의 흐름이 불안정한 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 방수로의 흐름 안정성을 향상시키기 위해 수정된 계획 설계가 공식화되었습니다. 수정된 설계의 적합성을 수치모델링을 통해 검토하였다. 결과는 수정된 설계에서 여수로의 흐름이 안정적이라는 것을 보여주었습니다.

    Key words

    Spillway, FLOW-3D, approach channel, flow stability, numerical modeling, hydraulic model test.

    Figure 6. Two dimensional flow velocity distribution at the
approach channel (Flow velocity distribution at depth EL. 68.12 m).
    Figure 6. Two dimensional flow velocity distribution at the approach channel (Flow velocity distribution at depth EL. 68.12 m).
    Figure 7. Flow distribution at the approach channel in PMF.
A. Hydraulic model test; B. Numerial simulatio
C. Cross section view.
    Figure 7. Flow distribution at the approach channel in PMF. A. Hydraulic model test; B. Numerial simulatio C. Cross section view.
    Figure 8. Revised approach channel section.
A. Initial plan design; B. Revised plan design.
    Figure 8. Revised approach channel section. A. Initial plan design; B. Revised plan design.
    Figure 9. Two dimensional flow velocity distribution at the approach channel
based on revised plan design (Flow velocity distribution at depth EL. 68.12 m).
    Figure 9. Two dimensional flow velocity distribution at the approach channel based on revised plan design (Flow velocity distribution at depth EL. 68.12 m).
    Figure 10. Flow distribution at the approach channel in PMF based on revised plan design.
A. Hydarulic model test; B. Numerical simulation; C. Section view.
    Figure 10. Flow distribution at the approach channel in PMF based on revised plan design. A. Hydarulic model test; B. Numerical simulation; C. Section view.

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    Numerical analysis of energy dissipator options using computational fluid dynamics modeling — a case study of Mirani Dam

    전산 유체 역학 모델링을 사용한 에너지 소산자 옵션의 수치적 해석 — Mirani 댐의 사례 연구

    Arabian Journal of Geosciences volume 15, Article number: 1614 (2022) Cite this article

    Abstract

    이 연구에서 FLOW 3D 전산 유체 역학(CFD) 소프트웨어를 사용하여 파키스탄 Mirani 댐 방수로에 대한 에너지 소산 옵션으로 미국 매립지(USBR) 유형 II 및 USBR 유형 III 유역의 성능을 추정했습니다. 3D Reynolds 평균 Navier-Stokes 방정식이 해결되었으며, 여기에는 여수로 위의 자유 표면 흐름을 캡처하기 위해 공기 유입, 밀도 평가 및 드리프트-플럭스에 대한 하위 그리드 모델이 포함되었습니다. 본 연구에서는 5가지 모델을 고려하였다. 첫 번째 모델에는 길이가 39.5m인 USBR 유형 II 정수기가 있습니다. 두 번째 모델에는 길이가 44.2m인 USBR 유형 II 정수기가 있습니다. 3번째와 4 번째모델에는 길이가 각각 48.8m인 USBR 유형 II 정수조와 39.5m의 USBR 유형 III 정수조가 있습니다. 다섯 번째 모델은 네 번째 모델과 동일하지만 마찰 및 슈트 블록 높이가 0.3m 증가했습니다. 최상의 FLOW 3D 모델 조건을 설정하기 위해 메쉬 민감도 분석을 수행했으며 메쉬 크기 0.9m에서 최소 오차를 산출했습니다. 세 가지 경계 조건 세트가 테스트되었으며 최소 오류를 제공하는 세트가 사용되었습니다. 수치적 검증은 USBR 유형 II( L = 48.8m), USBR 유형 III( L = 35.5m) 및 USBR 유형 III 의 물리적 모델 에너지 소산을 0.3m 블록 단위로 비교하여 수행되었습니다( L= 35.5m). 통계 분석 결과 평균 오차는 2.5%, RMSE(제곱 평균 제곱근 오차) 지수는 3% 미만이었습니다. 수리학적 및 경제성 분석을 바탕으로 4 번째 모델이 최적화된 에너지 소산기로 밝혀졌습니다. 흡수된 에너지 백분율 측면에서 물리적 모델과 수치적 모델 간의 최대 차이는 5% 미만인 것으로 나타났습니다.

    In this study, the FLOW 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software was used to estimate the performance of the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) type II and USBR type III stilling basins as energy dissipation options for the Mirani Dam spillway, Pakistan. The 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations were solved, which included sub-grid models for air entrainment, density evaluation, and drift–flux, to capture free-surface flow over the spillway. Five models were considered in this research. The first model has a USBR type II stilling basin with a length of 39.5 m. The second model has a USBR type II stilling basin with a length of 44.2 m. The 3rd and 4th models have a USBR type II stilling basin with a length of 48.8 m and a 39.5 m USBR type III stilling basin, respectively. The fifth model is identical to the fourth, but the friction and chute block heights have been increased by 0.3 m. To set up the best FLOW 3D model conditions, mesh sensitivity analysis was performed, which yielded a minimum error at a mesh size of 0.9 m. Three sets of boundary conditions were tested and the set that gave the minimum error was employed. Numerical validation was done by comparing the physical model energy dissipation of USBR type II (L = 48.8 m), USBR type III (L =35.5 m), and USBR type III with 0.3-m increments in blocks (L = 35.5 m). The statistical analysis gave an average error of 2.5% and a RMSE (root mean square error) index of less than 3%. Based on hydraulics and economic analysis, the 4th model was found to be an optimized energy dissipator. The maximum difference between the physical and numerical models in terms of percentage energy absorbed was found to be less than 5%.

    Keywords

    • Numerical modeling
    • Spillway
    • Hydraulic jump
    • Energy dissipation
    • FLOW 3D

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    Figure 3. Comparison of water surface profiles over porous media with 12 mm particle diameter in laboratory measurements (symbols) and numerical results (lines).

    다공층에 대한 돌발 댐 붕괴의 3차원 유동 수치해석 시뮬레이션

    A. Safarzadeh1*, P. Mohsenzadeh2, S. Abbasi3
    1 Professor of Civil Eng., Water Engineering and Mineral Waters Research Center, Univ. of Mohaghegh Ardabili,Ardabil, Iran
    2 M.Sc., Graduated of Civil-Hydraulic Structures Eng., Faculty of Eng., Univ. of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
    3 M.Sc., Graduated of Civil -Hydraulic Structures Eng., Faculty of Eng., Univ. of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran Safarzadeh@uma.ac.ir

    Highlights

    유체 이동에 의해 생성된 RBF는 Ls-Dyna에서 Fluent, ICFD ALE 및 SPH 방법으로 시뮬레이션되었습니다.
    RBF의 과예측은 유체가 메인 도메인에서 고속으로 분리될 때 발생합니다.
    이 과잉 예측은 요소 크기, 시간 단계 크기 및 유체 모델에 따라 다릅니다.
    유체 성능을 검증하려면 최대 RBF보다 임펄스가 권장됩니다.

    Abstract

    Dam break is a very important problem due to its effects on economy, security, human casualties and environmental consequences. In this study, 3D flow due to dam break over the porous substrate is numerically simulated and the effect of porosity, permeability and thickness of the porous bed and the water depth in the porous substrate are investigated. Classic models of dam break over a rigid bed and water infiltration through porous media were studied and results of the numerical simulations are compared with existing laboratory data. Validation of the results is performed by comparing the water surface profiles and wave front position with dam break on rigid and porous bed. Results showed that, due to the effect of dynamic wave in the initial stage of dam break, a local peak occurs in the flood hydrograph. The presence of porous bed reduces the acceleration of the flood wave relative to the flow over the solid bed and it decreases with the increase of the permeability of the bed. By increasing the permeability of the bed, the slope of the ascending limb of the flood hydrograph and the peak discharge drops. Furthermore, if the depth and permeability of the bed is such that the intrusive flow reaches the rigid substrate under the porous bed, saturation of the porous bed, results in a sharp increase in the slope of the flood hydrograph. The maximum values of the peak discharge at the end of the channel with porous bed occurred in saturated porous bed conditions.

    댐 붕괴는 경제, 보안, 인명 피해 및 환경적 영향으로 인해 매우 중요한 문제입니다. 본 연구에서는 다공성 기재에 대한 댐 파괴로 인한 3차원 유동을 수치적으로 시뮬레이션하고 다공성 기재의 다공성, 투과도 및 다공성 층의 두께 및 수심의 영향을 조사합니다. 단단한 바닥에 대한 댐 파괴 및 다공성 매체를 통한 물 침투의 고전 모델을 연구하고 수치 시뮬레이션 결과를 기존 실험실 데이터와 비교합니다. 결과 검증은 강체 및 다공성 베드에서 댐 파단과 수면 프로파일 및 파면 위치를 비교하여 수행됩니다. 그 결과 댐파괴 초기의 동적파동의 영향으로 홍수수문곡선에서 국부첨두가 발생하는 것으로 나타났다. 다공성 베드의 존재는 고체 베드 위의 유동에 대한 홍수파의 가속을 감소시키고 베드의 투과성이 증가함에 따라 감소합니다. 베드의 투수성을 증가시켜 홍수 수문곡선의 오름차순 경사와 첨두방류량이 감소한다. 더욱이, 만약 층의 깊이와 투과성이 관입 유동이 다공성 층 아래의 단단한 기질에 도달하는 정도라면, 다공성 층의 포화는 홍수 수문곡선의 기울기의 급격한 증가를 초래합니다. 다공층이 있는 채널의 끝단에서 최대 방전 피크값은 포화 다공층 조건에서 발생하였다.

    Keywords

    Keywords: Dams Break, 3D modeling, Porous Bed, Permeability, Flood wave

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    Flow Field in a Sloped Channel with Damaged and Undamaged Piers: Numerical and Experimental Studies

    Flow Field in a Sloped Channel with Damaged and Undamaged Piers: Numerical and Experimental Studies

    Ehsan OveiciOmid Tayari & Navid Jalalkamali
    KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering volume 25, pages4240–4251 (2021)Cite this article

    Abstract

    본 논문은 경사가 완만한 수로에서 손상되거나 손상되지 않은 교각 주변의 유동 패턴을 분석했습니다. 실험은 길이가 12m이고 기울기가 0.008인 직선 수로에서 수행되었습니다. Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter(ADV)를 이용하여 3차원 유속 데이터를 수집하였고, 그 결과를 PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) 데이터와 분석하여 비교하였습니다.

    다중 블록 옵션이 있는 취수구의 퇴적물 시뮬레이션(SSIIM)은 이 연구에서 흐름의 수치 시뮬레이션을 위해 통합되었습니다. 일반적으로 비교에서 얻은 결과는 수치 데이터와 실험 데이터 간의 적절한 일치를 나타냅니다. 결과는 모든 경우에 수로 입구에서 2m 거리에서 기복적 수압 점프가 발생했음을 보여주었습니다.

    경사진 수로의 최대 베드 전단응력은 2개의 손상 및 손상되지 않은 교각을 설치하기 위한 수평 수로의 12배였습니다. 이와 같은 경사수로 교각의 위치에 따라 상류측 수위는 수평수로의 유사한 조건에 비해 72.5% 감소한 반면, 이 감소량은 경사면에서 다른 경우에 비해 8.3% 감소하였다. 채널 또한 두 교각이 있는 경우 최대 Froude 수는 수평 수로의 5.7배였습니다.

    This paper analyzed the flow pattern around damaged and undamaged bridge piers in a channel with a mild slope. The experiments were carried out on a straight channel with a length of 12 meters and a slope of 0.008. Acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) was employed to collect three-dimensional flow velocity data, and the results were analyzed and compared with particle image velocimetry (PIV) data. Sediment Simulation in Intakes with Multiblock option (SSIIM) was incorporated for the numerical simulation of the flow in this study. Generally, the results obtained from the comparisons referred to the appropriate agreement between the numerical and the experimental data. The results showed that an undular hydraulic jump occurred at a distance of two meters from the channel entrance in every case; the maximum bed shear stress in the sloped channel was 12 times that in a horizontal channel for installing two damaged and undamaged piers. With this position of the piers in the sloped channel, the upstream water level underwent a 72.5% reduction compared to similar conditions in a horizontal channel, while the amount of this water level decrease was equal to 8.3% compared to the other cases in a sloped channel. In addition, with the presence of both piers, the maximum Froude number was 5.7 times that in a horizontal channel.

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    하류하천의 영향 최소화를 위한 보조 여수로 최적 활용방안 검토

    The Optimal Operation on Auxiliary Spillway to Minimize the Flood Damage in Downstream River with Various Outflow Conditions

    하류하천의 영향 최소화를 위한 보조 여수로 최적 활용방안 검토

    Hyung Ju Yoo1, Sung Sik Joo2, Beom Jae Kwon3, Seung Oh Lee4*

    유 형주1, 주 성식2, 권 범재3, 이 승오4*

    1Ph.D Student, Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hongik University
    2Director, Water Resources & Environment Department, HECOREA
    3Director, Water Resources Department, ISAN
    4Professor, Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hongik University

    1홍익대학교 건설환경공학과 박사과정
    2㈜헥코리아 수자원환경사업부 이사
    3㈜이산 수자원부 이사
    4홍익대학교 건설환경공학과 교수

    ABSTRACT

    최근 기후변화로 인해 강우강도 및 빈도의 증가에 따른 집중호우의 영향 및 기존 여수로의 노후화에 대비하여 홍수 시 하류 하천의 영향을 최소화할 수 있는 보조 여수로 활용방안 구축이 필요한 실정이다. 이를 위해, 수리모형 실험 및 수치모형 실험을 통하여 보조 여수로 운영에 따른 흐름특성 변화 검토에 관한 연구가 많이 진행되어 왔다. 그러나 대부분의 연구는 여수로에서의 흐름특성 및 기능성에 대한 검토를 수행하였을 뿐 보조 여수로의 활용방안에 따른 하류하천 영향 검토 및 호안 안정성 검토에 관한 연구는 미비한 실정이다. 이에 본 연구에서는 기존 여수로 및 보조 여수로 방류 조건에 따른 하류영향 분석 및 호안 안정성 측면에서 최적 방류 시나리오 검토를 3차원 수치모형인 FLOW-3D를 사용하여 검토하였다. 또한 FLOW-3D 수치모의 수행을 통한 유속, 수위 결과와 소류력 산정 결과를 호안 설계허용 기준과 비교하였다. 수문 완전 개도 조건으로 가정하고 계획홍수량 유입 시 다양한 보조 여수로 활용방안에 대하여 수치모의를 수행한 결과, 보조 여수로 단독 운영 시 기존 여수로 단독운영에 비하여 최대유속 및 최대 수위의 감소효과를 확인하였다. 다만 계획홍수량의 45% 이하 방류 조건에서 대안부의 호안 안정성을 확보하였고 해당 방류량 초과 경우에는 처오름 현상이 발생하여 월류에 대한 위험성 증가를 확인하였다. 따라서 기존 여수로와의 동시 운영 방안 도출이 중요하다고 판단하였다. 여수로의 배분 비율 및 총 허용 방류량에 대하여 검토한 결과 보조 여수로의 방류량이 기존 여수로의 방류량보다 큰 경우 하류하천의 흐름이 중심으로 집중되어 대안부의 유속 저감 및 수위 감소를 확인하였고, 계획 홍수량의 77% 이하의 조건에서 호안의 허용 유속 및 허용 소류력 조건을 만족하였다. 이를 통하여 본 연구에서 제안한 보조 여수로 활용방안으로는 기존 여수로와 동시 운영 시 총 방류량에 대하여 보조 여수로의 배분량이 기존 여수로의 배분량보다 크게 설정하는 것이 하류하천의 영향을 최소화 할 수 있는 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 본 연구는 여수로 방류에 따른 대안부에서의 영향에 대해서만 검토하였고 수문 전면 개도 조건에서 검토하였다는 한계점은 분명히 있다. 이에 향후에는 다양한 수문 개도 조건 및 방류 시나리오를 적용 및 검토한다면 보다 효율적이고, 효과적인 보조 여수로 활용방안을 도출이 가능할 것으로 기대 된다.

    키워드 : 보조 여수로, FLOW-3D, 수치모의, 호안 안정성, 소류력

    1. 서 론

    최근 기후변화로 인한 집중호우의 영향으로 홍수 시 댐으로 유입되는 홍수량이 설계 홍수량보다 증가하여 댐 안정성 확보가 필요한 실정이다(Office for Government Policy Coordination, 2003). MOLIT & K-water(2004)에서는 기존댐의 수문학적 안정성 검토를 수행하였으며 이상홍수 발생 시 24개 댐에서 월류 등으로 인한 붕괴위험으로 댐 하류지역의 극심한 피해를 예상하여 보조여수로 신설 및 기존여수로 확장 등 치수능력 증대 기본계획을 수립하였고 이를 통하여 극한홍수 발생 시 홍수량 배제능력을 증대하여 기존댐의 안전성 확보 및 하류지역의 피해를 방지하고자 하였다. 여기서 보조 여수로는 기존 여수로와 동시 또는 별도 운영하는 여수로로써 비상상황 시 방류 기능을 포함하고 있고(K-water, 2021), 최근에는 기존 여수로의 노후화에 따라 보조여수로의 활용방안에 대한 관심이 증가하고 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 3차원 수치해석을 수행하여 기존 및 보조 여수로의 방류량 조합에 따른 하류 영향을 분석하고 하류 호안 안정성 측면에서 최적 방류 시나리오를 검토하고자 한다.

    기존의 댐 여수로 검토에 관한 연구는 주로 수리실험을 통하여 방류조건 별 흐름특성을 검토하였으나 최근에는 수치모형 실험결과가 수리모형실험과 비교하여 근사한 것을 확인하는 등 점차 수치모형실험을 수리모형실험의 대안으로 활용하고 있다(Jeon et al., 2006Kim, 2007Kim et al., 2008). 국내의 경우, Jeon et al.(2006)은 수리모형 실험과 수치모의를 이용하여 임하댐 바상여수로의 기본설계안을 도출하였고, Kim et al.(2008)은 가능최대홍수량 유입 시 비상여수로 방류에 따른 수리학적 안정성과 기능성을 3차원 수치모형인 FLOW-3D를 활용하여 검토하였다. 또한 Kim and Kim(2013)은 충주댐의 홍수조절 효과 검토 및 방류량 변화에 따른 상·하류의 수위 변화를 수치모형을 통하여 검토하였다. 국외의 경우 Zeng et al.(2017)은 3차원 수치모형인 Fluent를 활용한 여수로 방류에 따른 흐름특성 결과와 측정결과를 비교하여 수치모형 결과의 신뢰성을 검토하였다. Li et al.(2011)은 가능 최대 홍수량(Probable Maximum Flood, PMF)조건에서 기존 여수로와 신규 보조 여수로 유입부 주변의 흐름특성에 대하여 3차원 수치모형 Fluent를 활용하여 검토하였고, Lee et al.(2019)는 서로 근접해있는 기존 여수로와 보조여수로 동시 운영 시 방류능 검토를 수리모형 실험 및 수치모형 실험(FLOW-3D)을 통하여 수행하였으며 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로를 동시운영하게 되면 배수로 간섭으로 인하여 총 방류량이 7.6%까지 감소되어 댐의 방류능력이 감소하였음을 확인하였다.

    그러나 대부분의 여수로 검토에 대한 연구는 여수로 내에서의 흐름특성 및 기능성에 대한 검토를 수행하였고. 이에 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로 방류운영에 따른 하류하천의 흐름특성 변화 및 호안 안정성 평가에 관한 추가적인 검토가 필요한 실정이다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 기존 여수로 및 보조 여수로 방류 조건에 따른 하류하천의 흐름특성 및 호안 안정성분석을 3차원 수치모형인 FLOW-3D를 이용하여 검토하였다. 또한 다양한 방류 배분 비율 및 허용 방류량 조건 변화에 따른 하류하천의 흐름특성 및 소류력 분석결과를 호안 설계 허용유속 및 허용 소류력 기준과 비교하여 하류하천의 영향을 최소화 할 수 있는 최적의 보조 여수로 활용방안을 도출하고자 한다.

    2. 본 론

    2.1 이론적 배경

    2.1.1 3차원 수치모형의 기본이론

    FLOW-3D는 미국 Flow Science, Inc에서 개발한 범용 유체역학 프로그램(CFD, Computational Fluid Dynamics)으로 자유 수면을 갖는 흐름모의에 사용되는 3차원 수치해석 모형이다. 난류모형을 통해 난류 해석이 가능하고, 댐 방류에 따른 하류 하천의 흐름 해석에도 많이 사용되어 왔다(Flow Science, 2011). 본 연구에서는 FLOW-3D(version 12.0)을 이용하여 홍수 시 기존 여수로의 노후화에 대비하여 보조 여수로의 활용방안에 대한 검토를 하류하천의 호안 안정성 측면에서 검토하였다.

    2.1.2 유동해석의 지배방정식

    1) 연속 방정식(Continuity Equation)

    FLOW-3D는 비압축성 유체에 대하여 연속방정식을 사용하며, 밀도는 상수항으로 적용된다. 연속 방정식은 Eqs. (1)(2)와 같다.

    (1)

    ∇·v=0

    (2)

    ∂∂x(uAx)+∂∂y(vAy)+∂∂z(wAz)=RSORρ

    여기서, ρ는 유체 밀도(kg/m3), u, v, w는 x, y, z방향의 유속(m/s), Ax, Ay, Az는 각 방향의 요소면적(m2), RSOR는 질량 생성/소멸(mass source/sink)항을 의미한다.

    2) 운동량 방정식(Momentum Equation)

    각 방향 속도성분 u, v, w에 대한 운동방정식은 Navier-Stokes 방정식으로 다음 Eqs. (3)(4)(5)와 같다.

    (3)

    ∂u∂t+1VF(uAx∂u∂x+vAy∂v∂y+wAz∂w∂z)=-1ρ∂p∂x+Gx+fx-bx-RSORρVFu

    (4)

    ∂v∂t+1VF(uAx∂u∂x+vAy∂v∂y+wAz∂w∂z)=-1ρ∂p∂y+Gy+fy-by-RSORρVFv

    (5)

    ∂w∂t+1VF(uAx∂u∂x+vAy∂v∂y+wAz∂w∂z)=-1ρ∂p∂z+Gz+fz-bz-RSORρVFw

    여기서, Gx, Gy, Gz는 체적력에 의한 가속항, fx, fy, fz는 점성에 의한 가속항, bx, by, bz는 다공성 매체에서의 흐름손실을 의미한다.

    2.1.3 소류력 산정

    호안설계 시 제방사면 호안의 안정성 확보를 위해서는 하천의 흐름에 의하여 호안에 작용하는 소류력에 저항할 수 있는 재료 및 공법 선택이 필요하다. 국내의 경우 하천공사설계실무요령(MOLIT, 2016)에서 계획홍수량 유하 시 소류력 산정 방법을 제시하고 있다. 소류력은 하천의 평균유속을 이용하여 산정할 수 있으며, 소류력 산정식은 Eqs. (6)(7)과 같다.

    1) Schoklitsch 공식

    Schoklitsch(1934)는 Chezy 유속계수를 적용하여 소류력을 산정하였다.

    (6)

    τ=γRI=γC2V2

    여기서, τ는 소류력(N/m2), R은 동수반경(m), γ는 물의 단위중량(10.0 kN/m3), I는 에너지경사, C는 Chezy 유속계수, V는 평균유속(m/s)을 의미한다.

    2) Manning 조도계수를 고려한 공식

    Chezy 유속계수를 대신하여 Manning의 조도계수를 고려하여 소류력을 산정할 수 있다.

    (7)

    τ=γn2V2R1/3

    여기서, τ는 소류력(N/m2), R은 동수반경(m), γ는 물의 단위중량(10.0 kN/m3), n은 Manning의 조도계수, V는 평균유속(m/s)을 의미한다.

    FLOW-3D 수치모의 수행을 통하여 하천의 바닥 유속을 도출할 수 있으며, 본 연구에서는 Maning 조도계수롤 고려하여 소류력을 산정하고자 한다. 소류력을 산정하기 위해서 여수로 방류에 따른 대안부의 바닥유속 변화를 검토하여 최대 유속 값을 이용하였다. 최종적으로 산정한 소류력과 호안의 재료 및 공법에 따른 허용 소류력과 비교하여 제방사면 호안의 안정성 검토를 수행하게 된다.

    2.2 하천호안 설계기준

    하천 호안은 계획홍수위 이하의 유수작용에 대하여 안정성이 확보되도록 계획하여야 하며, 호안의 설계 시에는 사용재료의 확보용이성, 시공상의 용이성, 세굴에 대한 굴요성(flexibility) 등을 고려하여 호안의 형태, 시공방법 등을 결정한다(MOLIT, 2019). 국내의 경우, 하천공사설계실무요령(MOLIT, 2016)에서는 다양한 호안공법에 대하여 비탈경사에 따라 설계 유속을 비교하거나, 허용 소류력을 비교함으로써 호안의 안정성을 평가한다. 호안에 대한 국외의 설계기준으로 미국의 경우, ASTM(미국재료시험학회)에서 호안블록 및 식생매트 시험방법을 제시하였고 제품별로 ASTM 시험에 의한 허용유속 및 허용 소류력을 제시하였다. 일본의 경우, 호안 블록에 대한 축소실험을 통하여 항력을 측정하고 이를 통해서 호안 블록에 대한 항력계수를 제시하고 있다. 설계 시에는 항력계수에 의한 블록의 안정성을 평가하고 있으나, 최근에는 세굴의 영향을 고려할 수 있는 호안 안정성 평가의 필요성을 제기하고 있다(MOLIT, 2019). 관련된 국내·외의 하천호안 설계기준은 Table 1에 정리하여 제시하였고, 본 연구에서 하천 호안 안정성 평가 시 하천공사설계실무요령(MOLIT, 2016)과 ASTM 시험에서 제시한 허용소류력 및 허용유속 기준을 비교하여 각각 0.28 kN/m2, 5.0 m/s 미만일 경우 호안 안정성을 확보하였다고 판단하였다.

    Table 1.

    Standard of Permissible Velocity and Shear on Revetment

    Country (Reference)MaterialPermissible velocity (Vp, m/s)Permissible Shear (τp, kN/m2)
    KoreaRiver Construction Design Practice Guidelines
    (MOLIT, 2016)
    Vegetated5.00.50
    Stone5.00.80
    USAASTM D’6460Vegetated6.10.81
    Unvegetated5.00.28
    JAPANDynamic Design Method of Revetment5.0

    2.3. 보조여수로 운영에 따른 하류하천 영향 분석

    2.3.1 모형의 구축 및 경계조건

    본 연구에서는 기존 여수로의 노후화에 대비하여 홍수 시 보조여수로의 활용방안에 따른 하류하천의 흐름특성 및 호안안정성 평가를 수행하기 위해 FLOW-3D 모형을 이용하였다. 기존 여수로 및 보조 여수로는 치수능력 증대사업(MOLIT & K-water, 2004)을 통하여 완공된 ○○댐의 제원을 이용하여 구축하였다. ○○댐은 설계빈도(100년) 및 200년빈도 까지는 계획홍수위 이내로 기존 여수로를 통하여 운영이 가능하나 그 이상 홍수조절은 보조여수로를 통하여 조절해야 하며, 또한 2011년 기존 여수로 정밀안전진단 결과 사면의 표층 유실 및 옹벽 밀림현상 등이 확인되어 노후화에 따른 보수·보강이 필요한 상태이다. 이에 보조여수로의 활용방안 검토가 필요한 것으로 판단하여 본 연구의 대상댐으로 선정하였다. 하류 하천의 흐름특성을 예측하기 위하여 격자간격을 0.99 ~ 8.16 m의 크기로 하여 총 격자수는 49,102,500개로 구성하였으며, 여수로 방류에 따른 하류하천의 흐름해석을 위한 경계조건으로 상류는 유입유량(inflow), 바닥은 벽면(wall), 하류는 수위(water surface elevation)조건으로 적용하도록 하였다(Table 2Fig. 1 참조). FLOW-3D 난류모형에는 혼합길이 모형, 난류에너지 모형, k-ϵ모형, RNG(Renormalized Group Theory) k-ϵ모형, LES 모형 등이 있으며, 본 연구에서는 여수로 방류에 따른 복잡한 난류 흐름 및 높은 전단흐름을 정확하게 모의(Flow Science, 2011)할 수 있는 RNG k-ϵ모형을 사용하였고, 하류하천 호안의 안정성 측면에서 보조여수로의 활용방안을 검토하기 위하여 방류시나리오는 Table 3에 제시된 것 같이 설정하였다. Case 1 및 Case 2를 통하여 계획홍수량에 대하여 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 단독 운영이 하류하천에 미치는 영향을 확인하였고 보조 여수로의 방류량 조절을 통하여 호안 안정성 측면에서 보조 여수로 방류능 검토를 수행하였다(Case 3 ~ Case 6). 또한 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 방류량 배분에 따른 하류하천의 영향 검토(Case 7 ~ Case 10) 및 방류 배분에 따른 허용 방류량을 호안 안정성 측면에서 검토를 수행하였다(Case 11 ~ Case 14).

    수문은 완전개도 조건으로 가정하였으며 하류하천의 계획홍수량에 대한 기존 여수로와 보조여수로의 배분량을 조절하여 모의를 수행하였다. 여수로는 콘크리트의 조도계수 값(Chow, 1959)을 채택하였고, 댐 하류하천의 조도계수는 하천기본계획(Busan Construction and Management Administration, 2009) 제시된 조도계수 값을 채택하였으며 FLOW-3D의 적용을 위하여 Manning-Strickler 공식(Vanoni, 2006)을 이용하여 조도계수를 조고값으로 변환하여 사용하였다. Manning-Strickler 공식은 Eq. (8)과 같으며, FLOW-3D에 적용한 조도계수 및 조고는 Table 4와 같다.

    (8)

    n=ks1/68.1g1/2

    여기서, kS는 조고 (m), n은 Manning의 조도계수, g는 중력가속도(m/s2)를 의미한다.

    시간에 따라 동일한 유량이 일정하게 유입되도록 모의를 수행하였으며, 시간간격(Time Step)은 0.0001초로 설정(CFL number < 1.0) 하였다. 또한 여수로 수문을 통한 유량의 변동 값이 1.0%이내일 경우는 연속방정식을 만족하고 있다고 가정하였다. 이는, 유량의 변동 값이 1.0%이내일 경우 유속의 변동 값 역시 1.0%이내이며, 수치모의 결과 1.0%의 유속변동은 호안의 유속설계기준에 크게 영향을 미치지 않는다고 판단하였다. 그 결과 모든 수치모의 Case에서 2400초 이내에 결과 값이 수렴하는 것을 확인하였다.

    Table 2.

    Mesh sizes and numerical conditions

    MeshNumbers49,102,500 EA
    Increment (m)DirectionExisting SpillwayAuxiliary Spillway
    ∆X0.99 ~ 4.301.00 ~ 4.30
    ∆Y0.99 ~ 8.161.00 ~ 5.90
    ∆Z0.50 ~ 1.220.50 ~ 2.00
    Boundary ConditionsXmin / YmaxInflow / Water Surface Elevation
    Xmax, Ymin, Zmin / ZmaxWall / Symmetry
    Turbulence ModelRNG model
    Table 3.

    Case of numerical simulation (Qp : Design flood discharge)

    CaseExisting Spillway (Qe, m3/s)Auxiliary Spillway (Qa, m3/s)Remarks
    1Qp0Reference case
    20Qp
    300.58QpReview of discharge capacity on
    auxiliary spillway
    400.48Qp
    500.45Qp
    600.32Qp
    70.50Qp0.50QpDetermination of optimal division
    ratio on Spillways
    80.61Qp0.39Qp
    90.39Qp0.61Qp
    100.42Qp0.58Qp
    110.32Qp0.45QpDetermination of permissible
    division on Spillways
    120.35Qp0.48Qp
    130.38Qp0.53Qp
    140.41Qp0.56Qp
    Table 4.

    Roughness coefficient and roughness height

    CriteriaRoughness coefficient (n)Roughness height (ks, m)
    Structure (Concrete)0.0140.00061
    River0.0330.10496
    /media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F1.jpg
    Fig. 1

    Layout of spillway and river in this study

    2.3.2 보조 여수로의 방류능 검토

    본 연구에서는 기존 여수로와 보조 여수로의 방류량 배분에 따른 하류하천 대안부의 유속분포 및 수위분포를 검토하기 위해 수치모의 Case 별 다음과 같이 관심구역을 설정하였다(Fig. 2 참조). 관심구역(대안부)의 길이(L)는 총 1.3 km로 10 m 등 간격으로 나누어 검토하였으며, Section 1(0 < X/L < 0.27)은 기존 여수로 방류에 따른 영향이 지배적인 구간, Section 2(0.27 < X/L < 1.00)는 보조 여수로 방류에 따른 영향이 지배적인 구간으로 각 구간에서의 수위, 유속, 수심결과를 확인하였다. 기존 여수로의 노후화에 따른 보조 여수로의 방류능 검토를 위하여 Case 1 – Case 6까지의 결과를 비교하였다.

    보조 여수로의 단독 운영 시 기존 여수로 운영 시 보다 하류하천의 대안부의 최대 유속(Vmax)은 약 3% 감소하였으며, 이는 보조 여수로의 하천 유입각이 기존 여수로 보다 7°작으며 유입하천의 폭이 증가하여 유속이 감소한 것으로 판단된다. 대안부의 최대 유속 발생위치는 하류 쪽으로 이동하였으며 교량으로 인한 단면의 축소로 최대유속이 발생하는 것으로 판단된다. 또한 보조 여수로의 배분량(Qa)이 증가함에 따라 하류하천 대안부의 최대 유속이 증가하였다. 하천호안 설계기준에서 제시하고 있는 허용유속(Vp)과 비교한 결과, 계획홍수량(Qp)의 45% 이하(Case 5 & 6)를 보조 여수로에서 방류하게 되면 허용 유속(5.0 m/s)조건을 만족하여 호안안정성을 확보하였다(Fig. 3 참조). 허용유속 외에도 대안부에서의 소류력을 산정하여 하천호안 설계기준에서 제시한 허용 소류력(τp)과 비교한 결과, 유속과 동일하게 보조 여수로의 방류량이 계획홍수량의 45% 이하일 경우 허용소류력(0.28 kN/m2) 조건을 만족하였다(Fig. 4 참조). 각 Case 별 호안설계조건과 비교한 결과는 Table 5에 제시하였다.

    하류하천의 수위도 기존 여수로 운영 시 보다 보조 여수로 단독 운영 시 최대 수위(ηmax)가 약 2% 감소하는 효과를 보였으며 최대 수위 발생위치는 수충부로 여수로 방류시 처오름에 의한 수위 상승으로 판단된다. 기존 여수로의 단독운영(Case 1)의 수위(ηref)를 기준으로 보조 여수로의 방류량이 증가함에 따라 수위는 증가하였으나 계획홍수량의 58%까지 방류할 경우 월류에 대한 안정성(ηmax/ηref<0.97(=기설제방고))은 확보되었다(Fig. 5 참조). 그러나 계획홍수량 조건에서는 월류에 대한 위험성이 존재하기 때문에 기존여수로와 보조여수로의 적절한 방류량 배분 조합을 도출하는 것이 중요하다고 판단되어 진다.

    /media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F2.jpg
    Fig. 2

    Region of interest in this study

    /media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F3.jpg
    Fig. 3

    Maximum velocity and location of Vmax according to Qa

    /media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F4.jpg
    Fig. 4

    Maximum shear according to Qa

    /media/sites/ksds/2021-014-02/N0240140207/images/ksds_14_02_07_F5.jpg
    Fig. 5

    Maximum water surface elevation and location of ηmax according to Qa

    Table 5.

    Numerical results for each cases (Case 1 ~ Case 6)

    CaseMaximum Velocity
    (Vmax, m/s)
    Maximum Shear
    (τmax, kN/m2)
    Evaluation
    in terms of Vp
    Evaluation
    in terms of τp
    1
    (Qa = 0)
    9.150.54No GoodNo Good
    2
    (Qa = Q