FLOW-3D HYDRO- Dams & Spillways

Dams & spillways Long history of success

  • Government regulators
  • Hydro-power utilities
  • Engineering consultants
  • Hydraulics laboratories
  • CFD consultants
  • Academia

Dams & spillways

•Wide range of applications

•Wide range of flow conditions:
–Open channel
–Pressurized –Mixed

•Wide range of models
FLOW-3D HYDRO is a solution that is:

  • Versatile
  • Robust
  • Accurate

Spillway rating curve
Draft tube exit hydraulics
Flow distribution at turbine entrance
Head loss & energy dissipation
Forces on dams
Aerated flows
Spillway approach conditions
Jet deflection on upper spillway
Spillway water profile
Fish passage hydraulics
Forces on Spillways
Sediment & Scour

Limitless dam, spillway & stilling basin configurations

–Weirs & hydraulic controls
–Morning glory
–Piano Key weir
–Arced weirs

FLOW-3D HYDRO에는 수십 가지 예가 사전 탑재되어 있어 응용 프로그램 모델링을 시작할 수 있는 좋은 출발점을 제공합니다.

Ray-tracing an upcoming post-processing feature


기하학적 또는 흐름 구성에 대한 제한 없음: FLOW-3D HYDO는 속도, 공기 흡입 및 난류장과 같은 중요한 흐름 특성을 매우 정확하게 표현합니다.

  • Natural fishways
  • Pool & weir
  • Pool & orifice
  • Larinier
  • Ice-harbor
  • Natural
  • Baffle
  • Vertical slot
  • Denil •…
  • Simulation outputs
  • Detail of velocity field
  • Water elevation profiles

Spatial mapping of turbulence intensity

Determination of flow conditions:

Coating field – Slot Die Coating (슬롯다이 코팅)

Slot Die Coating (슬롯다이 코팅)

  • 응용
    – 배터리 전극
    – 광학 코팅
    – 전도성 필름
  • 공정 파라미터
    – 유량
    – 롤 속도
    – 기질 속도
    – 유동학
  • 품질 관리
    – 코팅 두께
    – 결함 최소화

슬롯다이 모델링

  • 세밀한 형상
  • 큰 종횡비
  • 간단한 격자 설정

슬롯다이 내부

슬롯다이 외부

슬롯다이 비교

  • 진공 보조 장치가 없는 슬롯 코팅
  • 실험 결과와 매우 일치

Coating Bibliography

아래는 코팅 참고 문헌의 기술 문서 모음입니다. 
이 모든 논문은 FLOW-3D  결과를 포함하고 있습니다. FLOW-3D를 사용하여 코팅 공정을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션  하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

Coating Bibliography

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Coating Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate coating processes.

50-19     Peng Yi, Delong Jia, Xianghua Zhan, Pengun Xu, and Javad Mostaghimi, Coating solidification mechanism during plasma-sprayed filling the laser textured grooves, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 142, 2019. doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.118451

01-19   Jelena Dinic and Vivek Sharma, Computational analysis of self-similar capillary-driven thinning and pinch-off dynamics during dripping using the volume-of-fluid method, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 31, 2019. doi: 10.1063/1.5061715

85-18   Zia Jang, Oliver Litfin and Antonio Delgado, A semi-analytical approach for prediction of volume flow rate in nip-fed reverse roll coating process, Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Vol. 18, no. 1, Special Issue: 89th Annual Meeting of the International Association of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 2018. doi: 10.1002/pamm.201800317

80-14   Hiroaki Koyama, Kazuhiro Fukada, Yoshitaka Murakami, Satoshi Inoue, and Tatsuya Shimoda, Investigation of Roll-to-Sheet Imprinting for the Fabrication of Thin-film Transistor Electrodes, IEICE TRAN, ELECTRON, VOL.E97-C, NO.11, November 2014

46-14   Isabell Vogeler, Andreas Olbers, Bettina Willinger and Antonio Delgado, Numerical investigation of the onset of air entrainment in forward roll coating, 17th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium September 7-10, 2014 San Diego, CA, USA

17-12  Chi-Feng Lin, Bo-Kai Wang, Carlos Tiu and Ta-Jo Liu, On the Pinning of Downstream Meniscus for Slot Die Coating, Advances in Polymer Technology, Vol. 00, No. 0, 1-9 (2012) © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Available online at Wiley.

01-11  Reid Chesterfield, Andrew Johnson, Charlie Lang, Matthew Stainer, and Jonathan Ziebarth, Solution-Coating Technology for AMOLED Displays, Information Display Magazine, 1/11 0362-0972/01/2011-024 © SID 2011.

61-09 Yi-Rong Chang, Chi-Feng Lin and Ta-Jo Liu, Start-up of slot die coating, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 49, pp. 1158-1167, 2009. doi:10.1002/pen.21360

26-06  James M. Brethour, 3-D transient simulation of viscoelastic coating flows, 13th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium, September 2006, Denver, Colorado

19-06  Ivosevic, M., Cairncross, R. A., and Knight, R., 3D Predictions of Thermally Sprayed Polymer Splats Modeling Particle Acceleration, Heating and Deformation on Impact with a Flat Substrate, Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer, 49, pp. 3285 – 3297, 2006

9-06  M. Ivosevic, R. A. Cairncross, R. Knight, T. E. Twardowski, V. Gupta, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA; J. A. Baldoni, Duke University, Durham, NC, Effect of Substrate Roughness on Splatting Behavior of HVOF Sprayed Polymer Particles Modeling and Experiments, International Thermal Spray Conference, Seattle, WA, May 2006.

26-05  Ivosevic, M., Cairncross, R. A., Knight, R., Impact Modeling of Thermally Sprayed Polymer Particles, Proc. International Thermal Spray Conference [ITSC-2005], Eds., DVS/IIW/ASM-TSS, Basel, Switzerland, May 2005.

11-05  Brethour, J., Simulation of Viscoelastic Coating Flows with a Volume-of-fluid Technique, in Proceedings of the 6th European Coating Symposium, Bradford, UK, 2005

1-05 C.W. Hirt, Electro-Hydrodynamics of Semi-Conductive Fluids: With Application to Electro-Spraying, Flow Science Technical Note #70, FSI-05-TN70

38-04 K.H. Ho and Y.Y. Zhao, Modelling thermal development of liquid metal flow on rotating disc in centrifugal atomisation, Materials Science and Engineering, A365, pp. 336-340, 2004. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2003.09.044

30-04  M. Ivosevic, R.A. Cairncross, and R. Knight, Impact Modeling of HVOF Sprayed Polymer Particles, Presented at the 12th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium, Rochester, New York, September 23-25, 2004

29-04  J.M. Brethour and C.W. Hirt, Stains Arising from Dried Liquid Drops, Presented at the 12th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium, Rochester, New York, September 23-25, 2004

20-03  James Brethour, Filling and Emptying of Gravure Cells–A CFD Analysis, Convertech Pacific October 2002, Vol. 10, No 4, p 34-37

4-03   M. Toivakka, Numerical Investigation of Droplet Impact Spreading in Spray Coating of Paper, In Proceedings of 2003 TAPPI 8th Advanced Coating Fundamentals Symposium, TAPPI Press, Atlanta, 2003

28-02  J.M. Brethour and H. Benkreira, Filling and Emptying of Gravure Cells—Experiment and CFD Comparison, 11th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium, September 23-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota

22-02  Hirt, C.W., and Brethour, J.M., Contact Line on Rough Surfaces with Application to Air Entrainment, Presented at the 11th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium, September 23-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Unpublished.

17-01  J. M. Brethour, C. W. Hirt, Moving Contact Lines on Rough Surfaces, 4th European Coating Symposium, 2001, Belgium

16-01  J. M. Brethour, Filling and Emptying of Gravure Cells–-A CFD Analysis, proceedings of the 4th European Coating Symposium 2001, October 1-4, 2001, Brussels, Belgium

26-00 Ronald H. Miller and Gary S. Strumolo, A Self-Consistent Transient Paint Simulation, Proceedings of IMEC2000: 2000 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, November 2000, Orlando, Florida

6-99  C. W. Hirt, Direct Computation of Dynamic Contact Angles and Contact Lines, ECC99 Coating Conference, Erlangen, Germany (FSI-99-00-2), Sept. 1999

7-98 J. E. Richardson and Y. Becker, Three-Dimensional Simulation of Slot Coating Edge Effects, Flow Science Inc, and Polaroid Corporation, presented at the 9th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium, Newark, DE, May 18-20, 1998

6-98  C. W. Hirt and E. Choinski, Simulation of the Wet-Start Process in Slot Coating, Flow Science Inc, and Polaroid Corporation, presented at the 9th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium, Newark, DE, May 18-20, 1998

3-97  C. W. Hirt and J. E. Richardson of Flow Science Inc, and K.S. Chen, Sandia National Laboratory, Simulation of Transient and Three-Dimensional Coating Flows Using a Volume-of-Fluid Technique, presented at the 50th Annual Conference of the Society for Imaging and Science Technology, Boston, MA 18-23 May 1997

2-96 C. W. Hirt, K. S. Chen, Simulation of Slide-Coating Flows Using a Fixed Grid and a Volume-of-Fluid Front-Tracking Technique, presented a the 8th International Coating Process Science & Technology Symposium, February 25-29, 1996, New Orleans, LA

Coastal & Maritime Bibliography

다음은 연안 및 해양 분야의 기술 문서 모음입니다.
이 모든 논문은 FLOW-3D  결과를 포함하고 있습니다. FLOW-3D를 사용하여 연안 및 해양 시설물을 성공적으로 시뮬레이션 하는 방법에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.

Coastal & Maritime Bibliography

Below is a collection of technical papers in our Coastal & Maritime Bibliography. All of these papers feature FLOW-3D results. Learn more about how FLOW-3D can be used to successfully simulate Coastal & Maritime applications.

51-20       Yupeng Ren, Xingbei Xu, Guohui Xu, Zhiqin Liu, Measurement and calculation of particle trajectory of liquefied soil under wave action, Applied Ocean Research, 101; 102202, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2020.102202

50-20       C.C. Battiston, F.A. Bombardelli, E.B.C. Schettini, M.G. Marques, Mean flow and turbulence statistics through a sluice gate in a navigation lock system: A numerical study, European Journal of Mechanics – B/Fluids, 84; pp.155-163, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.euromechflu.2020.06.003

49-20     Ahmad Fitriadhy, Nur Amira Adam, Nurul Aqilah Mansor, Mohammad Fadhli Ahmad, Ahmad Jusoh, Noraieni Hj. Mokhtar, Mohd Sofiyan Sulaiman, CFD investigation into the effect of heave plate on vertical motion responses of a floating jetty, CFD Letters, 12.5; pp. 24-35, 2020. doi.org/10.37934/cfdl.12.5.2435

40-20       P. April Le Quéré, I. Nistor, A. Mohammadian, Numerical modeling of tsunami-induced scouring around a square column: Performance assessment of FLOW-3D and Delft3D, Journal of Coastal Research (preprint), 2020. doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-19-00181

38-20       Sahameddin Mahmoudi Kurdistani, Giuseppe Roberto Tomasicchio, Daniele Conte, Stefano Mascetti, Sensitivity analysis of existing exponential empirical formulas for pore pressure distribution inside breakwater core using numerical modeling, Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 1; pp. 65-71, 2020. doi.org/10.4408/IJEGE.2020-01.S-08

36-20       Mohammadamin Torabi, Bruce Savage, Efficiency improvement of a novel submerged oscillating water column (SOWC) energy harvester, Proceedings, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress (Cancelled), Henderson, Nevada, May 17–21, 2020. doi.org/10.1061/9780784482940.003

32-20       Adriano Henrique Tognato, Modelagem CFD da interação entre hidrodinâmica costeira e quebra-mar submerso: estudo de caso da Ponta da Praia em Santos, SP (CFD modeling of interaction between sea waves and submerged breakwater at Ponta de Praia – Santos, SP: a case study, Thesis, Universidad Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil, 2020.

29-20   Ana Gomes, José L. S. Pinho, Tiago Valente, José S. Antunes do Carmo and Arkal V. Hegde, Performance assessment of a semi-circular breakwater through CFD modelling, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8.3, art. no. 226, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030226

23-20  Qi Yang, Peng Yu, Yifan Liu, Hongjun Liu, Peng Zhang and Quandi Wang, Scour characteristics of an offshore umbrella suction anchor foundation under the combined actions of waves and currents, Ocean Engineering, 202, art. no. 106701, 2020. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2019.106701

04-20  Bingchen Liang, Shengtao Du, Xinying Pan and Libang Zhang, Local scour for vertical piles in steady currents: review of mechanisms, influencing factors and empirical equations, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8.1, art. no. 4, 2020. doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010004

104-19   A. Fitriadhy, S.F. Abdullah, M. Hairil, M.F. Ahmad and A. Jusoh, Optimized modelling on lateral separation of twin pontoon-net floating breakwater, Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences, 13.4, pp. 5764-5779, 2019. doi.org/10.15282/jmes.13.4.2019.04.0460

103-19  Ahmad Fitriadhy, Nurul Aqilah Mansor, Nur Adlina Aldin and Adi Maimun, CFD analysis on course stability of an asymmetrical bridle towline model of a towed ship, CFD Letters, 11.12, pp. 43-52, 2019.

90-19   Eric P. Lemont and Karthik Ramaswamy, Computational fluid dynamics in coastal engineering: Verification of a breakwater design in the Torres Strait, Proceedings, pp. 762-768, Australian Coasts and Ports 2019 Conference, Hobart, Australia, September 10-13, 2019.

86-19   Mohammed Arab Fatiha, Benoît Augier, François Deniset, Pascal Casari, and Jacques André Astolfi, Morphing hydrofoil model driven by compliant composite structure and internal pressure, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 7:423, 2019. doi.org/10.3390/jmse7120423

83-19   Cong-Uy Nguyen, So-Young Lee, Thanh-Canh Huynh, Heon-Tae Kim, and Jeong-Tae Kim, Vibration characteristics of offshore wind turbine tower with gravity-based foundation under wave excitation, Smart Structures and Systems, 23:5, pp. 405-420, 2019. doi.org/10.12989/sss.2019.23.5.405

68-19   B.W. Lee and C. Lee, Development of an equation for ship wave crests in a current in whole water depths, Proceedings, 10th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2019), Hanoi, Vietnam, September 25-28, 2019; pp. 207-212, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-0291-0_29

62-19   Byeong Wook Lee and Changhoon Lee, Equation for ship wave crests in the entire range of water depths, Coastal Engineering, 153:103542, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2019.103542

23-19     Mariano Buccino, Mohammad Daliri, Fabio Dentale, Angela Di Leo, and Mario Calabrese, CFD experiments on a low crested sloping top caisson breakwater, Part 1: Nature of loadings and global stability, Ocean Engineering, Vol. 182, pp. 259-282, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2019.04.017

21-19     Mahsa Ghazian Arabi, Deniz Velioglu Sogut, Ali Khosronejad, Ahmet C. Yalciner, and Ali Farhadzadeh, A numerical and experimental study of local hydrodynamics due to interactions between a solitary wave and an impervious structure, Coastal Engineering, Vol. 147, pp. 43-62, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2019.02.004

15-19     Chencong Liao, Jinjian Chen, and Yizhou Zhang, Accumulation of pore water pressure in a homogeneous sandy seabed around a rocking mono-pile subjected to wave loads, Vol. 173, pp. 810-822, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.12.072

09-19     Yaoyong Chen, Guoxu Niu, and Yuliang Ma, Study on hydrodynamics of a new comb-type floating breakwater fixed on the water surface, 2018 International Symposium on Architecture Research Frontiers and Ecological Environment (ARFEE 2018), Wuhan, China, December 14-16, 2018, E3S Web of Conferences Vol. 79, Art. No. 02003, 2019. doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20197902003

08-19     Hongda Shi, Zhi Han, and Chenyu Zhao, Numerical study on the optimization design of the conical bottom heaving buoy convertor, Ocean Engineering, Vol. 173, pp. 235-243, 2019. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.12.061

06-19   S. Hemavathi, R. Manjula and N. Ponmani, Numerical modelling and experimental investigation on the effect of wave attenuation due to coastal vegetation, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference in Ocean Engineering (ICOE2018), Vol. 2, pp. 99-110, 2019. doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3134-3_9

87-18   Muhammad Syazwan Bazli, Omar Yaakob and Kang Hooi Siang, Validation study of u-oscillating water column device using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation, 11thInternational Conference on Marine Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 13-14, 2018.

86-18   Nur Adlina Aldin, Ahmad Fitriadhy, Nurul Aqilah Mansor, and Adi Maimun, CFD analysis on unsteady yaw motion characteristic of a towed ship, 11th International Conference on Marine Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 13-14, 2018.

78-18 A.A. Abo Zaid, W.E. Mahmod, A.S. Koraim, E.M. Heikal and H.E. Fath, Wave interaction of partially immersed semicircular breakwater suspended on piles using FLOW-3D, CSME Conference Proceedings, Toronto, Canada, May 27-30, 2018.

73-18   Jian Zhou and Subhas K. Venayagamoorthy, Near-field mean flow dynamics of a cylindrical canopy patch suspended in deep water, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 858, pp. 634-655, 2018. doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2018.775

69-18   Keisuke Yoshida, Shiro Maeno, Tomihiro Iiboshi and Daisuke Araki, Estimation of hydrodynamic forces acting on concrete blocks of toe protection works for coastal dikes by tsunami overflows, Applied Ocean Research, Vol. 80, pp. 181-196, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2018.09.001

68-18   Zegao Yin, Yanxu Wang and Xiaoyu Yang, Regular wave run-up attenuation on a slope by emergent rigid vegetation, Journal of Coastal Research (in-press), 2018. doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-17-00200.1

65-18   Dagui Tong, Chencong Liao, Jinjian Chen and Qi Zhang, Numerical simulation of a sandy seabed response to water surface waves propagating on current, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2018. doi.org/10.3390/jmse6030088

61-18   Manuel Gerardo Verduzco-Zapata, Aramis Olivos-Ortiz, Marco Liñán-Cabello, Christian Ortega-Ortiz, Marco Galicia-Pérez, Chris Matthews, and Omar Cervantes-Rosas, Development of a Desalination System Driven by Low Energy Ocean Surface Waves, Journal of Coastal Research: Special Issue 85 – Proceedings of the 15th International Coastal Symposium, pp. 1321 – 1325, 2018. doi.org/10.2112/SI85-265.1

37-18   Songsen Xu, Chunshuo Jiao, Meng Ning and Sheng Dong, Analysis of Buoyancy Module Auxiliary Installation Technology Based on Numerical Simulation, Journal of Ocean University of China, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 267-280, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s11802-018-3305-4

36-18   Deniz Velioglu Sogut and Ahmet Cevdet Yalciner, Performance comparison of NAMI DANCE and FLOW-3D® models in tsunami propagation, inundation and currents using NTHMP benchmark problems, Pure and Applied Geophysics, pp. 1-39, 2018. doi.org/10.1007/s00024-018-1907-9

26-18   Mohammad Sarfaraz and Ali Pak, Numerical investigation of the stability of armour units in low-crested breakwaters using combined SPH–Polyhedral DEM method, Journal of Fluids and Structures, vol. 81, pp. 14-35, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2018.04.016

25-18   Yen-Lung Chen and Shih-Chun Hsiao, Numerical modeling of a buoyant round jet under regular waves, Ocean Engineering, vol. 161, pp. 154-167, 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.04.093

13-18   Yizhou Zhang, Chencong Liao, Jinjian Chen, Dagui Tong, and Jianhua Wang, Numerical analysis of interaction between seabed and mono-pile subjected to dynamic wave loadings considering the pile rocking effect, Ocean Engineering, Volume 155, 1 May 2018, Pages 173-188, doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.02.041

11-18  Ching-Piao Tsai, Chun-Han Ko and Ying-Chi Chen, Investigation on Performance of a Modified Breakwater-Integrated OWC Wave Energy Converter, Open Access Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 643; doi:10.3390/su10030643, © Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018.

58-17   Jian Zhou, Claudia Cenedese, Tim Williams and Megan Ball, On the propagation of gravity currents over and through a submerged array of circular cylinders, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 831, pp. 394-417, 2017. doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2017.604

56-17   Yu-Shu Kuo, Chih-Yin Chung, Shih-Chun Hsiao and Yu-Kai Wang, Hydrodynamic characteristics of Oscillating Water Column caisson breakwaters, Renewable Energy, vol. 103, pp. 439-447, 2017. doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.11.028

47-17   Jae-Nam Cho, Chang-Geun Song, Kyu-Nam Hwang and Seung-Oh Lee, Experimental assessment of suspended sediment concentration changed by solitary wave, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 649-655 (2017) 649 DOI: 10.6119/JMST-017-1226-04

45-17   Muhammad Aldhiansyah Rifqi Fauzi, Haryo Dwito Armono, Mahmud Mustain and Aniendhita Rizki Amalia, Comparison Study of Various Type Artificial Reef Performance in Reducing Wave Height, Regional Conference in Civil Engineering (RCCE) 430 The Third International Conference on Civil Engineering Research (ICCER) August 1st-2nd 2017, Surabaya – Indonesia.

44-17   Fabio Dentale, Ferdinando Reale, Angela Di Leo, and Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, A CFD approach to rubble mound breakwater design, International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Available online 30 December 2017.

39-17   Milad Rashidinasab and Mehdi Behdarvandi Askar, Modeling the Pressure Distribution and the Changes of Water Level around the Offshore Platforms Exposed to Waves, Using the Numerical Model of FLOW-3D, Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, 2017, 6, 97-106, http://www.scirp.org/journal/cweee, ISSN Online: 2168-1570, ISSN Print: 2168-1562

30-17   Omid Nourani and Mehdi Behdarvandi Askar, Comparison of the Effect of Tetrapod Block and Armor X block on Reducing Wave Overtopping in Breakwaters, Open Journal of Marine Science, 2017, 7, 472-484 http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojms ISSN Online: 2161-7392.

29-17   J.A. Vasquez, Modelling the generation and propagation of landslide generated waves, Leadership in Sustainable Infrastructure, Annual Conference – Vancouver, May 31 – June 3, 2017

28-17   Manuel G. Verduzco-Zapata, Francisco J. Ocampo-Torres, Chris Matthews, Aramis Olivos-Ortiz, Diego E. and Galván-Pozos, Development of a Wave Powered Desalination Device Numerical Modelling, Proceedings of the 12th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference 27th Aug -1st Sept 2017, Cork, Ireland

20-17   Chu-Kuan Lin, Jaw-Guei Lin, Ya-Lan Chen, Chin-Shen Chang, Seabed Change and Soil Resistance Assessment of Jack up Foundation, Proceedings of the Twenty-seventh (2017) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, San Francisco, CA, USA, June 25-30, 2017, Copyright © 2017 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE), ISBN 978-1-880653-97-5; ISSN 1098-6189.

19-17   Velioğlu Deniz, Advanced Two- and Three-Dimensional Tsunami – Models Benchmarking and Validation, Ph.D Thesis:, Middle East Technical University, June 2017

18-17   Farrokh Mahnamfar and Abdüsselam Altunkaynak, Comparison of numerical and experimental analyses for optimizing the geometry of OWC systems, Ocean Engineering 130 (2017) 10–24.

07-17   Jonas Čerka, Rima Mickevičienė, Žydrūnas Ašmontas, Lukas Norkevičius, Tomas Žapnickas, Vasilij Djačkov and Peilin Zhou, Optimization of the research vessel hull form by using numerical simulation, Ocean Engineering 139 (2017) 33–38

05-17   Liang, B.; Ma, S.; Pan, X., and Lee, D.Y., Numerical modelling of wave run-up with interaction between wave and dolosse breakwater, In: Lee, J.L.; Griffiths, T.; Lotan, A.; Suh, K.-S., and Lee, J. (eds.), 2017, The 2nd International Water Safety Symposium. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 79, pp. 294-298. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.

02-17   A. Yazid Maliki, M. Azlan Musa, Ahmad M.F., Zamri I., Omar Y., Comparison of numerical and experimental results for overtopping discharge of the OBREC wave energy converter, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, In Press, © School of Engineering, Taylor’s University

01-17   Tanvir Sayeed, Bruce Colbourne, David Molyneux, Ayhan Akinturk, Experimental and numerical investigation of wave forces on partially submerged bodies in close proximity to a fixed structure, Ocean Engineering, Volume 132, Pages 70–91, March 2017

101-16 Xin Li, Liang-yu Xu, Jian-Min Yang, Study of fluid resonance between two side-by-side floating barges, Journal of Hydrodynamics, vol. B-28, no. 5, pp. 767-777, 2016. doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6058(16)60679-0

81-16   Loretta Gnavi, Deep water challenges: development of depositional models to support geohazard assessment for submarine facilities, Ph.D. Thesis: Politecnico di Torino, May 2016

80-16   Mohammed Ibrahim, Hany Ahmed, Mostafa Abd Alall and A.S. Koraim, Proposing and investigating the efficiency of vertical perforated breakwater, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 3, March 2016, ISSN 2229-5518

72-16   Yen-Lung Chen and Shih-Chun Hsiao, Generation of 3D water waves using mass source wavemaker applied to Navier–Stokes model, Coastal Engineering 109 (2016) 76–95.

64-16   Jae Nam Cho, Dong Hyun Kim and Seung Oh Lee, Experimental Study of Shape and Pressure Characteristics of Solitary Wave generated by Sluice Gate for Various Conditions, Journal of the Korean Society of Safety, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 70-75, April 2016, Copyright @ 2016 by The Korean Society of Safety (pISSN 1738-3803, eISSN 2383-9953) All right reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.14346/JKOSOS.2016.31.2.70

56-16   Ali A. Babajani, Mohammad Jafari and Parinaz Hafezi Sefat, Numerical investigation of distance effect between two Searasers for hydrodynamic performance, Alexandria Engineering Journal, June 2016.

53-16   Hwang-Ki Lee, Byeong-Kuk Kim, Jongkyu Kim and Hyeon-Ju Kim, OTEC thermal dispersion in coastal waters of Tarawa, Kiribati, OCEANS 2016 – Shanghai, April 2016, 10.1109/OCEANSAP.2016.7485548, © IEEE.

50-16   Mohsin A. R. Irkal, S. Nallayarasu and S. K. Bhattacharyya, CFD simulation of roll damping characteristics of a ship midsection with bilge keel, Proceedings of the ASME 2016 35th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2016, June 19-24, 2016, Busan, South Korea

49-16   Bill Baird, Seth Logan, Wim Van Der Molen, Trevor Elliot and Don Zimmer, Thoughts on the future of physical models in coastal engineering, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on the Application of Physical Modelling in Coastal and Port Engineering and Science (Coastlab16) Ottawa, Canada, May 10-13, 2016 Copyright ©: Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

47-16   KH Kim et. al, Numerical analysis on the effects of shoal on the ship wave, Applied Engineering, Materials and Mechanics: Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Applied Engineering, Materials and Mechanics (ICAEMM 2016)

17-16  Nan-Jing Wu, Shih-Chun Hsiao, Hsin-Hung Chen, and Ray-Yeng Yang, The study on solitary waves generated by a piston-type wave maker, Ocean Engineering, 117(2016)114–129

13-16   Maryam Deilami-Tarifi, Mehdi Behdarvandi-Askar, Vahid Chegini, and Sadegh Haghighi-Pou, Modeling of the Changes in Flow Velocity on Seawalls under Different Conditions Using FLOW-3DSoftware, Open Journal of Marine Science, 2016, 6, 317-322, Published Online April 2016 in SciRes.

01-16   Mohsin A.R. Irkal, S. Nallayarasu, and S.K. Bhattacharyya, CFD approach to roll damping of ship with bilge keel with experimental validation, Applied Ocean Research, Volume 55, February 2016, Pages 1–17

121-15   Josh Carter, Scott Fenical, Craig Hunter and Joshua Todd, CFD modeling for the analysis of living shoreline structure performance, Coastal Structures and Solutions to Coastal Disasters Joint Conference, Boston, MA, Sept. 9-11, 2015. © 2017 by the American Society of Civil Engineers. doi.org/10.1061/9780784480304.047

114-15   Jisheng Zhang, Peng Gao, Jinhai Zheng, Xiuguang Wu, Yuxuan Peng and Tiantian Zhang, Current-induced seabed scour around a pile-supported horizontal-axis tidal stream turbine, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 929-936 (2015) 929, DOI: 10.6119/JMST-015-0610-11

108-15  Tiecheng Wang, Tao Meng, and Hailong Zha, Analysis of Tsunami Effect and Structural Response, ISSN 1330-3651 (Print), ISSN 1848-6339 (Online), DOI: 10.17559/TV-20150122115308

107-15   Jie Chen, Changbo Jiang, Wu Yang, Guizhen Xiao, Laboratory study on protection of tsunami-induced scour by offshore breakwaters, Natural Hazards, 2015, 1-19

85-15   Majid A. Bhinder, M.T. Rahmati, C.G. Mingham and G.A. Aggidis, Numerical hydrodynamic modelling of a pitching wave energy converter, European Journal of Computational Mechanics, Volume 24, Issue 4, 2015, DOI: 10.1080/17797179.2015.1096228

65-15   Giancarlo Alfonsi, Numerical Simulations of Wave-Induced Flow Fields around Large-Diameter Surface-Piercing Vertical Circular CylinderComputation 20153(3), 386-426; doi:10.3390/computation3030386

61-15   Bingchen Liang, Duo Li, Xinying Pan and Guangxin Jiang, Numerical Study of Local Scour of Pipeline under Combined Wave and Current Conditions, Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth (2015) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, June 21-26, 2015 Copyright © 2015 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE) ISBN 978-1-880653-89-0; ISSN 1098-6189.

60-15   Chun-Han Ko, Ching-Piao Tsai, Ying-Chi Chen, and Tri-Octaviani Sihombing, Numerical Simulations of Wave and Flow Variations between Submerged Breakwaters and Slope Seawall, Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth (2015) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, June 21-26, 2015 Copyright © 2015 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE) ISBN 978-1-880653-89-0; ISSN 1098-6189.

57-15   Giacomo Viccione and Settimio Ferlisi, A numerical investigation of the interaction between debris flows and defense barriers, Advances in Environmental and Geological Science and Engineering, ISBN: 978-1-61804-314-6, 2015

56-15   Vittorio Bovolin, Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli and Giacomo Viccione, A numerical study of liquid impact on inclined surfaces, Advances in Environmental and Geological Science and Engineering, ISBN: 978-1-61804-314-6, 2015

49-15   Fabio Dentale, Giovanna Donnarumma, Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, and Ferdinando Reale, A numerical method to analyze the interaction between sea waves and rubble mound emerged breakwaters, WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on FLUID MECHANICS, E-ISSN: 2224-347X, Volume 10, 2015

45-15   Diego Vicinanza, Daniela Salerno, Fabio Dentale and Mariano Buccino, Structural Response of Seawave Slot-cone Generator (SSG) from Random Wave CFD Simulations, Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth (2015) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, June 21-26, 2015, Copyright © 2015 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE), ISBN 978-1-880653-89-0; ISSN 1098-6189

38-15   Yen-Lung Chen, Shih-Chun Hsiao, Yu-Cheng Hou, Han-Lun Wu and Yuan Chieh Wu, Numerical Simulation of a Neutrally Buoyant Round Jet in a Wave Environment, E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, The Hague, the Netherlands

34-15   Dieter Vanneste and Peter Troch, 2D numerical simulation of large-scale physical model tests of wave interaction with a rubble-mound breakwater, Coastal Engineering, Volume 103, September 2015, Pages 22–41.

29-15   Masanobu Toyoda, Hiroki Kusumoto, and Kazuo Watanabe, Intrinsically Safe Cryogenic Cargo Containment System of IHI-SPB LNG Tank, IHI Engineering Review, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2015.

24-15   Xixi Pan, Shiming Wang, and Yongcheng Liang, Three-dimensional simulation of floating wave power device, International Power, Electronics and Materials Engineering Conference (IPEMEC 2015)

05-15   M. A. Bhinder, A. Babarit, L. Gentaz, and P. Ferrant, Potential Time Domain Model with Viscous Correction and CFD Analysis of a Generic Surging Floating Wave Energy Converter, (2015), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijome.2015.01.005

137-14   A. Najafi-Jilani, M. Zakiri Niri and Nader Naderi, Simulating three dimensional wave run-up over breakwaters covered by antifer units, Int. J. Nav. Archit. Ocean Eng. (2014) 6:297~306

128-14   Dong Chule Kim, Byung Ho Choi, Kyeong Ok Kim and Efim Pelinovsky, Extreme tsunami runup simulation at Babi Island due to 1992 Flores tsunami and Okushiri due to 1993 Hokkido tsunami, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 16, EGU2014-1341, 2014, EGU General Assembly 2014, © Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

123-14   Irkal Mohsin A.R., S. Nallayarasu and S.K. Bhattacharyya, Experimental and CFD Simulation of Roll Motion of Ship with Bilge Keel, International Conference on Computational and Experimental Marine Hydrodynamics MARHY 2014 3-4 December 2014, Chennai, India.

101-14  Dieter Vanneste, Corrado Altomare, Tomohiro Suzuki, Peter Troch and Toon Verwaest, Comparison of Numerical Models for Wave Overtopping and Impact on a Sea Wall, Coastal Engineering 2014

91-14   Fabio Dentale, Giovanna Donnarumma, and Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, Numerical wave interaction with tetrapods breakwater, Int. J. Nav. Archit. Ocean Eng. (2014) 6:0~0, http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/IJNAOE-2013-0214, ⓒSNAK, 2014, pISSN: 2092-6782, eISSN: 2092-6790

87-14   Philipp Behruzi, Simulation of breaking wave impacts on a flat wall, The 15th International Workshop on Trends In Numerical and Physical Modeling for Industrial Multiphase Flows, Cargèse, Corsica, October 13th–17th, 2014

86-14   Chuan Sim and Sung-uk Choi, Three-Dimensional Scour at Submarine Pipelines under Indefinite Boundary Conditions, 2014

83-14   Hongda Shi, Dong Wang, Jinghui Song, and Zhe Ma, Systematic Design of a Heaving Buoy Wave Energy Device, 5th International Conference on Ocean Energy, 4th November, Halifax, 2014

71-14   Hadi Sabziyan, Hassan Ghassemi, Farhood Azarsina, and Saeid Kazemi, Effect of Mooring Lines Pattern in a Semi-submersible Platform at Surge and Sway Movements, Journal of Ocean Research, 2014, Vol. 2, No. 1, 17-22 Available online at http://pubs.sciepub.com/jor/2/1/4 © Science and Education Publishing DOI:10.12691/jor-2-1-4

56-14   Fernandez-Montblanc, T., Izquierdo, A., and Bethencourt, M., Modelling the oceanographic conditions during storm following the Battle of Trafalgar, Encuentro de la Oceanografıa Fısica Espanola 2014

52-14   Fabio Dentale, Giovanna Donnarumma, and Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, A new numerical approach to the study of the interaction between wave motion and roubble mound breakwaters, Latest Trends in Engineering Mechanics, Structures, Engineering Geology, ISBN: 978-960-474-376-6

49-14   H. Ahmed and A. Schlenkhoff, Numerical Investigation of Wave Interaction with Double Vertical Slotted Walls, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Environmental, Ecological, Geological and Mining Engineering Vol:8 No:8, 2014

32-14  Richard Keough, Victoria Mullaley, Hilary Sinclair, and Greg Walsh, Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Water Current Energy Device, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Mechanical Design Project II – ENGI 8926, April 2014

25-14    Paulius Rapalis, Vytautas Smailys, Vygintas Daukšys, Nadežda Zamiatina, and Vasilij Djačkov, Vandens  – Duju Silumos Mainai Gaz-Lifto Tipo Skruberyje,Technologijos mokslo darbai Vakarų Lietuvoje, Vol 9 > Rapalis. Available for download at http://journals.ku.lt/index.php/TMD/article/view/259.

92-13   Matteo Tirindelli, Scott Fenical and Vladimir Shepsis, State-of-the-Art Methods for Extreme Wave Loading on Bridges and Coastal Highways, Seventh National Seismic Conference on Bridges and Highways (7NSC), May 20-22, 2013, Oakland, CA

89-13 Worakanok Thanyamanta, Don Bass and David Molyneux, Prediction of sloshing effects using a coupled non-linear seakeeping and CFD code, Proceedings of the ASME 2013 32nd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2013, June 9-14, 2013, Nantes, France. Available for purchase online at ASME.

83-13   B.W. Lee and C. Lee, Development of Wave Power Generation Device with Resonance Channels, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2013) Bali, Indonesia, September 24-26, 2013

68-13   Fabio Dentale, Giovanna Donnarumma, and Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli, Rubble Mound Breakwater Run-Up, Reflection and Overtopping by Numerical 3D Simulation, ICE Conference, September 2013, Edinburgh (UK).

66-13  Peter Arnold, Validation of FLOW-3D against Experimental Data for an Axi-Symmetric Point Absorber WEC, © wavebob™, 2013

62-13 Yanan Li, Junwei Zhou, Dazheng Wang and Yonggang Cui, Resistance and Strength Analysis of Three Hulls with ifferent Knuckles, Advanced Materials Research Vols. 779-780 (2013) pp 615-618, © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.779-780.615.

61-13  M.R. Soliman, Satoru Ushijima, Nobu Miyagi and Tetsuay Sumi, Density Current Simulation Using Two-Dimensional High Resolution Model, Annuals of Disas. Prev. Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., No 56 B, 2013.

59-13  Guang Wei Liu, Qing He Zhang, and Jin Feng Zhang, Wave Forces on the Composite Bucket Foundation of Offshore Wind Turbines, Applied Mechanics and Materials, 405-408, 1420, September 2013. Available for purchase online at Scientific.net.

50-13  Joel Darnell and Vladimir Shepsis, Pontoon Launch Analysis, Design and Performance, Ports 2013, © ASCE 2013. Available for purchase online at ASCE.

45-13 Min-chi Li, Numerical Simulation of Wave Overtopping Rate at Sloping Seawalls with Different Configurations of Wave Dissipators, Master’s Thesis: Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University. Abstract only available here: http://etd.lib.nsysu.edu.tw/ETD-db/ETD-search/view_etd?URN=etd-0701113-144919.

22-13  Nahidul Khan, Jonathan Smith, and Michael Hinchey, Models with all the right curves, © Journal of Ocean Technology, The Journal of Ocean Technology, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2013.

20-13  Efim Pelinovsky, Dong-Chul Kim, Kyeong-Ok Kim and Byung-Ho Choi, Three-dimensional simulation of extreme runup heights during the 2004 Indonesian and 2011 Japanese tsunamis, EGU General Assembly 2013, held 7-12 April, 2013 in Vienna, Austria, id. EGU2013-1760. Online at: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1760P.

18-13 Dazheng Wang, Fei Ma, and Lei Mei, Optimization of a 17m Catamaran based on the Resistance Performance, Advanced Materials Research Vols. 690-693, pp 3414-3418, © Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.690-693.3414, May 2013.

16-13  Dong Chule Kim, Kyeong Ok Kim, Efim Pelinovsky, Ira Didenkulova, and Byung Ho Choi, Three-dimensional tsunami runup simulation for the port of Koborinai on the Sanriku coast of Japan, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 65, 2013.

15-13  Dong Chule Kim, Kyeong Ok Kim, Byung Ho Choi, Kyung Hwan Kim, and Efin Pelinovsky, Three –dimensional runup simulation of the 2004 Ocean tsunami at the Lhok Nga twin peaks, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 65, 2013.

14-13  Jae-Seol Shim, Jinah Kim, Dong-Shul Kim, Kiyoung Heo, Kideok Do, and Sun-Jung Park, Storm surge inundation simulations comparing three-dimensional with two-dimensional models based on Typhoon Maemi over Masan Bay of South Korea, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 65, 2013.

115-12  Worakanok Thanyamanta and David Molyneux, Prediction of Stabilizing Moments and Effects of U-Tube Anti-Roll Tank Geometry Using CFD, ASME 2012 31st International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, Volume 5: Ocean Engineering; CFD and VIV, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 1–6, 2012, ISBN: 978-0-7918-4492-2, Copyright © 2012 by ASME

114-12   Dane Kristopher Behrens, The Russian River Estuary: Inlet Morphology, Management, and Estuarine Scalar Field Response, Ph.D. Thesis: Civil and Environmental Engineering, UC Davis, © 2012 by Dane Kristopher Behrens. All Rights Reserved.

111-12  James E. Beget, Zygmunt Kowalik, Juan Horrillo, Fahad Mohammed, Brian C. McFall, and Gyeong-Bo Kim, NEeSR-CR Tsunami Generation by Landslides Integrating Laboratory Scale Experiments, Numerical Models and Natural Scale Applications, George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research, July 2012, Boston, MA.

110-12   Gyeong-Bo Kim, Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Tsunami Generation by Subaerial Landslides, M.S. Thesis: Texas A&M University, Copyright 2012 Gyeong-Bo Kim, December 2012

109-12 D. Vanneste, Experimental and Numerical study of Wave-Induced Porous Flow in Rubble-Mound Breakwaters, Ph.D. thesis (Chapters 5 and 6), Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium), 2012.

104-12 Junwoo Choi, Kab Keun Kwon, and Sung Bum Yoon, Tsunami Inundation Simulation of a Built-up Area using Equivalent Resistance Coefficient, Coastal Engineering Journal, Vol. 54, No. 2 (2012) 1250015 (25 pages), © World Scientific Publishing Company and Japan Society of Civil Engineers, DOI: 10.1142/S0578563412500155

94-12 Parviz Ghadimi, Abbas Dashtimanesh, Mohammad Farsi, and Saeed Najafi, Investigation of free surface flow generated by a planing flat plate using smoothed particle hydrodynamics method and FLOW-3D simulations, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment, December 7, 2012 1475090212465235. Available for purchase online at sage journals.

92-12    Panayotis Prinos, Maria Tsakiri, and Dimitris Souliotis, A Numerical Simulation of the WOS and the Wave Propagation along a Coastal Dike, Coastal Engineering 2012.

88-12  Nahidul Khan and Michael Hinchey, Adaptive Backstepping Control of Marine Current Energy Conversion System, PKP Open Conference Systems, IEEE Newfoundland and Labrador Section, 2012.

72-12   F. Dentale, G. Donnarumma, and E. Pugliese Carratelli, Wave Run Up and Reflection on Tridimensional Virtual, Journal of Hydrogeology & Hydrologic Engineering, 2012, 1:1, http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/jhhe.1000102.

64-12  Anders Wedel Nielsen, Xiaofeng Liu, B. Mutlu Sumer, Jørgen Fredsøe, Flow and bed shear stresses in scour protections around a pile in a current, Coastal Engineering, Volume 72, February 2013, Pages 20–38.

56-12  Giancarlo Alfonsi, Agostino Lauria, Leonardo Primavera, Flow structures around large-diameter circular cylinder, Journal of Flow Visualization and Image Processing, 2012. DOI:10.1615/JFlowVisImageProc.2012005088.

51-12  Chun-Ho Chen, Study on the Application of FLOW-3D for Wave Energy Dissipation by a Porous Structure, Master’s Thesis: Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, July 2012. In Chinese.

37-12  Yu-Ren Chen, Numerical Modeling on Internal Solitary Wave propagation over an obstacle using FLOW-3D, Master’s Thesis: Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University June 2012. In Chinese.

26-12  D.C. Lo Numerical simulation of hydrodynamic interaction produced during the overtaking and the head-on encounter process of two ships, Engineering Computations: International Journal for Computer-Aided Engineering and Software, Vol. 29 No. 1, 2012. pp. 83-10, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, www.emeraldinsight.com/0264-4401.htm.

14-12  Bahaa Elsharnouby, Akram Soliman, Mohamed Elnaggar, and Mohamed Elshahat, Study of environment friendly porous suspended breakwater for the Egyptian Northwestern Coast, Ocean Engineering 48 (2012) 47-58. Available for purchase online at Science Direct.

11-12  Sang-Ho Oh, Young Min Oh, Ji-Young Kim, Keum-Seok Kang, A case study on the design of condenser effluent outlet of thermal power plant to reduce foam emitted to surrounding seacoast, Ocean Engineering, Volume 47, June 2012, Pages 58–64. Available for purchase online at SciVerse.

101-11 Tsunami – A Growing Disaster, edited by Mohammad Mokhtari, ISBN 978-953-307-431-3, 232 pages, Publisher: InTech, Chapters published December 16, 2011 under CC BY 3.0 license, DOI: 10.5772/922. Available for download at Intech.

100-11 Kwang-Oh Ko, Jun-Woo Choi, Sung-Bum Yoon, and Chang-Beom Park, Internal Wave Generation in FLOW-3D Model, Proceedings of the Twenty-first (2011) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Maui, Hawaii, USA, June 19-24, 2011, Copyright © 2011 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE), ISBN 978-1-880653-96-8 (Set); ISSN 1098-6189 (Set); www.isope.org

95-11  S. Brizzolara, L. Savio, M. Viviani, Y. Chen, P. Temarel, N. Couty, S. Hoflack, L. Diebold, N. Moirod and A. Souto Iglesias, Comparison of experimental and numerical sloshing loads in partially filled tanks, Ships and Offshore StructuresVol. 6, Nos. 1–2, 2011, 15–43. Available for purchase online at Francis & Taylor.

85-11 Andrew Eoghan Maguire, Hydrodynamics, control and numerical modelling of absorbing wavemakers, thesis: The University of Edinburgh, 2011.

74-11  Jonathan Smith, Nahidul Khan and Michael Hinchey, CFD Simulation of AUV Depth Control, Paper presented at NECEC 2011, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Abstract available online.

70-11  G. Kim, S.-H. Oh, K.S. Lee, I.S. Han, J.W. Chae, and S.-J Ahn, Numerical Investigation on Water Discharge Capability of Sluice Caisson of Tidal Power Plant, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2011), December 14-16, 2011, Hong Kong, China.

69-11  G. Alfonsi, A. Lauria, and L. Primavera, Wave-Field Flow Structures Developing Around Large-Diameter Vertical Circular Cylinder, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2011), December 14-16, 2011, Hong Kong, China.

68-11    C. Lee, B.W. Lee, Y.J. Kim, and K.O. Ko, Ship Wave Crests in Intermediate-Depth Water, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2011), December 14-16, 2011, Hong Kong, China.

63-11   Worakanok Thanyamanta, Paul Herrington, and David Molyneux, Wave patterns, wave induced forces and moments for a gravity based structure predicted using CFD, Proceedings of the ASME 2011, 30th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2011, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, June 19-24, 2011.

61-11  Jun Jin and Bo Meng, Computation of wave loads on the superstructures of coastal highway bridges, Ocean Engineering, available online October 19, 2011, ISSN 0029-8018, 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2011.09.029. Available for purchase at Science Direct.

36-11    Nadir Yilmaz, Geoffrey E. Trapp, Scott M. Gagan, Timothy R. Emmerich, CFD Supported Examination of Buoy Design for Wave Energy Conversion, IGEC-VI-2011-173, pp: 537-541

28-11  Rodolfo Bolaños, Laurent O. Amoudry and Ken Doyle, Effects of Instrumented Bottom Tripods on Process Measurements, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, June 2011, Vol. 28, No. 6: pp. 827-837. Available online at: AMS Journals Online.

81-10    Ashwin Lohithakshan Parambath, Impact of Tsunamis on Near Shore Wind Power Units, M.S. Thesis: Texas A&M University, Copyright 2010 Ashwin Lohithakshan Parambath December 2010.

80-10    Juan J. Horrillo, Amanda L. Wood, Charles Williams, Ashwin Parambath, and Gyeong-Bo Kim, Construction of Tsunami Inundation Maps in the Gulf of Mexico, Report to the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, December 2010.

69-10    George A Aggidis and Clive Mingham, A Joint Numerical and Experimental Study of a Surging Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converter (WRASPA), Joule Centre Research Grant Joint Final Report (Lancaster University and Macnhester Metropolitan University), Joule Grant No: JIRP306/02, 2010

67-10  Kazuhiko Terashima, Ryuji Ito, Yoshiyuki Noda, Yoji Masui and Takahiro Iwasa, Innovative Integrated Simulator for Agile Control Design on Shipboard Crane Considering Ship and Load Sway, 2010 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, Part of 2010 IEEE Multi-Conference on Systems and Control, Yokohama, Japan, September 8-10, 2010

66-10  Shan-Hwei Ou, Tai-Wen Hsu, Jian-Feng Lin, Jian-Wu Lai, Shih-Hsiang Lin, Chen-Chen Chang, Yuan-Jyh Lan, Experimental and Numerical Studies on Wave Transformation over Artificial Reefs, Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering, No 32 (2010), Shanghai, China, 2010.

65-10 Tai-Wen Hsu, Jian-Wu Lai, Yuan-Jyh Lan, Experimental and Numerical Studies on Wave Propagation over Coarse Grained Sloping Beach, Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering, No 32 (2010), Shanghai, China, 2010.

26-10 R. Marcer, C. Berhault, C. de Jouëtte, N. Moirod and L. Shen, Validation of CFD Codes for Slamming, V European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics, ECCOMAS CFD 2010, J.C.F. Pereira and A. Sequeira (Eds), Lisbon, Portugal, 14-17 June 2010

25-10 J.M. Zhan, Z. Dong, W. Jiang, and Y.S. Li, Numerical Simulation of wave transformation and runup incorporating porous media wave absorber and turbulence models, Ocean Engineering (2010), doi: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2010.06.005. Available for purchase at Science Direct.

17-10 F. Dentale, S.D. Russo, E. Pugliese Carratelli, S. Mascetti, A New Numerical Approach to Study the Wave Motion with Breakwaters and the Armor Stability, Marine Technology Reporter, May 2010

01-10 F. Dentale, S.D. Russo, E. Pugliese Carratelli, Innovative Numerical Simulation to Study the Fluid withing Rubble Mound Breakwaters and the Armour Stability, 17th Armourstone Wallingford Armourstone Meeting, Wallingford, UK, February 2010.

52-09  Mark Reed, Øistein Johansen, Frode Leirvik, and Bård Brørs, Numerical Algorithm to Compute the Effects of Breaking Waves on Surface Oil Spilled at Sea, Final Report, Second revision, SINTEF, October 2009.

49-09  Anna Pellicioli, Indagine Numerica Sulla Resistenza Idrodinamica Di Uno Scafo In Presenza Di Superficie Libera, thesis: Univerista Degli Studi Di Bergamo, 2008/2009. In Italian. Available upon request.

46-09 Carlos Guedes Soares, P.K. Das, Analysis and Design of Marine Structures, CRC Press; 1 Har/Cdr edition (March 2, 2009), 0415549345

32-09 M.A. Binder, C.G. Mingham, D.M. Causon, M.T. Rahmati, G.A. Aggidis, R.V. Chaplin, Numerical Modelling of a Surging Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter, 8th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference EWTEC 2009, Uppsala, Sweden, 7-10 September 2009

28-09 D. C. Lo, Dong-Taur Su and Jan-Ming Chen (2009), Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations to the Analysis of Bank Effects in Restricted Waters, Journal of Navigation, 62, pp 477-491, doi:10.1017/S037346330900527X; Purchase the article online (clicking on this link will take you to the Cambridge Journals website).

26-09 Fabio Dentale, E. Pugliese Carratelli, S.D. Russo, and Stefano Mascetti, Advanced Numerical Simulations on the Interaction between Waves and Rubble Mound Breakwaters, Journal of the Engineering Association for Offshore and Marine in Italy, (translation from the Italian)

25-09 F. Dentale, B. Messina, E. Pugliese Carratelli, S. Mascetti, Studio numerico avanzato sul moto di filtrazione in ambito marittimo, A & C, Analisi e Calcolo, Giugno 2009 (in Italian)

22-09 M.A. Bhinder, C.G. Mingham, D.M. Causon, M.T. Rahmati, G.A. Aggidis and R.V. Chaplin, A Joint Numerical And Experimental Study Of a Surging Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converter (WRASPA)2, Proceedings of the ASME 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2009-79392, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 31-June 5, 2009

8-09 Basu, D., S. Green, K. Das, R. Janetzke, and J. Stamatakos, Numerical Simulation of Surface Waves Generated by a Subaerial Landslide at Lituya Bay, 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, May 31–June 5, 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii

17-09 Das, K., R. Janetzke, D. Basu, S. Green, and J. Stamatakos, Numerical Simulations of Tsunami Wave Generation by Submarine and Aerial Landslides Using RANS and SPH Models, 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, May 31–June 5, 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii

16-09 Basu, D., S. Green, K. Das, R. Janetzke, and J. Stamatakos, Navier-Stokes Simulations of Surface Waves Generated by Submarine Landslides Effect of Slide Geometry and Turbulence, 2009 Society of Petroleum Engineering Americas E&P Environmental & Safety Conference, March 23–25, 2009, San Antonio, Texas.

48-08    Osamu Kiyomiya1 and Kazuya Kuroki, Flap Gate to Prevent Urban Area from Tsunami, The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China

43-08  Eldina Fatimah, Ahmad Khairi Abd. Wahab, and Hadibah Ismail, Numerical modeling approach of an artificial mangrove root system (ArMs) submerged breakwater as wetland habitat protector, COPEDEC VII, Dubai UAE, 2008.

40-08 Giacomo Viccione, Fabio Dentale, and Vittorio Bovolin, Simulation of Wave Impact Pressure on Vertical Structures with the SPH Method, 3rd ERCOFTAC SPHERIC workshop on SPH applications, Laussanne, Switzerland, June 4-6, 2008.

39-08 Kang, Young-Seung, Kim, Pyeong-Joong, Hyun, Sang-Kwon and Sung, Ha-Keun, Numerical Simulation of Ship-induced Wave Using FLOW-3D, Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers / v.20, no.3, 2008, pp.255-267, ISSN: 1976-8192, http://ksci.kisti.re.kr/search/article/articleView.ksci?articleBean.artSeq=HOHODK_2008_v20n3_255

35-08 B.W. Nam, S.H. Shin, K.Y. Hong, S.W. Hong, Numerical Simulation of Wave Flow over the Spiral-Reef Overtopping Device, Proceedings of the Eighth (2008) ISOPE Pacific/Asia Offshore Mechanics Symposium, Bangkok, Thailand, November 10-14, 2008, © 2008 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, ISBN 978-1-880653-52-4

34-08 B. H. Choi, E. Pelinovsky, D.C. Kim, I. Didenkulova and S.-B. Woo, Two and three-dimensional computation of solitary wave runup on non-plane beach, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 15, 489-502, 2008, www.nonlin-processes-geophys.net/15/489/2008 (c) Author(s) 2008.

23-08 Barb Schmitz, Tecplot, Nastran & FLOW-3D Win the Race, Desktop Engineering’s Elements of Analysis, September 2008

38-07 Choi, B.-H., Kim, D. C., Pelinovsky, E., and Woo, S. B., Three-dimensional simulation of tsunami run-up around conical island, Coast. Eng., Vol. 54, Issue 8, 618-629, 2007.

33-07 Mirela Zalar, Sime Malenica, Zoran Mravak, Nicolas Moirod, Some Aspects of Direct Calculation Methods for the Assessment of LNG Tank Structure Under Sloshing Impacts, La Asociación Española del Gas (sedigas) Spain 2007

20-07 Oceanic Consulting Corporation, Berthing Studies for LNG Carriers in the Calcasieu River Waterway, Making Waves: Newsletter of Oceanic Consulting Corporation, Winter 2007

10-07 Gildas Colleter, Breaking wave uplift and overtopping on a horizontal deck using physical and numerical modeling, Coasts and Ports 2007 Conference in Melbourne, Australia

18-06 Brizzolara, Stefano and Rizzuto, Enrico, Wind Heeling Moments on Very Large Ships. Some Insights through CFD Results, Proceedings on the 9th International Conference on Stability of Ships and Ocean Vehicles, Rio de Janeiro, September 25, 2006

16-06 Ransau, Samuel R, and Hansen, Ernst W.M., Numerical Simulations of Sloshing in Rectangular Tanks, Proceedings of OMAE2006, 25th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Hamburg, Germany, June 4-9, 2006

15-06 Ema Muk-Pavic, Shin Chin and Don Spencer, Validation of the CFD code FLOW-3D for the free surface flow around the ships’; hulls, 14th Annual Conference of the CFD Society of Canada, Kingston, Canada, July 16-18, 2006

3-06 Hansen, E.W.M. and Geir J. Rørtveit, Numerical Simulation of Fluid Mechanisms and Separation Behaviour in Offshore Gravity Separators, Chapter 16 in Emulsions and Emulsion Stability, 2nd Edition, edited by Johan Sjøblom, Taylor & Francis, 2006

24-05 Hansen E.W., Separation Offshore Survey – Design-Redesign of Gravity Separators, Exploration & Production: The Oil & Gas Review 2005 – Issue 2

8-05 T. Kristiansen, R. Baarholm, C.T. Stansberg, G. Rortveit and E.W.M. Hansen, Kinematics in a Diffracted Wave Field Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Numerical Models, Presented at the 24th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, OMAE 67176, Halkidiki, Greece, June 12-17, 2005

7-05 C.T. Stansberg, R. Baarholm, T. Kristiansen, E.W.M. Hansen and G. Rortveit, Extreme Wave Amplification and Impact Loads on Offshore Structures, presented at the 2005 Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 2-5, 2005

16-04 Carl Trygve Stansberg, Kjetil Berget, Oyvind Hellan, Ole A. Hermundstad, Jan R. Hoff and Trygve Kristiansen and Ernst Hansen, Prediction of Green Sea Loads on FPSO in Random Seas, presented at the 14th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE 2004), Toulon, France, May 2004

15-04 Š. Malenica, M. Zalar, J.M. Orozco, B. LeGallo & X.B. Chen, Linear and Non-Linear Effects of Sloshing on Ship Motions, 23rd International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Artic Engineering, OMAE 2004, Vancouver, June 2004

11-04 Don Bass, David Molyneux, Kevin McTaggart, Simulating Wave Action in the Well Deck of Landing Platform Dock Ships Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

37-03  Sreenivasa C Chopakatla, A CFD Model for Wave Transformations and Breaking in the Surf Zone, thesis: Master of Science, The Ohio State Univeristy, 2003.

29-02   O. Bayle, V. L’Hullier, M. Ganet, P. Delpy, J.L. Francart and D. Paris, Influence of the ATV Propellant Sloshing on the GNC Performance, AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference and Exhibit, Monterey, California, 5-8 August 2002, © 2002 by EADS Launch Vehicles

25-02 Y. Kim, Numerical Analysis of Sloshing Problem, American Bureau of Shipping, Research Dept, Houston, TX

10-02 Peter Chang III & Xiongjun Wu, Entrainment Correlations Based on a Fuel-Water Stratified Shear Flow, Proceedings of FEDSM2002, 2002 ASME Fluids Engineering Decision Summer Meeting, July 14-18, 2002, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

37-01 Ismail B. Celik, Allen E. Badeau Jr., Andrew Burt and Sherif Kandil, A Single Fluid Transport Model For Computation of Stratified Immiscible Liquid-Liquid Flows, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, West Virginia University, Proceedings of the XXIX IAHR Congress, September 2001. Beijing, China

14-01 Charles Ortloff, CTC/United Defense, Computer Simulation Analyzed Typhoon Damage to FPSOs, Marine News, April 30, 2001, pp. 22-23

8-01 Charles Ortloff, Computer Simulations Analyze Wave Damage to Offloading Vessels, Marine News, April 30, 2001, pp. 22-23

25-00 Faltinsen, O.A. and Rognebakke, O.F., Sloshing in Rectangular Tanks and Interaction with Ship Motions-Sloshing, Int. Conf. on Ship and Shipping Research NAV, Venice, Italy, 2000.

20-97   C.R. Ortloff, Numerical Test Tank Simulation of Ocean Engineering Problems by Computational Fluid Dynamics, Offshore Technology Conference Paper 8269B, Houston, TX, 1997

19-97   C.R. Ortloff and M. Krafft, Numerical Test Tanks-Computer Simulation-Test Verification of Major Ocean Engineering Problems for the Off-Shore Oil Industry, OTC 8269A, Offshore Technology Conference, Copyright 1997, Houston, Texas, May 1997

9-94 P. A. Chang, C-W Lin, CD-NSWC, Hydrodynamic Analysis of Oil Outflow from Double Hull Tankers, The Advanced Double-Hull Technical Symposium, Gaithersburg, MD, October 25-26, 1994.

8-90 C. W. Hirt, Computational Modeling of Cavitation, Flow Science report, July 1990, presented at the 2nd International Symposium on Performance Enhancement for Marine Applications, Newport, RI, October 14-16, 1990

10-87 H. W. Meldner, USA’s Revolutionary Appendages and CFD, CORDTRAN Corp. Report presented at AIAA and SNAME 17th Annual International Symposium on Sailing, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, Oct. 31-Nov. 1, 1987

3-85 C. W. Hirt and J. M. Sicilian, A Porosity Technique for the Definition of Obstacles in Rectangular Cell Meshes, Fourth International Conference on Ship Hydrodynamics, Washington, DC, September 1985

VOF (Volume of Fluid) 란 무엇인가?

본 자료는 국내 사용자들의 편의를 위해 원문 번역을 해서 제공하기 때문에 일부 오역이 있을 수 있어서 원문과 함께 수록합니다. 자료를 이용하실 때 참고하시기 바랍니다.

VOF – What’s in a Name?

A free surface is an interface between a liquid and a gas in which the gas can only apply a pressure on the liquid. Free surfaces are generally excellent approximations when the ratio of liquid to gas densities is large, e.g., for water to air the ratio is 1000.

자유 표면은 액체와 기체 사이의 계면이며, 기체에서만 액체에 대해 압력을 가할 수 있습니다.  자유 표면은 일반적으로 액체 대 기체의 밀도의 비율이 큰 경우 우수한 근사를 합니다.  예를 들어, 물 대 공기의 비율은 1,000입니다.

VOF Method Components

In FLOW-3D free surfaces are modeled with the Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique, which was first reported in Nichols and Hirt (1975), and more completely in Hirt and Nichols (1981). The VOF method consists of three ingredients: a scheme to locate the surface, an algorithm to track the surface as a sharp interface moving through a computational grid, and a means of applying boundary conditions at the surface.

FLOW-3D 의 자유 표면은 VOF (Volume of Fluid) 법을 사용하여 모델링됩니다.  이 기술은 Nichols 와 Hirt 에 의해 1975 년에 처음 보고된 Hirt 와 Nichols에 의해 1981년에 더 완전한 형태로 보고되었습니다.  VOF 법은 표면의 위치를 특정하는 방식, 계산 격자 내를 이동하는 명확한 계면으로 표면을 추적하는 알고리즘, 표면에서 경계 조건을 적용하는 방법 3가지 성분으로 구성되어 있습니다.

Pseudo VOF

In the past, a number of commercial CFD programs have claimed a VOF capability, when in reality they are only implementing one or two of the three VOF ingredients. Users of these programs should be aware that these pseudo-VOF schemes sometimes give incorrect results.

과거에도 많은 상용 CFD 프로그램이 VOF 기능을 주장했지만, 실제로는 세 가지 VOF 요소 중 하나 또는 두 개만 구현했습니다. 이들 프로그램 사용자는 이러한 pseudo VOF 체계는 때때로 잘못된 결과를 제공할 수 있다는 점에 유의해야 합니다.

Most pseudo-VOF methods use a fluid volume fraction to locate surfaces, but they then attempt to compute flow in both the liquid and gas regions instead of accounting for the gas by a boundary condition. This practice produces an incorrect motion of the surface since it is assumed to move with the average velocity of gas and liquid. In reality, the two fluids generally move independently of one another except for a thin viscous boundary layer.

많은 pseudo VOF 법은 유체의 체적 점유율을 사용하여, 표면의 위치를 파악하고 있으며, 경계 조건에 따라 기체를 처리하는 것이 아니라, 액체와 기체의 두 영역에서 흐름을 계산하려고합니다 .  이 방법에서는 표면은 기체와 액체의 평균 속도로 이동한다고 가정되기 때문에 표면의 움직임이 잘못 표시됩니다.  사실, 경계층이 가늘고 점성이있는 경우를 제외하고, 이 2 개의 유체는 일반적으로 서로 독립적으로 이동합니다.

VOF - What's in a name

Left: Correct jet shape predicted by TruVOF technique used in FLOW-3D.
Right: Incorrect jet shape predicted by pseudo-VOF technique used by other CFD codes.

그림 1 🙁 왼쪽) FLOW-3D 에 사용되는 TruVOF 법에 의해 예측되는 올바른 분류 모양
그림 2 🙁 우) 기타 CFD 코드에서 사용되는 의사 VOF 법에 의해 예측되는 잘못된 분류 형상

Comparing VOF methods

Left: FLOW-3D‘s TruVOF technique predicts jet impingement on wall and some outflow.
Right: Pseudo-VOF methods don’t predict realistic jetting of fluid on side walls.

그림 3 🙁 왼쪽) FLOW-3D TruVOF 법으로 분류 벽에 충돌과 유출을 예측
도표 4 🙁 우) 의사 VOF 법은 밀도가 높은 유체가 챔버에서 나가는 모습을 잘못 예측

VOF vs. Pseudo VOF Example

The consequences of trying to compute both gas and liquid flow can be illustrated with a simple example. All the computed results shown here were produced with FLOW-3D, which has a two-fluid option that can be run in a pseudo-VOF mode. Imagine a jet of water issuing at constant velocity from a long slit into air. If we neglect gravity and keep the velocity of the jet low (say 10.0 cm/s), we expect the jet to move more or less unimpeded by the air (see the FLOW-3D results in Fig. 1), obtained with its VOF free-surface model).

기체와 액체의 두 흐름을 계산하려고 한 결과는 간단한 예로 설명 할 수 있습니다.  여기에 표시된 계산 결과는 모든 FLOW-3D를 사용하여 요구한 것입니다.  FLOW-3D는 pseudo VOF 모드에서 실행할 수있는 2 유체 옵션이 있습니다.  물 분사를 일정한 속도로 가늘고 긴 슬릿에서 공기 중에 방출하는 경우를 상상해보십시오.  중력을 무시하고 분류 속도를 저속 (예 : 1.0cm / sec)으로 유지하면 기류는 공기에 전혀 구애받지 않고 자유롭게 이동할 것으로 예상됩니다 (그림 1, FLOW-3D의 VOF 자유 표면 모델에서 얻어진 결과 참조).

Pseudo-VOF methods produce a growth at the tip of the jet (Fig. 2). This growth is numerical, not physical, because it is independent of the density of air (e.g., the growth remains largely unchanged for air densities 100, 1000 and 10,000 times smaller than the liquid density).
At later times the FLOW-3D jet (Fig. 3) strikes the right-hand wall and a small portion of the flow has entered a slot in the wall.

Pseudo-VOF 방법은 제트의 끝에서 확산됩니다(그림 2). 이 확산은 공기 밀도와 무관하기 때문에 물리적인 현상이 아니라 수치적입니다 (예 : 액체 밀도보다 100, 1000 및 10,000 배 더 작은 공기 밀도의 경우 확산은 크게 변하지 않습니다).
그 후, FLOW-3D의 기류 (그림 3)는 오른쪽 벽에 충돌하고 흐름의 일부가 벽의 틈새에 들어갑니다.

In contrast, the lower density air flow in the pseudo-VOF method is pulling liquid into the slot just before the jet strikes the wall (Fig. 4). Also, because of the incompressibility of the air remaining in the chamber, the amount of liquid flowing out the slot in the pseudo-VOF method must be equal to the amount injected, which is more than would be expected under most physical conditions.

대조적으로, pseudo-VOF 방법의 저밀도 기류는 제트가 벽에 부딪히기 직전에 액체를 슬롯으로 끌어 당깁니다 (그림 4). 또한 챔버에 남아있는 공기의 비압축성으로 인해 pseudo-VOF 방법에서 슬롯 밖으로 흘러 나오는 액체의 양은 주입되는 양과 같아야 하며, 이는 대부분의 물리적 조건에서 전혀 예상할 수 없슨 것입니다.

Another pseudo-VOF practice is to use some type of higher-order advection scheme to track interfaces. The interface is represented as a rapid change in density. Such schemes result in smoothed transition regions between gas and liquid that cover several control volumes rather than sharp interfaces localized in one control volume as in the original VOF method. The reason that most people don’t implement free-surface boundary conditions is that it requires major changes to the structure of existing programs, and it must be done carefully to avoid numerical instabilities.

pseudo VOF 또 하나의 관례는 어떤 유형의 고차 이류(advection) 구성표를 사용하여 계면을 추적하는 것입니다.  계면 밀도의 급격한 변화로 표현됩니다.  이러한 방식은 기체와 액체 사이의 매끄러운 전환 영역이 복수의 컨트롤 볼륨에 펼쳐지는 결과가되어, 원형의 VOF 법처럼 하나의 컨트롤 볼륨에 명확한 계면이 국소화되는 것은 아닙니다 .  대부분의 사람들이 자유 표면 경계 조건을 구현하지 않는 이유는 기존의 프로그램의 구조를 크게 변경해야 하므로, 수치적 불안정을 피하기 위해 매우 신중하게 이루어져야 하기 때문입니다.

FLOW-3D has all the ingredients recommended for the successful treatment of free surfaces. Moreover, it incorporates major improvements beyond the original VOF method in each of its three major ingredients.

FLOW-3D는 자유 표면을 제대로 처리하기 위해 권장되는 모든 성분이 포함되어 있습니다.  또한 원형의 VOF 법의 3 가지 주성분에 대해 상당한 개선처리를 진행하였습니다.


Nichols, B.D. and Hirt, C.W., “Methods for Calculating Multi-Dimensional, Transient Free Surface Flows Past Bodies,” Proc. First Intern. Conf. Num. Ship Hydrodynamics, Gaithersburg, ML, Oct. 20-23, 1975

Hirt, C.W. and Nichols, B.D., “Volume of Fluid (VOF) Method for the Dynamics of Free Boundaries,” Journal of Computational Physics 39, 201, 1981.

Slot Coating

Slot Die Coating

FLOW-3D는 슬롯 다이 코팅의 산업 연구 및 설계에 사용됩니다. 슬롯 다이 코팅에서 유체는 슬롯에서 슬롯에 매우 가까운 곳에 위치한 빠르게 움직이는 기판 위로 강제 배출됩니다. 때로는 여러 슬롯을 사용하여 여러 재료의 레이어드 코팅을 만들기도 합니다. 많은 산업에서 슬롯 다이 코팅 기계는 상대적으로 단순하기 때문에 슬롯 다이코팅이 사용됩니다. 슬롯 다이 코팅의 또 다른 이점은 나노미터 단위로 측정한 코팅 두께에서도 높은 코팅 균일성 비율입니다.

아래 예에서, 한 슬롯은 120미크론 두께의 뉴턴이 아닌 재료를 오른쪽에서 왼쪽으로 움직이는 기질에 적용하고 있습니다.

FLOW-3D에서 유체-솔리드 접촉 선과 접촉각은 흐름의 전체 역학의 일부로 자동으로 계산됩니다. 이것은 슬롯과 웹(Web) 사이의 영역에서 세 개의 개별 접촉 선이 발생하는이 예에서 잘 설명됩니다.

Case Study

Roche Diagnostics GmbH가 2014년 FLOW-3D 유럽 사용자 컨퍼런스에서 발표한 산업 사례 연구의 이 이미지는 진공 보조 장치가 없는 슬롯 다이 코팅의 3D 모델을 보여줍니다. 왼쪽 상단에 그려진 실험과 FLOW-3D로 수행된 시뮬레이션 사이에는 훌륭하게 일치하고 있습니다.

Simulation of a slot die coating without vacuum assist, courtesy Roche Diagnostics GmbH

Slot Die Design

아래에 표시된 3M의 FLOW-3D 시뮬레이션은 슬롯 다이의 내부 캐비티 내부의 유체 체류 시간을 보여줍니다. 슬롯 다이 설계는 코팅 프로세스의 성공에 매우 중요하며 코팅 액의 유변학(rheology)에 따라 다릅니다.

Simulation courtesy of 3M

Two-Layer Slot Coating

왼쪽의 시계열 이미지에서 보면 웹(web)이 이동되고, 슬롯 코팅 다이는 두 개의 슬롯에서 서로 다른 물성의 두 유체가 나오고 있습니다. two-layer slot die를 사용하는 이점은 코팅기의 die station의 수를 감소시킬 수 있는 것입니다. 그러나, 단일 층의 경우에는 존재하지 않는 이층 슬롯 코팅에 존재하는 많은 문제점들이 나타납니다. 두 개의 유체 층 사이의 계면(interface), 보통은 혼합될 수 있는 물성을 가진 Interlayer 는 die surfae에 안정적으로 잘 고정되어야 합니다. 그리고 Interlayer 부근이 순환은 두 유체의 혼합을 막기 위해 최소화 되어야만 합니다. 일반적으로 이것들은 각각의 유체의 밀도, 점도 및 유량이 배출율을 조작함으로써 제어될 수 있습니다.

Start-Up of Slot Coating

슬롯 코터를 이용하여 연속 코팅 공정을 시작하면 시작부터 폐기해야 불완전한 재료의 양을 감소시키기 위해, 가능한 한 빨리 균일한 wettig을 수립하는 것이 바람직합니다. Wet start 기술은 잉크가 웹에 가까워지기 전에 슬롯에서 잘 빠져 나오는 것 보장하는 중요한 기술중의 하나입니다. 이 예에서, web은 액체의 상류 및 하류 모두 압착 슬롯을 향해 이동된다.

슬롯 장치의 경사진 앞쪽면에 유체를 위로 밀어올리는 약간 늦은 적당한 접근 속도는 슬롯장치의 더 나은 성능을 제공합니다.



제품 소개 요청

FLOW-3D 소개 요청

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    산업 분야별 해석 사례

    FLOW-3D 를 이용한 각각의 산업분야 적용 가능성을 살펴보십시오.
    경험이 풍부한 당사 FLOW-3D  Engineer가 귀하의 궁금하신 사항에 대해 언제든지 답변해 드립니다.

    • Gravity Pour 중력 주조
    • High Pressure Die Casting 고압 다이캐스팅
    • Tilt Casting 경동 주조
    • Centrifugal Casting 원심 주조
    • Investment Casting 정밀 주조
    • Vacuum Casting 진공 주조
    • Continuous Casting 연속 주조
    • Lost Foam Casting 소실 모형 주조
    • Fill and Defects Tracking 용탕 주입 및 결함 추적
    • Solidification and Shrinkage 응고 및 수축 해석
    • Thermal Stress Evolution and Deformation 열응력 및 변형 해석
    물 및 환경 응용 분야
    • Wastewater Treatment and Recovery 폐수 처리 및 복구
    • Pump Stations 펌프장
    • Dams, Weirs, Spillways 댐, 위어, 여수로
    • River Hydraulics 강 유역
    • Inundation & Flooding 침수 및 범람
    • Open Channel Flow 개수로 흐름
    • Sediment and Scour 퇴적 및 세굴(쇄굴)
    • Plumes, Hydraulic Zones of Influence 기둥, 수리 영향 구역
    • Coastal and Critical Infrastructure Wave Run-Up 연안 및 핵심 인프라 웨이브 런업

    에너지 분야
    • Fuel/cargo sloshing in oceangoing containers 해양 컨테이너 용 연료 /화물 슬로싱
    • Offshore platform wave effects 근해 플랫폼 파 영향
    • Separation devices undergoing 6 DOF motion 6 자유도 운동을하는 분리 장치
    • Wave energy converters 파동 에너지 변환기
    • Continuous-Flow 연속 흐름
    • Droplet, Digital 물방울, 디지털
    • Molecular Biology 분자 생물학
    • Opto-Microfluidics 광 마이크로 유체
    • Cell Behavior 세포 행동
    • Fuel Cells 연료 전지들
    용접 제조
    • Laser Welding 레이저 용접
    • Laser Metal Deposition 레이저 금속 증착
    • Additive Manufacturing 첨가제 제조
    • Multi-Layer Build 다중 레이어 빌드
    • Polymer 3D Printing 폴리머 3D 프린팅
    코팅 분야
    • Curtain Coating 커튼 코팅
    • Dip Coating 딥 코팅
    • Gravure Printing 그라비아 코팅
    • Roll Coating 롤 코팅
    • Slide Coating 슬라이드 코팅
    • Slot Coating 슬롯 코팅
    • Contact Insights 접촉면 분석
    연안 / 해양분야
    • Breakwater Structures 방파제 구조물
    • Offshore Structures 항만 연안 구조물
    • Ship Hydrodynamics 선박 유체 역학
    • Sloshing & Slamming 슬로싱 & 슬래 밍
    • Tsunamis 쓰나미 해석
    생명공학 분야
    • Active Mixing 액티브 믹싱
    • Chemical Reactions 화학 반응
    • Dissolution 용해
    • Drug Delivery 약물 전달
    • Drug Particles 마약 입자
    • Microdispensers 마이크로 디스펜서
    • Passive Mixing 패시브 믹싱
    • Piezo Driven Pumps 피에조 구동 펌프
    자동차 분야
    • Fuel Tanks 연료 탱크
    • Early Fuel Shut-Off 초기 연료 차단
    • Gear Interaction 기어 상호 작용
    • Filters 필터
    • Degas Bottles 병의 가스제거
    우주 항공 분야
    • Sloshing Dynamics 슬로싱 동역학
    • Electric Charge Distribution 전기 충전 배분
    • PMDs PMD